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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 748, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436952

RESUMO

The contribution of low-frequency variants to the genetic architecture of normal-range facial traits is unknown. We studied the influence of low-frequency coding variants (MAF < 1%) in 8091 genes on multi-dimensional facial shape phenotypes in a European cohort of 2329 healthy individuals. Using three-dimensional images, we partitioned the full face into 31 hierarchically arranged segments to model facial morphology at multiple levels, and generated multi-dimensional phenotypes representing the shape variation within each segment. We used MultiSKAT, a multivariate kernel regression approach to scan the exome for face-associated low-frequency variants in a gene-based manner. After accounting for multiple tests, seven genes (AR, CARS2, FTSJ1, HFE, LTB4R, TELO2, NECTIN1) were significantly associated with shape variation of the cheek, chin, nose and mouth areas. These genes displayed a wide range of phenotypic effects, with some impacting the full face and others affecting localized regions. The missense variant rs142863092 in NECTIN1 had a significant effect on chin morphology and was predicted bioinformatically to have a deleterious effect on protein function. Notably, NECTIN1 is an established craniofacial gene that underlies a human syndrome that includes a mandibular phenotype. We further showed that nectin1a mutations can affect zebrafish craniofacial development, with the size and shape of the mandibular cartilage altered in mutant animals. Findings from this study expanded our understanding of the genetic basis of normal-range facial shape by highlighting the role of low-frequency coding variants in several novel genes.

2.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 45-53, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288918

RESUMO

The human face is complex and multipartite, and characterization of its genetic architecture remains challenging. Using a multivariate genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 8,246 European individuals, we identified 203 genome-wide-significant signals (120 also study-wide significant) associated with normal-range facial variation. Follow-up analyses indicate that the regions surrounding these signals are enriched for enhancer activity in cranial neural crest cells and craniofacial tissues, several regions harbor multiple signals with associations to different facial phenotypes, and there is evidence for potential coordinated actions of variants. In summary, our analyses provide insights into the understanding of how complex morphological traits are shaped by both individual and coordinated genetic actions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study assessed differences in oral health and related behaviours and risk indicators by rurality in a north-central Appalachian population using the Andersen behavioural model as a conceptual framework. METHODS: Participants were residents aged 18-59 years (n = 1311) from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia, selected according to a household-based sampling strategy. Rural-Urban Continuum codes (RUC) corresponding to the participants' residences were used to classify participants as rural or urban. Mixed models were used to test rural-urban differences in measures of oral health, related behaviours, and need, enabling, and predisposing risk indicators. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables: age, sex, race, income, perceived socioeconomic status, educational attainment and dental insurance. RESULTS: Rural residents had poorer oral health overall, with fewer sound teeth (ß = -1.79), more dental caries (ß = 0.27) and higher rates of edentulism (5.2% vs 2.8%). Differences also were observed for dental care utilization and perceived barriers to care. Rural residents were less likely to attend dental visits as often as needed (26.9% vs 42.8%) and were more prone to seek care only after experiencing a dental problem (64.3% vs 43.9%). Rural residents also were more likely to report high costs (89% vs 62.6%) as a major reason for not having dental visits. Rural-urban differences for some oral health characteristics and behaviours could be explained by sociodemographic characteristics, whereas others could not. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed rural-urban differences in risk indicators and oral health outcomes in north-central Appalachia. Many of these differences were explained, completely or partly, by sociodemographic factors.

