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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28010, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544339

RESUMO

Autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may cause significant morbidity and mortality and are often challenging to treat. We present a case of a pediatric patient with primary myelofibrosis of infancy caused by VPS45 protein deficiency, who developed severe refractory hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia 3.5 months following HSCT. After the failure of several treatments, he received daratumumab, an anti-CD38 specific antibody, and demonstrated fast and sustained response. The only side effect was delayed recovery of humoral immunity. Daratumumab, by targeting antibody-producing plasma cells, may be a valid treatment option for refractory post-HSCT AIC.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant. OBJECTIVE: This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant. METHOD: We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices. RESULTS: Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of cow's milk (CM)-allergic children are able to tolerate extensively heated forms of CM such as baked goods. Little is known about whether ultra-heat-treated (UHT) forms of cow's milk are immunologically similar to extensively heated cow's milk and therefore may be tolerated by these children. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether skin test wheal size using UHT CM was significantly different from other forms of CM and CM extracts. METHODS: Children presenting for oral food challenges with either extensively heated or unheated cow's milk underwent skin prick test (SPT) to commercial CM, UHT CM, evaporated CM, and fresh whole CM. The results were compared between groups of children. RESULTS: At study exit, only 14% of children were avoiding all forms of CM, compared with 70% at study entry. No difference was seen in the mean SPT results for UHT CM between those children that could tolerate heated CM compared with those that could not. The mean SPT result for casein was significantly lower in those that could tolerate heated CM. However, within the group of heated milk-tolerant children, the mean SPT for UHT CM was significantly lower than the SPT for fresh whole CM. CONCLUSION: Ultra-heat-treated CM does not behave significantly differently from other forms of CM when evaluated by SPT in heated milk-allergic vs heated milk-tolerant children. This suggests that UHT CM is not sufficiently immunologically different from unheated CM to be tolerated by heated CM-tolerant children.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707514

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a known yet rare cause of combined immunodeficiency with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. We aim to add to the expanding clinical spectrum of disease, and to summarize the available data on bone marrow transplant for this condition. METHODS: Data was collected from patient files retrospectively. A review of the literature of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for PNP deficiency was conducted. RESULTS: Four patients were treated in two centers in Israel. One patient died of EBV-related lymphoma with CNS involvement prior to transplant. The other three patients underwent successful HSCT with good immune reconstitution post-transplant (follow-up 8-108 months) and excellent neurological outcomes. CONCLUSION: PNP is a variable immunodeficiency and should be considered in various clinical contexts, with or without neurological manifestations. HSCT offers a good treatment option, with excellent clinical outcomes, when preformed in a timely manner.

5.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709206

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of the immune system affecting maturation and/or function of phagocytic leucocytes can result in severe infectious and inflammatory complications with high mortality and morbidity. Further complications include progression to MDS/AML in some cases. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for most patients with these diseases. In this review, we provide a detailed update on indications and outcomes of alloHSCT for congenital neutrophil disorders, based on data from the available literature.

6.
Blood Adv ; 3(6): 862-868, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885997

RESUMO

Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare disease caused by defective osteoclast differentiation or function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment available in the infantile "malignant" form of OP. Improved clinical and genetic diagnosis of OP has seen the emergence of a cohort of patients with less severe and heterogeneous clinical presentations. This intermediate form of OP does not call for urgent intervention, but patients accumulate debilitating skeletal complications over years and decades, which are severe enough to require curative treatment and may also require intermittent transfusion of blood products. Here we present data from 7 patients with intermediate OP caused by mutations in TCIRG1 (n = 2), CLCN7 (n = 2), RANK (n = 1), SNX10 (n = 1), and CA2 (n = 1), who were transplanted between the ages of 5 to 30 years (mean, 15; median, 12). Donors were matched siblings or family (n = 4), matched unrelated (n = 2), or HLA haploidentical family donors (n = 1). Conditioning was fludarabine and treosulfan based. All 6 patients transplanted from matched donors are currently alive with a follow-up period between 1 and 8 years at time of publication (median, 4 years) and have demonstrated a significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Patients with intermediate OP should be considered for HSCT.

7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 8(1): 73-76, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415165

RESUMO

Single gene defects that impair lymphocyte cytotoxicity can predispose to severe viral infection that normally remains subclinical. The classic severe presentation is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Here, we report the case of a neonate who presented with cytomegalovirus palatal ulceration and bocavirus pneumonitis secondary to impaired cytotoxicity caused by biallelic mutations in the UNC13D gene.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Bocavirus Humano/isolamento & purificação , Linfócitos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Palato Duro/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Úlcera/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Palato Duro/patologia , Palato Duro/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Úlcera/patologia , Úlcera/virologia
8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(1): e27473, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294941

