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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2023 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36737481

RESUMO

Dysregulation of the immune system and dietary patterns that increase inflammation can increase the risk for cognitive decline, but the mechanisms by which inflammatory nutritional habits may affect the development of cognitive impairment in aging are not well understood. To determine whether plasma proteins linked to inflammatory diet predict future cognitive impairment, we applied high-throughput proteomic assays to plasma samples from a subset (n = 1528) of Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) participants (mean [SD] baseline age, 71.3 [SD 3.8] years). Results provide insights into how inflammatory nutritional patterns are associated with an immune-related proteome and identify a group of proteins (CXCL10, CCL3, HGF, OPG, CDCP1, NFATC3, ITGA11) related to future cognitive impairment over a 14-year follow-up period. Several of these inflammatory diet proteins were also associated with dementia risk across two external cohorts (ARIC, ESTHER), correlated with plasma biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology (Aß42/40) and/or neurodegeneration (NfL), and related to an MRI-defined index of neurodegenerative brain atrophy in a separate cohort (BLSA). In addition to evaluating their biological relevance, assessing their potential role in AD, and characterizing their immune-tissue/cell-specific expression, we leveraged published RNA-seq results to examine how the in vitro regulation of genes encoding these candidate proteins might be altered in response to an immune challenge. Our findings indicate how dietary patterns with higher inflammatory potential relate to plasma levels of immunologically relevant proteins and highlight the molecular mediators which predict subsequent risk for age-related cognitive impairment.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 110(2): 273-283, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649705

RESUMO

This study sought to examine the association between DNA methylation and body mass index (BMI) and the potential of BMI-associated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites to provide information about metabolic health. We pooled summary statistics from six trans-ethnic epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) of BMI representing nine cohorts (n = 17,034), replicated these findings in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI, n = 4,822), and developed an epigenetic prediction score of BMI. In the pooled EWASs, 1,265 CpG sites were associated with BMI (p < 1E-7) and 1,238 replicated in the WHI (FDR < 0.05). We performed several stratified analyses to examine whether these associations differed between individuals of European and African descent, as defined by self-reported race/ethnicity. We found that five CpG sites had a significant interaction with BMI by race/ethnicity. To examine the utility of the significant CpG sites in predicting BMI, we used elastic net regression to predict log-normalized BMI in the WHI (80% training/20% testing). This model found that 397 sites could explain 32% of the variance in BMI in the WHI test set. Individuals whose methylome-predicted BMI overestimated their BMI (high epigenetic BMI) had significantly higher glucose and triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared to accurately predicted BMI. Individuals whose methylome-predicted BMI underestimated their BMI (low epigenetic BMI) had significantly higher HDL cholesterol and lower glucose and triglycerides. This study confirmed 553 and identified 685 CpG sites associated with BMI. Participants with high epigenetic BMI had poorer metabolic health, suggesting that the overestimation may be driven in part by cardiometabolic derangements characteristic of metabolic syndrome.

3.
Environ Res ; : 115356, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a leading risk factor for chronic diseases, potentially related to excess abdominal adiposity. Phthalates are environmental chemicals that have been suggested to act as obesogens, driving obesity risk. For the associations between phthalates and adiposity, prior studies have focused primarily on body mass index. We hypothesize that more refined measures of adiposity and fat distribution may provide greater insights into these associations given the role of central adiposity in chronic disease risk. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations between urinary phthalate biomarkers and both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: We included 1125 WHI participants with available, coincident measurements of urinary phthalate biomarkers (baseline, year 3) and VAT and SAT (baseline, year 3, year 6). VAT and SAT measurements were estimated from DXA scans. Multilevel mixed-effects models estimated the prospective associations between urinary phthalate biomarkers at baseline and VAT and SAT three years later. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted models, we observed positive associations between some phthalate biomarkers, including the sum of di-isobutyl phthalate (ΣDiBP) biomarkers, MCNP, and DEHP, with VAT three years later. For example, we observed positive associations between concentrations of ΣDiBP and VAT (Q4 vs Q1 ß = 7.15, 95% CI -1.76-16.06; Q3 vs Q1 ß = 10.94, 95% CI 3.55-18.33). Associations were generally attenuated but remained significant after additional adjustment for SAT. MBzP was positively associated with SAT. Other phthalate biomarkers investigated (MEP, MCOP, MCPP, ΣDBP) were not significantly associated with VAT or SAT. DISCUSSION: Based on robust measures of adiposity, this study provides supportive evidence that higher urinary concentrations of select phthalate compounds were associated with higher VAT levels over time in postmenopausal women. Efforts to replicate these findings are needed.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650676