4.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 1055665620967235, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The unaffected relatives of individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have been shown to exhibit subtle craniofacial differences compared with the general population. Here, we investigate whether these morphological differences extend to the shape of the palate. DESIGN: We conducted a geometric morphometric analysis to compare palate shape in the clinically unaffected parents of children with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and adult controls of European, Asian, and African ancestry. We conducted pairwise group comparisons using canonical variates analysis, and then confirmed and characterized findings of shape differences using Euclidean distance matrix analysis. RESULTS: Significant differences in palate shape were detected in unaffected mothers (but not fathers) compared to demographically matched controls. The differences in shape were ancestry-specific; mothers of Asian-derived and African-derived ancestry showed wider and shorter palates with higher posterior palatal vaults, while mothers of European-derived ancestry showed narrower palates with higher anterior palatal vaults. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that altered palate shape is a subclinical phenotypic feature, which may be indicative of elevated orofacial cleft risk. The risk phenotype varied by sex and ancestry, suggesting possible etiologic heterogeneity among demographic groups. Understanding the genetic basis of these informative palate shape traits may reveal new genes and pathways relevant to nonsyndromic orofacial clefting.

5.
Neurocrit Care ; 32(2): 550-563, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Preclinical evidence suggests that iron homeostasis is an important biological mechanism following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH); however, this concept is underexplored in humans. This study examined the relationship between patient outcomes following aSAH and genetic variants and DNA methylation in the hepcidin gene (HAMP), a key regulator of iron homeostasis. METHODS: In this exploratory, longitudinal observational study, participants with verified aSAH were monitored for acute outcomes including cerebral vasospasm (CV) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and evaluated post-discharge at 3 and 12 months for long-term outcomes of death and functional status using the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS; poor = 3-6) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS; poor = 1-3). Participants were genotyped for two genetic variants, and DNA methylation data were collected from serial cerebrospinal fluid over 14 days post-aSAH at eight methylation sites within HAMP. Participants were grouped based on their site-specific DNA methylation trajectory, with and without correcting for cell-type heterogeneity (CTH), and the associations between genetic variants and inferred DNA methylation trajectory groups and patient outcomes were tested. To correct for multiple testing, an empirical significance threshold was computed using permutation testing. RESULTS: Genotype data for rs10421768 and rs7251432 were available for 241 and 371 participants, respectively, and serial DNA methylation data were available for 260 participants. Acute outcome prevalence included CV in 45% and DCI in 37.1% of the overall sample. Long-term outcome prevalence at 3 and 12 months included poor GOS in 23% and 21%, poor mRS in 31.6% and 27.3%, and mortality in 15.1% and 18.2%, respectively, in the overall sample. Being homozygous for the rs7251432 variant allele was significantly associated with death at 3 months (p = 0.003) and was the only association identified that passed adjustment for multiple testing mentioned above. Suggestive associations (defined as trending toward significance, p value < 0.05, but not meeting empirical significance thresholds) were identified between the homozygous variant allele for rs7251432 and poor GOS and mRS at 3 months (both p = 0.04) and death at 12 months (p = 0.02). For methylation trajectory groups, no associations remained significant after correction for multiple testing. However, for methylation trajectory groups not adjusted for CTH, suggestive associations were identified between cg18149657 and poor GOS and mRS at 3 months (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04, respectively) and death at 3 months (p = 0.04), and between cg26283059 and DCI (p = 0.01). For methylation trajectory groups adjusted for CTH, suggestive associations were identified between cg02131995 and good mRS at 12 months (p = 0.02), and between cg26283059 and DCI (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory pilot study offers preliminary evidence that HAMP may play a role in patient outcomes after aSAH. Replication of this study and mechanistic investigation of the role of HAMP in patient outcomes after aSAH are needed.

6.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668963

RESUMO

The foundation for osteoporosis risk is, in part, established during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, all periods of development when bone mass is acquired rapidly. The relative quantity of bone mass accrued is influenced by both lifestyle and genetic factors, although the genetic component is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to use a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with: (1) the sex-specific hip bone mineral content at approximately the age of 19 when the amount of bone accrued is near its peak; and (2) the sex-specific rate of hip bone mineral content accrual during the adolescent growth spurt. The Iowa Bone Development Study, a longitudinal cohort study exploring bone health in children, adolescents, and young adults was the source of data. From this cohort, n = 364 (190 females, 174 males) participants were included in GWA analyses to address (1) and n = 258 participants (125 females and 133 males) were included in GWA analyses to address (2). Twenty SNPS were detected having p < 1.0 × 10-5. Of most biologic relevance were 2 suggestive SNPs (rs2051756 and rs2866908) detected in an intron of the DKK2 gene through the GWA analysis that explored peak bone mass in females.