RESUMO

Mutations in the VPS45 gene lead to a severe primary immune deficiency characterized by severe congenital neutropenia and primary myelofibrosis, leading to overwhelming infection and early death. This condition is exceedingly rare with only 16 patients previously reported, including four with successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We review the pathophysiology underlying this condition and detail our approach to treatment, particularly vis-à-vis bone marrow transplantation and the challenges of transplanting into a diseased bone marrow niche. We provide an update on the progress of our three previously reported patients, and two additional patients transplanted at our center.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/patologia , Neutropenia/terapia , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Prognóstico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 527-536, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: All reported patients with hypomorphic X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) due to c.664C>T (p.R222C) mutations in the gene (IL2RG) encoding the common γ chain (γc) have presented with opportunistic infections within the first year of life, despite the presence of nearly normal NK and T cell numbers. Reporting five children of one extended family with hemizygous mutations in IL2RG, we explore potential diagnostic clues and extend our comprehension of the functional impact of this mutation. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES); detailed immune phenotyping; cytokine-induced STAT phosphorylation; B, T, and NK cell activation; and quantification of sjTRECs in five Arab children with c.664C>T (p.R222C) IL2RG mutation. RESULTS: The mean age at clinical presentation with respiratory tract infection or diarrhea was 6.8 (range: 2-12) months. None of the children presented with opportunistic infections. Diagnostic clues were early onset in the first year of life, and a suggestive family history associated with reduced naïve CD4 T cells and absent switched memory B cells. Number and phenotype of NK cells and innate-like lymphocytes were normal. The diagnosis was made by WES and corroborated by absent STAT phosphorylation and reduced functional response after IL-2 and IL-21 stimulation. Four patients underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: As early diagnosis and treatment are important, a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of c.664C>T (p.R222C) X-SCID is needed. This requires prompt genetic testing by next generation sequencing in order to avoid unnecessary delays in the definite diagnosis since immunological work up may not be discriminating. Assays directly testing cytokine signaling or cytokine-dependent functions are helpful in confirming the functional impact of the identified hypomorphic variants.


Assuntos
Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Mutação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/etiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(8): 1163-1172, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777306

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein deficiency is a rare syndrome of primary immune deficiency and immune dysregulation. In this study, we sought to summarize our experience with respiratory manifestations in LRBA-deficient patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of LRBA-deficient patients treated at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Data retrieved included pulmonary workup, disease course, treatment, and outcome. Ten patients were included. Mean age at presentation of LRBA deficiency-related symptoms was 4.65 years (range 3 months-14 years). Respiratory symptoms were noted in six patients and consisted of chronic cough. Computed tomography revealed consolidation in five patients, atelectasis and bronchiectasis in two patients each, and diffuse interstitial lung disease in two additional patients. Respiratory tract cultures yielded a bacterial pathogen in five patients. Seven patients required active therapy: intravenous immunoglobulins (six patients), immunosuppressive drugs (five patients), and one was successfully treated with abatacept. Two patients underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Mean follow-up period was 4.5 (range 0.4-14.4) years. On their latest examination, seven patients had no respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary manifestations are common in LRBA deficiency. Respiratory characteristics in LRBA-deficient patients should be investigated, monitored, and treated from the time of diagnosis. What is Known: • Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency is a syndrome of primary immune deficiency and immune dysregulation. • Studies concerning the pulmonary characteristics of LRBA-deficient patients are lacking. What is New: • Respiratory manifestations include infections, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease, thoracic lymphadenopathy, and clubbing. • Awareness to pulmonary morbidity in LRBA-deficient patients and involvement of a pulmonologist in the workup and clinical decision-making is important. • Respiratory characteristics in LRBA-deficient patients should be investigated, monitored, and treated from a young age.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Bronquiectasia/etiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Adolescente , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Masculino , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Atelectasia Pulmonar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(6): e27010, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by defective osteoclast activity, with hematopoietic bone marrow transplant being the only available cure. Over the past several years, new conditioning regimes and donor options have emerged, thus extending the possibility of cure to a greater number of patients and improving the outcomes of bone marrow transplant. Here we detail the outcomes of bone marrow transplant in a cohort of 31 patients treated with a combination of fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin. PROCEDURES: Thirty-one patients with IMO who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin at our center from 2012 to 2017 are retrospectively reviewed in this study. Twenty-six patients were transplanted from 10/10 matched donors (13 from siblings, 11 from unrelated, and two from extended family donors), four from 9/10 matched unrelated donors, and one from a 9/10 matched family donor. RESULTS: Overall survival was 100% with a median follow-up of 363 days (range 74-1891). There were 12 cases of acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) (38.7%), no cases of veno-occlusive disease, and eight cases of hypercalcemia (25.8%). Almost 80% of patients suffered viral reactivations with two cases of Epstein-Barr-virus-driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. All cases of GvHD and viral reactivation were successfully treated. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that transplantation in children with IMO using fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin is safe and effective and should be performed as early as possible following diagnosis, prior to the development of severe disease sequelae.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Agonistas Mieloablativos/administração & dosagem , Osteopetrose/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Immunol ; 8: 944, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28848550

RESUMO

Bi-allelic null mutations affecting UNC13D, STXBP2, or STX11 result in defects of lymphocyte cytotoxic degranulation and commonly cause familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) in early life. Patients with partial loss of function are increasingly being diagnosed after presenting with alternative features of this disease, or with HLH later in life. Here, we studied two sisters with lymphocyte degranulation defects secondary to compound heterozygote missense variants in UNC13D. The older sibling presented aged 11 with linear growth arrest and delayed puberty, 2 years prior to developing transient ischemic attacks secondary to neuroinflammation and hypogammaglobulinemia, but no FHL symptoms. Her geno-identical younger sister was initially asymptomatic but then presented at the same age with severe EBV-driven infectious mononucleosis, which was treated aggressively and did not progress to HLH. The sisters had similar natural killer cell degranulation; however, while cytotoxic activity was moderately reduced in the asymptomatic patient, it was completely absent in both siblings during active disease. Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation at the age of 15, the older child has completely recovered NK cell cytotoxicity, is asymptomatic, and has experienced an exceptional compensatory growth spurt. Her younger sister was also successfully transplanted and is currently disease free. The current study reveals previously unappreciated manifestations of FHL in patients who inherited hypomorphic gene variants and also raises the important question of whether a threshold of minimum NK function can be defined that should protect a patient from serious disease manifestations such as HLH.

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