RESUMO

Low circulating vitamin D levels are more prevalent in Black than White individuals. We analyzed the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) calcium plus vitamin D (CaD) randomized clinical trial extended follow-up data to evaluate associations between calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and incident cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cause-specific mortality endpoints among Black women. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed. Among 3325 Black women in the CaD trial who were randomized into either daily calcium (1000 mg of calcium carbonate) plus vitamin D (400 IU D3) or placebos for an average of 7 years, there were 813 deaths, 588 incident cancers, and 837 CVD events during an average of 15.7 years of follow up (52 230 total person-years). Using Cox's proportional hazards models, we calculated hazard ratios and their confidence intervals for outcomes ascertained during the trial period, posttrial follow-up period and overall periods combined. We found that total mortality, cause-specific mortality, and total cancer incidence were almost identical between CaD and placebo groups. These results suggest that calcium plus vitamin D supplementation does not reduce risks of cancer, CVD, or other major causes of death in Black women overall and, thus, other medical, behavioral or social interventions should be considered to narrow health disparities related to these outcomes. However, other finer endpoints, such as colorectal cancer, warrants further investigation.

5.
Nutr J ; 22(1): 5, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), and to determine if body mass index (BMI) interacted with the DII scores. METHODS: Secondary analysis of baseline dietary data and long-term CVD outcomes among 3,469 postmenopausal women who self-identified as Hispanic enrolled in WHI. DII scores were calculated from self-administered food frequency questionnaires. The CVD outcomes included coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Stratified Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between DII scores and CVD in women with and without obesity. Models were adjusted for age, lifestyle risk factors, known risk factors, and neighborhood socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The incidence of CHD was 3.4 and 2.8% for stroke after a median follow-up of 12.9 years. None of the DIIs were associated with CVD risk in this sample of Hispanic women. BMI interacted with the DII (p < 0.20) and stratified models showed that the associations between the DII and CVD were only significant in women with overweight (p < 0.05). In this group, higher DII scores were associated with a higher risk of CHD (HR 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.51) and a higher risk of stroke (HR 1.32; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.64). CONCLUSION: Among postmenopausal Hispanic women with overweight, greater adherence to pro-inflammatory diets was associated with higher risk of CVD. Additional research is needed to understand how to promote long-term heart-healthy dietary habits to reduce inflammation and prevent CVD in at-risk Hispanic women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença das Coronárias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/complicações , Dieta , Saúde da Mulher , Fatores de Risco , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Hispânico ou Latino
6.
JAMA Oncol ; 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656572