7.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Genet Couns ; 28(5): 974-981, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293033

RESUMO

The identification of patient outcomes unique to the field of genetic counseling has become a recent priority of the profession. Current health-care efforts have targeted patient engagement as an outcome capable of improving population health and reducing health-care costs. This study analyzed patient engagement levels among 182 participants who underwent genetic counseling for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer risk assessment in an outpatient specialty clinic. Patients seen at the UPMC Hereditary GI Tumor Program completed a validated patient engagement measure, the Altarum Consumer Engagement (ACE), prior to undergoing genetic counseling and again three months after enrollment. Paired t test analysis was conducted to assess the changes in Total ACE scores, and within the following three domains: Navigation, Informed Choice, and Commitment. In the sample of 182 participants, Total ACE scores increased after genetic counseling (by 5.7%; p < .0001), as did all three domains (Commitment p = .0008; Navigation p = .0008; and Informed Choice p = .0016). This study is the first known report of patient engagement levels in individuals undergoing genetic counseling in a specialty cancer clinic and suggests that genetic counseling improves patient engagement levels.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 704-716, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172578

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a hallmark of complex traits, and genetic studies of such traits may focus on them as a single diagnostic entity or by analyzing specific components. For example, in orofacial clefting (OFC), three subtypes-cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) have been studied separately and in combination. To further dissect the genetic architecture of OFCs and how a given associated locus may be contributing to distinct subtypes of a trait we developed a framework for quantifying and interpreting evidence of subtype-specific or shared genetic effects in complex traits. We applied this technique to create a "cleft map" of the association of 30 genetic loci with three OFC subtypes. In addition to new associations, we found loci with subtype-specific effects (e.g., GRHL3 [CP], WNT5A [CLP]), as well as loci associated with two or all three subtypes. We cross-referenced these results with mouse craniofacial gene expression datasets, which identified additional promising candidate genes. However, we found no strong correlation between OFC subtypes and expression patterns. In aggregate, the cleft map revealed that neither subtype-specific nor shared genetic effects operate in isolation in OFC architecture. Our approach can be easily applied to any complex trait with distinct phenotypic subgroups.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/classificação , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/classificação , Fissura Palatina/genética , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Fenótipo , Encéfalo/patologia , Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Humanos , Transcriptoma
12.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 22 Suppl 1: 207-212, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074157

RESUMO

There is ample evidence from heritability studies, genetic syndromes and experimental animal models that facial morphology is strongly influenced by genes. In this brief review, we present an up-to-date overview of the efforts to identify genes associated with the size and shape of human facial features. We discuss recent methodological advances that have led to breakthroughs, but also the multitude of challenges facing the field. We offer perspective on possible applications of this line of research, particularly in the context of the precision genomics movement.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo
13.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 47(4): 283-290, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dental utilization is an important determinant of oral health and well-being. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential associations between a variety of biopsychosocial factors and dental utilization in north-central Appalachia, USA, a region where oral health disparities are profound. METHODS: This study used household-based data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA1) study in north-central Appalachia, including 449 families with 868 adults. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used to determine the best-fitting predictor model for dental utilization among adult family members. RESULTS: On average across West Virginia and Pennsylvania, having dental insurance was associated with greater dental utilization over a 3-year time period (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.14). When stratified by state, the association held for only West Virginia (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.79) and was nonsignificant for Pennsylvania residents (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.80, 2.79). Individuals from Pennsylvania were more likely to utilize dental care and participants from West Virginia less so (2.31, 95% CI = 1.57, 3.40). Females from Pennsylvania were more likely than males to regularly seek dental care (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.05), and a higher income was associated with greater frequency of regular dental visits (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.34) in West Virginia. Individuals from Pennsylvania who scored higher on the Physiological Arousal subscale of the Dental Fear Survey were more likely to attend routine care visits (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.35). Across both states, more fatalistic beliefs related to oral health care also predicted less routine care (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81, 0.94), and more investment in or more positive attitudes towards one's oral health also was associated with higher utilization (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings of this study suggest state residency, sex, insurance, income, fatalistic beliefs, health values, and aspects of dental care-related anxiety and fear predicted dental care utilization in north-central Appalachia. These findings reinforce the need to address insurance and other economic factors affecting utilization and to consider how individual-level fatalistic beliefs and oral health values may affect utilization of routine oral health care.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Odontológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Região dos Apalaches , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pennsylvania , West Virginia
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 493-509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838596

