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1.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468529

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
3.
Malays J Pathol ; 43(2): 303-310, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448794

RESUMO

Death-in-custody refers to the occurrence of death, while a person is under the custody of any enforcement agency. Their incidence often creates overwhelming public and media attention. Currently, there is no standardised definition of 'death-in-custody' in Malaysia and internationally. A crosssectional descriptive study was performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban (HTJS) for a period of 24 months. Information on all custodial deaths registered at HTJS from January 2001 till December 2015 was selected from the in-house hospital death registration system. The definition of 'death-in-custody' used was guided by the recommendation by the 'Australian Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody' 1991 with few adjustments. Four custodial settings of interest (the police, prison, immigration depot for the illegal immigrant, and army custody) were studied. A total of 172 deaths-in-custody were collected, in which the majority of cases were natural deaths (84.88%), predominantly infective in nature (65.07%). Less than 1/6th of cases were unnatural deaths with more than 80% died from legal intervention. All custodial deaths were dominated by males (96.51%) with a mean and median age of 37 years. In terms of nationality, 52.91% of the deaths involved Malaysian citizens in which the 'Malay/Bumi' race outnumbered the other two main races. The most documented custodial deaths occurred in prison (44.19%) followed by immigration depots (38.37%) and police lock-ups (17.44%). This study provides a general overview of the pattern including the causes and the demographic profile involving death in custody in the Seremban district registered at HTJS.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism, one or both hidden testes, is the most common abnormality of male sexual development. Subfertility or infertility is associated with both unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism. In this study, we investigate the possible ameliorative effect of curcumin (Cur) on the induced-unilateral cryptorchidism testicular injury in both cryptorchid (Cryp) and non-cryptorchid (non-Cryp) scrotal testes through histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 adult male albino rats were divided into: control group, Cur control, Cryp group, and Cryp+Cur group. The rat model was surgically established by fixing the left testis in the abdomen. The treated groups were subjected to surgically induced-unilateral cryptorchidism on the left side then were given Cur (80 mg/kg) orally, for 20 days. Histological analysis using hematoxylin & eosin and periodic acid Schiff's reaction was applied. Immunohistochemistry was performed for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); to estimate the proliferation in the germinal epithelium, and vimentin; to evaluate Sertoli cells. The results were confirmed by statistical evaluation of the spermatogenic epithelium height, the seminiferous tubules diameter, the basement membrane thickness, the number of PCNA immunostained cells and the area % of vimentin immunostaining. RESULTS: distorted seminefrous tubules, substantial degeneration of the germinal epithelium, thickening of the basement memebrane with a significant decrease in PCNA and vimentin immunostaining were observed in Cryp group; mainly in the cryptorchid testis. These structural changes were significantly reversed in Crypt+Cur group. CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin proved to be an important and effective medical line for protecting against the unfavorable sequels of cryptorchidism in a rat model.

5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(5): 1272-1281, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604190

RESUMO

Bluetongue (BT), caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is a vector-borne disease of small ruminants that has the potential to spread across international borders. Despite large populations of susceptible animals and borders with BTV endemic countries, little is known of the disease burden and prevalent serotypes in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine seroconversion and prevalent serotypes in selected districts of the province using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sera (n = 876) were collected from clinically healthy sheep and goats originating from the districts of Quetta (n = 300), Mastung (n = 201), Killa Saifullah (n = 75) and Kech (n = 300). None of the study herds (n = 97) were seronegative for BTV, and at the individual level, the overall prevalence of BTV seroconversion was 47.26% (n = 414/876, 95% CI = 43.92%-50.63%). A higher percentage of goats (50.87%, 95% CI = 45.99%-55.73%) were seropositive for anti-VP7 immunoglobulins (IgG) than sheep (44.21%, 95% CI = 39.81%-48.70%). Odds ratios of seroconversion for goats were associated with breed type (χ2  = 16.84, p = .01), parity (χ2  = 23.66, p = .00) and presence of vector (χ2  = 2.63, p = .10), whereas for sheep, it was associated with breed type (χ2  = 13.80, p = .01) and parity (χ2  = 53.40, p = .00). Serotype 8 was the most prevalent (26.82%, 95% CI = 14.75%-43.21%) followed by an equal prevalence of serotypes 2 and 9 (7.31%, 95% CI = 1.91%-21.01%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in Balochistan province and the results indicate that there is a necessity to initiate intervention strategies to control BT disease burden not only in this region of Pakistan but also in adjacent areas of the neighbouring countries, Iran and Afghanistan.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bluetongue/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Razão de Chances , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Proteínas do Core Viral/imunologia
6.
J Helminthol ; 90(2): 206-13, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25758445

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is an important disease affecting livestock, with great costs to producers worldwide. It has also become a serious issue for human populations in some endemic areas as an emerging zoonotic infection. There are two Fasciola species of liver fluke responsible for this disease, which occur worldwide, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Identifying these two species on the basis of adult or egg morphology requires specialist knowledge due to the similarity of characters, and may misidentify putative intermediate or hybrid forms. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA of liver flukes collected from multiple species of hosts from seven localities in the Punjab and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan, to determine the distribution of these two species. All 46 flukes processed in this study, collected from seven sites, showed the rDNA ITS-2 genotype corresponding to F. gigantica, contradicting previous reports, based on adult and egg morphology, that both species are present in Pakistan, with F. hepatica being the more common.