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with cancer experience acute declines in physical function, hypothesized to reflect accelerated aging driven by cancer-related symptoms and effects of cancer therapies. No study has examined long-term trajectories of physical function by cancer site, stage, or treatment compared with cancer-free controls. Objective: Examine trajectories of physical function a decade before and after cancer diagnosis among older survivors and cancer-free controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients from 1993 to 1998 and followed up until December 2020. The Women's Health Initiative, a diverse cohort of postmenopausal women, included 9203 incident cancers (5989 breast, 1352 colorectal, 960 endometrial, and 902 lung) matched to up to 5 controls (n = 45 358) on age/year of enrollment and study arm. Exposures: Cancer diagnosis (site, stage, and treatment) via Medicare and medical records. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trajectories of self-reported physical function (RAND Short Form 36 [RAND-36] scale; range: 0-100, higher scores indicate superior physical function) estimated from linear mixed effects models with slope changes at diagnosis and 1-year after diagnosis. Results: This study included 9203 women with cancer and 45 358 matched controls. For the women with cancer, the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 73.0 (7.6) years. Prediagnosis, physical function declines of survivors with local cancers were similar to controls; after diagnosis, survivors experienced accelerated declines relative to controls, whose scores declined 1 to 2 points per year. Short-term declines in the year following diagnosis were most severe in women with regional disease (eg, -5.3 [95% CI, -6.4 to -4.3] points per year in regional vs -2.8 [95% CI, -3.4 to -2.3] for local breast cancer) or who received systemic therapy (eg, for local endometrial cancer, -7.9 [95% CI, -12.2 to -3.6] points per year with any chemotherapy; -3.1 [95% CI, -6.0 to -0.3] with radiation therapy alone; and -2.6 [95% CI, -4.2 to -1.0] with neither, respectively). While rates of physical function decline slowed in the later postdiagnosis period (eg, women with regional colorectal cancer declined -4.3 [95% CI, -5.9 to -2.6] points per year in the year following diagnosis vs -1.4 [95% CI, -1.7 to -1.0] points per year in the decade thereafter), survivors had estimated physical function significantly below that of age-matched controls 5 years after diagnosis. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective cohort study, survivors of cancer experienced accelerated declines in physical function after diagnosis, and physical function remained below that of age-matched controls even years later. Patients with cancer may benefit from supportive interventions to preserve physical functioning.

7.
Eur Urol Open Sci ; 47: 80-86, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601047

RESUMO

Background: Insufficient data exist to conclude whether consumption of artificially sweetened beverages is associated with a higher risk of urinary tract cancers. Objective: We sought to investigate whether urinary tract cancer incidence differed among women who consumed various amounts of artificially sweetened beverages. Design setting and participants: This was a secondary analysis of data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a multicenter longitudinal prospective study of the health of 93 676 postmenopausal women with a mean follow-up time of 13.5 yr. Women were identified at 40 clinical centers across the USA and enrolled from 1993 to 1998. Women between the ages of 50 and 79 yr were enrolled. We included women who answered questions about artificially sweetened beverage consumption and reported no prior urinary tract cancer diagnoses. The frequency of artificially sweetened beverage consumption was categorized as follows: rare artificially sweetened beverage consumption (never to fewer than one serving per week), frequent consumption (one to six servings per week), and daily consumption (more than one servings per day). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The incidence of urinary tract cancer reported during subsequent visits until February 28, 2020 was recorded. Demographic characteristics were compared between those with varying levels of artificially sweetened beverage consumption. Descriptive statistics were used to report the rates of urinary tract cancer diagnosis, and Cox regression models were constructed to determine hazard ratios and adjust for potential confounders. Results and limitations: We identified 80 388 participants who met the inclusion criteria. Most participants (64%) were infrequent consumers of artificially sweetened beverages, with 13% (n = 10 494) consuming more than one servings per day. The incidence of urinary tract cancers was low, with only 804 cases identified. Cox regression models showed that frequent artificially sweetened beverage consumption was associated with a higher risk of kidney cancer (adjusted hazard ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.75). There was no significant association between artificially sweetened beverage intake and bladder cancer. Conclusions: Frequent consumption of artificially sweetened beverages may be associated with a higher risk of kidney cancer among postmenopausal women. Patient summary: A secondary analysis of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study showed that higher consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was associated with a higher risk of kidney cancer.