RESUMO

Oral health and disease are known to be influenced by complex interactions between environmental (e.g., social and behavioral) factors and innate susceptibility. Although the exact contribution of genomics and other layers of "omics" to oral health is an area of active research, it is well established that the susceptibility to dental caries, periodontal disease, and other oral and craniofacial traits is substantially influenced by the human genome. A comprehensive understanding of these genomic factors is necessary for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. To aid in this direction, the advent and increasing affordability of high-throughput genotyping has enabled the simultaneous interrogation of millions of genetic polymorphisms for association with oral and craniofacial traits. Specifically, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of dental caries and periodontal disease have provided initial insights into novel loci and biological processes plausibly implicated in these two common, complex, biofilm-mediated diseases. This paper presents a summary of protocols, methods, tools, and pipelines for the conduct of GWAS of dental caries, periodontal disease, and related traits. The protocol begins with the consideration of different traits for both diseases and outlines procedures for genotyping, quality control, adjustment for population stratification, heritability and association analyses, annotation, reporting, and interpretation. Methods and tools available for GWAS are being constantly updated and improved; with this in mind, the presented approaches have been successfully applied in numerous GWAS and meta-analyses among tens of thousands of individuals, including dental traits such as dental caries and periodontal disease. As such, they can serve as a guide or template for future genomic investigations of these and other traits.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Doenças Dentárias/genética , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Cárie Dentária/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/genética , Fenótipo , Software
15.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(3): 263-275, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653739

RESUMO

When testing genotype-phenotype associations using linear regression, departure of the trait distribution from normality can impact both Type I error rate control and statistical power, with worse consequences for rarer variants. Because genotypes are expected to have small effects (if any) investigators now routinely use a two-stage method, in which they first regress the trait on covariates, obtain residuals, rank-normalize them, and then use the rank-normalized residuals in association analysis with the genotypes. Potential confounding signals are assumed to be removed at the first stage, so in practice, no further adjustment is done in the second stage. Here, we show that this widely used approach can lead to tests with undesirable statistical properties, due to both combination of a mis-specified mean-variance relationship and remaining covariate associations between the rank-normalized residuals and genotypes. We demonstrate these properties theoretically, and also in applications to genome-wide and whole-genome sequencing association studies. We further propose and evaluate an alternative fully adjusted two-stage approach that adjusts for covariates both when residuals are obtained and in the subsequent association test. This method can reduce excess Type I errors and improve statistical power.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Simulação por Computador , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 467-474, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582786

RESUMO

Genome-wide scans have shown that common risk alleles for orofacial clefts (OFC) tend to be located in noncoding regulatory elements and cumulatively explain only part of the heritability of OFCs. Low-frequency variants may account for some of the "missing" heritability. Therefore, we scanned low-frequency variants located within putative craniofacial enhancers to identify novel OFC risk variants and implicate new regulatory elements in OFC pathogenesis. Analyses were performed in a multiethnic sample of 1,995 cases of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), 221 cases with cleft palate (CP) only, and 1,576 unaffected controls. One hundred and nineteen putative craniofacial enhancers identified from ChIP-Seq studies in craniofacial tissues or cell lines contained multiple low-frequency (0.01-1%) variants, which we genotyped in participants using a custom Illumina panel. Two complementary statistical approaches, sequence kernel association test and combined multivariate and collapsing, were used to test association of the aggregated low-frequency variants across each enhancer region with CL/P and CP. We discovered a significant association between CP and a branchial arch enhancer near FOXP1 (mm60; p-value = .0002). Additionally, we observed a suggestive association between CL/P and a forebrain enhancer near FOXE1 (hs1717; p-value = .001). These findings suggest that low-frequency variants in craniofacial enhancer regions contribute to the complex etiology of nonsyndromic OFCs.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico , Fissura Palatina/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Alelos , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Hum Genet ; 138(1): 37-47, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392061