Assuntos
Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Ruminantes , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia
7.
Iran J Parasitol ; 8(2): 342-7, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23914251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most devastating protozoal diseases in under developing countries like Pakistan where health facilities are scarce. It is the second most frequently reported disease with 4.5 million suspected cases in Pakistan. The current study was designed to determine the incidence of pediatric malaria in Quetta, Balochistan. METHODS: The study was conducted at Children Hospital Quetta (CHQ) during July 2011march 2012. Blood samples were collected from 3418 clinically suspected and were evaluated using thin and thick blood films stained with Giemsa stain. RESULTS: Out of 3418 total of 230 (6.72%) children were found positive for any of the malarial parasitic infestation. Plasmodium vivax was observed to be more common 54.34% (n= 125/230) than P. falciparum 44.78% (n = 103/230). Male children were 65.21% (150/230) i.e. two times more commonly affected than female 34.78% (80/230) children. The prevalence among age groups was 7.41% (n = 89/1200) in preschool-aged children aged 1-5 years, 7.11% (n = 75/1054) in school-aged children aged 6-10 years while 6.78% (n = 46/678) in 11-15 years-old children, and 6.66% (n = 20/300) in >15 year-olds children. Peak prevalence was noted in summer and mild in winter. Mixed infection of (0.86%: 2/230) P. vivax and P. falciparum was also observed in two cases although no case of P. malariae or P. ovale infection was seen during entire study. CONCLUSION: The results reflect the higher prevalence of malaria in Quetta, Pakistan that poses a significant health threat and requires urgent attention of high-ups to launch programme to control the disease in the area.

8.
Indian J Public Health ; 53(1): 52-4, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19806833

RESUMO

A community based cross sectional survey was carried out to study the prevalence of the risk factors for CHD and identify the high-risk groups in the rural community. 924 subjects of 30 years and above were investigated using structured, pre-tested schedule. Coronary risk factors were assessed. Statistical analysis was done by using Chi square test for prevalence of coronary risk factors in the age and sex groups. The prevalence of coronary risk factors ranged from 5.4 to 41.3%. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, truncal obesity and sedentary life style were significantly prevalent among males. Whereas truncal obesity and hypertension among females. Behaviour change communication strategies targeting these high risk factors need to be emphasized to lower CHD related morbidity burden in the community.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Relação Cintura-Quadril
9.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 11(1): 30-2, 2003 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12548448

RESUMO

We retrospectively the results in 27 knees (26 patients) with cysts of the lateral meniscus. All patients had a meniscal tear (20 horizontal, 7 transverse) and pain over the lateral joint line with a palpable mass. The pathology was in the middle or anterior one-third of the meniscus. Arthroscopic surgery was performed in 22 knees, consisting of partial excision of meniscal tear, leaving a peripheral rim, coupled with débridement of the cyst; open cystectomy was performed in the remaining 5 knees. Average follow-up was 58 months (range 9-110). All patients but two were satisfied with the results.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Cistos/cirurgia , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Desbridamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meniscos Tibiais/patologia , Dor/cirurgia , Recidiva , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesões do Menisco Tibial , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Anticancer Res ; 17(4B): 3087-90, 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9329608

RESUMO

This study included 34 normal healthy controls, 35 patients with urinary tract bilharziasis and 93 bladder cancer patients (62 were operable cases and 31 non-operable). Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was determined using the enzyme immunoassay reagents supplied by Medgenix Diagnostics, Belgium. Cytosol Cathepsin-D was estimated using the immunoradiometric assay supplied by CIS BIO International, France. The results revealed that at 100% and 90% specificities, cytosol Cathepsin-D had 35.7% and 59.5% sensitivity in bladder cancer patients. Serum TNF-alpha showed sensitivity of 17.0% and 55.0% at 100% and 90% specificities in operable bladder cancer patients and 48.0% and 77.0% in non-operable cases respectively. Cytosol cathepsin D and TNF-alpha did not show prognostic values like positive correlation with tumor stages, grades or association of tumors with bilharzial ova or lymph node involvement.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Catepsina D/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/química , Adulto , Idoso , Citosol/enzimologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Dis Markers ; 12(4): 253-9, 1996 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8718785

RESUMO

In a study of 34 normal healthy controls, 35 patients with urinary tract bilharziasis and 93 bladder cancer patients (62 of them are operable cases and 31 are non-operable ones), serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and cytosolic Cathepsin-D were estimated. Though both potential markers were elevated in bladder cancer patients, neither Cathepsin-D nor TNF-alpha showed associations of prognostic value since there were no positive correlations with tumor stages, grades or association of tumors with bilharzial ova or lymph node involvement.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Catepsina D/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citosol/enzimologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose Urinária/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Bexiga Urinária/enzimologia
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