8.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114727, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals linked to a higher risk of numerous chronic health outcomes. Diet is a primary source of exposure, but prior studies exploring associations between dietary patterns and phthalate exposure are limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the associations between dietary patterns and urinary phthalate biomarkers among a subset of postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: We included WHI participants selected for a nested case-control study of phthalates and breast cancer (N = 1240). Dietary intake was measured via self-administered food frequency questionnaires at baseline and year-3. We used these data to calculate scores for alignment with the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), alternative Mediterranean (aMed), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) diets. We measured 13 phthalate metabolites and creatinine in 2-3 urine samples per participant collected over 3-years when all participants were cancer-free. We fit multivariable generalized estimating equation models to estimate the cross-sectional associations. RESULTS: DASH and aMed dietary scores were inversely associated with the sum of di(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (-6.48%, 95% CI -9.84, -3.00; -5.23%, 95% CI -8.73, -1.60) and DII score was positively associated (9.00%, 95% CI 5.04, 13.11). DASH and aMed scores were also inversely associated with mono benzyl phthalate and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate. DII scores were positively associated with mono benzyl phthalate and the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate. DISCUSSION: Higher dietary alignment with DASH and aMed dietary patterns were significantly associated with lower concentrations of certain phthalate biomarkers, while an inflammatory diet pattern was associated with higher phthalate biomarker concentrations. These findings suggest that dietary patterns high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat foods and low in processed foods may be useful in avoiding exposure to phthalates.


Assuntos
Pós-Menopausa , Saúde da Mulher , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Biomarcadores/urina
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social support may be a modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment. However, few long-term, large prospective studies have examined associations of various forms of social support with incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of perceived social support with incident MCI and dementia among community-dwelling older women. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 6,670 women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study who were cognitively unimpaired at enrollment. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations between perceived social support with incident MCI, dementia, or either MCI/dementia during an average 10.7 (SD = 6.1)-year follow-up. Modelling was repeated for emotional/information support, affection support, tangible support, and positive social interaction subscales of social support. RESULTS: Among 6,670 women (average age = 70 years [SD = 3.8]; 97.0% non-Hispanic/Latina; 89.8% White), greater perceived social support was associated with lower risk of MCI/dementia after adjustment for age, ethnicity, race, hormone therapy, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and body mass index (Tertile [T]3 versus T1: HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.99; ptrend = 0.08). Associations were significant for emotional/information support (T3 versus T1: HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97; ptrend = 0.04) and positive social interaction (T3 versus T1: HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.72-0.99; ptrend = 0.06) subscales. Associations were attenuated and not significant after adjustment for depressive symptom severity. OBJECTIVE: Perceived social support, emotional/information support, and positive social interaction were associated with incident MCI/dementia among older women. Results were not significant after adjustment for depressive symptom severity. Improving social support may reduce risk of MCI and dementia in older women.

10.
Menopause ; 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if higher artificially sweetened beverage intake is associated with higher prevalence of urinary incontinence symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Our analytic cohort included 80,388 women. Participants who answered questions about beverage consumption and urinary incontinence symptoms at a 3-year follow-up visit were included. Demographic characteristics were compared between three groups of beverage consumers: never to less than one serving per week, one to six servings per week, and greater than or equal to one serving per day. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to estimate odds and type of urinary incontinence and adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: Most participants (64%) were rare consumers of artificially sweetened beverages, with 13% (n = 10,494) consuming greater than or equal to 1 serving per day. The unadjusted odds of reporting urinary incontinence were 10% to 12% higher in women consuming one to six servings per week (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14) or greater than or equal to one serving per day (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.18) versus never to less than one serving per week. In multivariable analyses, women consuming greater than or equal to one serving per day (ref: never to <1 serving/wk) had 10% higher odds of reporting mixed urinary incontinence (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19). There were no significant differences for stress or urgency urinary incontinence symptoms between groups. CONCLUSIONS: When compared to never to less than one serving per week, women consuming greater than or equal to one serving per day of artificially sweetened beverages had 10% greater odds of reporting mixed urinary incontinence after adjustments. Amount of artificially sweetened beverage consumption was not associated with stress or urgency urinary incontinence symptoms.

11.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(1): 48, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525119

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined associations between self-reported cognitive functioning and social support as well as social ties among women with breast cancer. METHODS: The study included 3351 women from the Women's Health Initiative Life and Longevity After Cancer cohort who were diagnosed with breast cancer stages I-III. Social support was assessed using a modified Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey, and marital status was obtained from the baseline questionnaire. We also assessed social ties (e.g., number of friends, relatives, living children) and cognitive function (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function [FACT-COG]) on the year-1-follow up questionnaire. Multivariable quantile regression was used to estimate the changes in median cognitive scores. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the association of cognitive function with social ties. RESULTS: The majority of participants were non-Hispanic White (93.3%), presently married (49%), with at least a 4-year college degree (53.2%), and had been diagnosed with localized breast cancer (79%). A 10-point higher social support score correlated to a 0.32 higher (better) median cognitive score (p < 0.001). Women who were presently married tended to have better cognition than women who were divorced/separated or widowed (p = 0.01). Significant associations were also present for having close relatives (p < 0.001) or friends (p < 0.001), with cognitive scores being higher in those with at least one close relative or friend compared to none. CONCLUSION: Women reporting higher social support and greater numbers of friends or relatives have higher cognitive functioning. Compared to divorced or separated women, married women were likely to have higher cognitive functioning. These findings suggest that social support assessments have the potential to help identify women at higher risk of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Longevidade , Apoio Social , Saúde da Mulher , Cognição
12.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous attempts to identify low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) in epidemiological studies relied on the LCD Score, which is unable to identify ketogenic dieters. Ketogenic ratios of macronutrients are clinical equations proposed to predict ketogenic diets; however, their utility in epidemiological studies is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of participants consuming a ketogenic diet, compare ketogenic ratios to the LCD Score, and evaluate their association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Women's Health Initiative with 17.9 ± 6.03 years of follow-up. Baseline food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate the ketogenic ratio as follows: (0.9 × grams fat + 0.46 × grams protein) / (0.1 × grams fat + 0.58 × grams protein + grams net carbohydrate), a value ≥1.5 is the minimum threshold for a ketogenic diet. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: One hundred twenty-five nine hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women without diabetes (aged 50 to 79 years) enrolled in the multicenter Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trials were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of self-reported incident T2DM. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, education, income, health insurance, relationship status, geographic region, Women's Health Initiative study component, female hormone use, smoking status, alcohol use, recreational physical activity, total energy intake, diet quality, body mass index, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, were used to compare hazard ratios and 95% CIs for T2DM among quintiles of the ketogenic ratio. RESULTS: A total of 18,775 incident cases of T2DM occurred. The median ketogenic ratio was 0.35 (interquartile range 0.28 to 0.42) and 15 individuals (0.01%) exceeded the threshold for a ketogenic diet. Higher ketogenic ratio quintiles were associated with increased risk of T2DM in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing extreme quintiles of the ketogenic ratio, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.24 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.31; Ptrend < 0.001) in fully adjusted models. Similarly, comparing extreme quintiles, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.36 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.43; Ptrend < 0.001) for the LCD Score and 1.13 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.19; Ptrend < 0.001) for the simplified ketogenic ratio in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing ketogenic ratio values are associated with increased risk of T2DM and align well with LCD Scores; however, too few participants consumed a ketogenic diet to determine its association with T2DM.

13.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chocolate contains both potentially harmful components (ie, stearic acid and added sugar) and beneficial components (ie, phenolics and flavonoids). Despite its popularity, the long-term health effects of chocolate consumption remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association of chocolate consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: This study included 84,709 postmenopausal women free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer at baseline in the observational study and clinical trials control arms of the prospective Women's Health Initiative cohort who were enrolled during 1993 through 1998. These women were followed through March 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcomes included all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality from CVD, cancer, and dementia. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During 1,608,856 person-years of follow-up (mean [SD] of 19.0 [4.2] years), 25,388 deaths occurred, including 7,069 deaths from CVD, 7,030 deaths from cancer, and 3,279 deaths from dementia. After adjustment for a variety of covariates, compared with no chocolate consumption, the HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality were 0.95 (0.92 to 0.98), 0.93 (0.89 to 0.96), 0.97 (0.90 to 1.04), and 0.90 (0.84 to 0.97) for <1 serving/wk, 1 to 3 servings/wk, 4 to 6 servings/wk, and ≥1 serving/d of chocolate consumption, respectively (P for trend = .02). For CVD mortality, compared with no chocolate consumption, the HRs (95% CI) were 0.96 (0.91 to 1.01), 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95), 1.06 (0.93 to 1.21), and 0.92 (0.80 to 1.05) for <1 serving/wk, 1 to 3servings/wk, 4 to 6 servings/wk, and ≥1 serving/d of chocolate consumption, respectively (P for trend =.45). For dementia mortality, compared with no chocolate consumption, the HRs (95% CI) were 0.91 (0.84 to 0.99), 0.89 (0.80 to 0.99), 0.97 (0.79 to 1.18), and 0.97 (0.80 to 1.18) for <1 serving/wk, 1 to 3 servings/wk, 4-6 servings/wk, and ≥1 serving/d of chocolate consumption, respectively (P for trend = .95). Chocolate consumption was not associated with cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a modest inverse association of chocolate consumption with mortality from all causes, CVD, or dementia, specifically for moderate chocolate consumption of 1 to 3 servings/wk.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444502

RESUMO

Epidemiologic evidence is limited about associations between T2DM, metformin, and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We aimed to examine associations between T2DM, metformin, and the risk of NHL in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study. Information on T2DM status (diabetes status/types of antidiabetic drug use/diabetes duration) from study enrollment and during follow-up were assessed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate associations of T2DM status with risks of overall NHL and its three major subtypes [diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n = 476), follicular lymphoma (FL, n = 301) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL, n = 136)] based on multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. During a median follow-up of 18.86 years (range, 0.01-25.13; SD ± 6.55), a total of 1637 women developed NHL among 147 885 postmenopausal women. Women with T2DM and with self-reported oral medication use had 38% and 55% higher risk of DLBCL, respectively [multivariable-adjusted model HR = 1.38, 95% CI (1.06-1.81) and HR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.16-2.06)] compared to the reference group (nondiabetics/untreated diabetes). Risks of NHL and DLBCL [multivariable-adjusted model: HR = 1.28, 95% CI (1.06-1.54) and HR = 1.56, 95% CI (1.13-2.14), respectively] were significantly higher in associations with relatively short duration (≤7 years) of diabetes, compared to reference group. Additionally, an increased risk of DLBCL [HR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.13-2.75)] was found in metformin users compared to the reference group. Postmenopausal women who had T2DM, who were oral antidiabetic drug users, especially metformin, and who had a shorter diabetes duration may have higher risks of DLBCL. Further well-designed research is needed to confirm our findings.

15.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous experimental studies showed that limiting methionine in the diet of animals or in cell culture media suppresses mammary cancer cell proliferation or metastasis. However, no previous study has investigated the associations of changes in methionine intake with survival among breast cancer survivors. We aimed to examine the association between changes in dietary intake of methionine, folate/folic acid, and vitamin B12 from before to after diagnosis of breast cancer, and mortality among breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We included 1553 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and completed a food frequency questionnaire both before and after breast cancer diagnosis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence (CIs) of all-cause and breast cancer mortality associated with changes in methionine intake and changes in folate/folic acid and vitamin B12 intake. RESULTS: Relative to pre-diagnosis, 28% of women decreased methionine intake by ≥20%, 30% of women increased methionine intake by ≥20%, and 42% of women had a relatively stable methionine intake (±19.9%) following breast cancer diagnosis. During a mean 16.1 years of follow up, there were 772 deaths in total, including 195 deaths from breast cancer. Compared to women with relatively stable methionine intake, women with decreased methionine intake had lower risks of all-cause (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.97) and breast cancer mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.91) in fully adjusted models. In contrast, increased methionine intake or changes in folate/folic acid or vitamin B12 intake were not associated with all-cause or breast cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among breast cancer survivors, decreased methionine intake after breast cancer diagnosis was associated with lower risk of all-cause and breast cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Vitamina B 12 , Feminino , Animais , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Racemetionina , Ingestão de Alimentos
16.
Menopause ; 2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) on blood pressure control in postmenopausal women with hypertension. METHODS: The Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials were double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of women aged 50 to 79 years testing the effects of HT (conjugated equine estrogens [CEE, 0.625 mg/d] or CEE + medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA; 2.5 mg/d]) on risks for coronary heart disease and invasive breast cancer, the primary outcomes for efficacy and safety, respectively. This secondary analysis of the Women's Health Initiative HT trials examined a subsample of 9,332 women with hypertension (reported ever taking pills to treat hypertension or were taking antihypertensive medication) at baseline. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and up to 10 annual follow-up visits during the planned study phase. Antihypertensive medications were inventoried at baseline and years 1, 3, 6, and 9 during the study, and self-reported during extended follow-up: 2009-2010 and 2012-2013, which occurred median of 13 and 16 years after randomization, respectively. The intervention effect was estimated through year 6. Cumulative follow-up included all visits. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, CEE-alone had significantly (P = 0.02) higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) by mean (95% confidene interval [CI]) = 0.9 (0.2-1.5) mm Hg during the intervention phase. For cumulative follow-up, the CEE arm was associated with increased SBP by mean (95% CI) = 0.8 (0.1-1.4) mm Hg (P = 0.02). Furthermore, CEE + MPA relative to placebo was associated with increased SBP by mean (95% CI) = 1.8 (1.2-2.5) mm Hg during the intervention phase (P < 0.001). For cumulative follow-up, the CEE + MPA arm was associated with increased SBP by mean (95% CI) = 1.6 (1.0-2.3) mm Hg (P < 0.001). The mean number of antihypertensive medications taken at each follow-up visit did not differ between randomization groups during the intervention or long-term extended follow-up of 16 years. CONCLUSION: There was a small but statistically significant increase in SBP in both CEE-alone and CEE + MPA arms compared with placebo during both the intervention and cumulative follow-up phases among postmenopausal women with hypertension at baseline. However, this increase in SBP was not associated with an increased antihypertensive medication use over time among women randomized to HT compared with placebo.

17.
Menopause ; 29(12): 1365-1374, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between common menopausal symptoms (MS) and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: In an observational cohort of 80,278 postmenopausal women with no known CVD at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative, we assessed individual MS severity (mild vs none; moderate/severe vs none) for night sweats, hot flashes, waking up several times at night, joint pain or stiffness, headaches or migraines, vaginal or genital dryness, heart racing or skipping beats, breast tenderness, dizziness, tremors (shakes), feeling tired, forgetfulness, mood swings, restless or fidgety, and difficulty concentrating. Outcomes included total CVD events (primary) and all-cause mortality (secondary). Associations between specific MS, their severity, and outcomes were assessed during a median of 8.2 years of follow-up. All results were multivariable adjusted, and individual associations were Bonferroni corrected to adjust for multiple comparisons. A machine learning approach (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to select the most parsimonious set of MS most predictive of CVD and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The severity of night sweats, waking up several times at night, joint pain or stiffness, heart racing or skipping beats, dizziness, feeling tired, forgetfulness, mood swings, restless or fidgety, and difficulty concentrating were each significantly associated with total CVD. The largest hazard ratio (HR) for total CVD was found for moderate or severe heart racing or skipping beats (HR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.86). The individual severities of heart racing or skipping beats, dizziness, tremors (shakes), feeling tired, forgetfulness, mood swings, restless or fidgety, and difficulty concentrating were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Moderate or severe dizziness had the largest HR (1.58; 95% CI, 1.24-2.01). Multiple symptom modeling via least absolute shrinkage and selection operator selected dizziness, heart racing, feeling tired, and joint pain as most predictive of CVD, whereas dizziness, tremors, and feeling tired were most predictive of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Among postmenopausal women with no known CVD at baseline, the severity of specific individual MS was significantly associated with incident CVD and mortality. Consideration of severe MS may enhance sex-specific CVD risk predication in future cohorts, but caution should be applied as severe MS could also indicate other health conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Tontura , Tremor , Saúde da Mulher , Artralgia , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of pelvic radiation with pelvic fracture risk has not been examined in prospective cohort settings with comprehensive fracture risk assessment, cancer-free comparison populations, and long-term follow-up. Our objective is to better characterize pelvic fracture and overall mortality risks in postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: 135,743 WHI participants, aged 50 to 79 years enrolled from 40 US clinical centers from 1993 to 1998 who had entry Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores, were eligible. Outcomes included pelvic cancer diagnosis, pelvic fracture occurrence, and mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine associations of pelvic cancer and pelvic radiation with pelvic fracture and mortality risk. RESULTS: After 17.7 years (median) follow-up, 4,451 pelvic cancers, 10,139 pelvic fractures, and 33,040 deaths occurred. In multivariable analyses, women with incident pelvic cancer, compared to women who remained pelvic cancer-free, had higher pelvic fracture risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.43) and higher overall mortality risk (HR 2.91; CI 2.77-3.05). Women with pelvic cancer treated with pelvic radiation, compared to women with pelvic cancer not treated with pelvic radiation, had higher pelvic fracture risk (HR 1.98; CI 1.41-2.78) and higher overall mortality after pelvic cancer (HR 1.32; CI 1.15-1.52). CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women with pelvic cancer, especially those receiving pelvic radiation, are at higher pelvic fracture risk and higher overall mortality risk. As therapeutic advances have reduced cancer mortality, attention to and interventions for pelvic fracture prevention may be important in pelvic cancer survivors.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178659

RESUMO

While biomarkers have been proposed to identify individuals at risk for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD), little is known about long-term associations with cardiac events. We examined associations of biomarkers of oxidative stress (myeloperoxidase, growth differentiation factor-15, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OH-dG], placental growth factor), cardiac injury (troponin I, cystatin-C), inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein), and myocardial fibrosis (transforming growth factor-ß) with long-term RICVD in breast cancer (BC) survivors. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Women's Health Initiative of postmenopausal women with incident BC stages I-III, who received radiation and had pre- and post-BC diagnosis serum samples. Cases (n = 55) were defined as developing incident, physician-adjudicated myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, other CVD death, heart failure, or stroke after BC. Cases were matched to three controls (n = 158). After adjustment, a higher 8-OH-dG ratio was significantly associated with an elevated long-term risk of RICVD, suggesting oxidative DNA damage may be a putative pathway for RICVD.

20.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A plant-based dietary pattern, the Portfolio Diet, has been shown to lower LDL cholesterol and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, no study has evaluated the association of this diet with incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis included 145,299 postmenopausal women free of diabetes at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trials and Observational Study from 1993 to 2021. Adherence to the diet was assessed with a score based on six components (high in plant protein [soy and pulses], nuts, viscous fiber, plant sterols, and monounsaturated fat and low in saturated fat and cholesterol) determined from a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of the association of the Portfolio Diet, alongside the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets, with incident type 2 diabetes, with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 16.0 years, 13,943 cases of incident type 2 diabetes were identified. In comparisons of the highest with the lowest quintiles of adherence, the HRs for risk of incident type 2 diabetes were 0.77 (95% CI 0.72, 0.82) for the Portfolio Diet, 0.69 (0.64, 0.73) for the DASH diet, and 0.78 (0.74, 0.83) for the Mediterranean diet. These findings were attenuated by 10% after additional adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to the plant-predominant Portfolio, DASH, and Mediterranean diets was prospectively associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women.

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