RESUMO

Appendicitis affects 9% of Americans and is the most common diagnosis requiring hospitalization of both children and adults. We performed a genome-wide association study of self-reported appendectomy with 18,773 affected adults and 114,907 unaffected adults of European American ancestry. A significant association with appendectomy was observed at 4q25 near the gene PITX2 (rs2129979, p value = 8.82 × 10-14) and was replicated in an independent sample of Caucasians (59 affected, 607 unaffected; p value = 0.005). Meta-analysis of the associated variant across our two cohorts and cohorts from Iceland and the Netherlands (in which this association had previously been reported) showed strong cumulative evidence of association (OR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.09-1.14; p value = 1.81 × 10-23) and some evidence for effect heterogeneity (p value = 0.03). Eight other loci were identified at suggestive significance in the discovery GWAS. Associations were followed up by measuring gene expression across resected appendices with varying levels of inflammation (N = 75). We measured expression of 27 genes based on physical proximity to the GWAS signals, evidence of being targeted by eQTLs near the signals according to RegulomeDB (score = 1), or both. Four of the 27 genes (including PITX2) showed significant evidence (p values < 0.0033) of differential expression across categories of appendix inflammation. An additional ten genes showed nominal evidence (p value < 0.05) of differential expression, which, together with the significant genes, is more than expected by chance (p value = 6.6 × 10-12). PITX2 impacts morphological development of intestinal tissue, promotes an anti-oxidant response, and its expression correlates with levels of intestinal bacteria and colonic inflammation. Further studies of the role of PITX2 in appendicitis are warranted.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Associação Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Apendicite/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Genet ; 9: 497, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405702

RESUMO

Many factors influence human facial morphology, including genetics, age, nutrition, biomechanical forces, and endocrine factors. Moreover, facial features clearly differ between males and females, and these differences are driven primarily by the influence of sex hormones during growth and development. Specific genetic variants are known to influence circulating sex hormone levels in humans, which we hypothesize, in turn, affect facial features. In this study, we investigated the effects of testosterone-related genetic variants on facial morphology. We tested 32 genetic variants across 22 candidate genes related to levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in three cohorts of healthy individuals for which 3D facial surface images were available (Pittsburgh 3DFN, Penn State and ALSPAC cohorts; total n = 7418). Facial shape was described using a recently developed extension of the dense-surface correspondence approach, in which the 3D facial surface was partitioned into a set of 63 hierarchically organized modules. Each variant was tested against each of the facial surface modules in a multivariate genetic association-testing framework and meta-analyzed. Additionally, the association between these candidate SNPs and five facial ratios was investigated in the Pittsburgh 3DFN cohort. Two significant associations involving intronic variants of SHBG were found: both rs12150660 (p = 1.07E-07) and rs1799941 (p = 6.15E-06) showed an effect on mandible shape. Rs8023580 (an intronic variant of NR2F2-AS1) showed an association with the total and upper facial width to height ratios (p = 9.61E-04 and p = 7.35E-04, respectively). These results indicate that testosterone-related genetic variants affect normal-range facial morphology, and in particular, facial features known to exhibit strong sexual dimorphism in humans.

19.
Front Genet ; 9: 502, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410503

RESUMO

Objectives: Orofacial clefting is one of the most prevalent craniofacial malformations. Previous research has demonstrated that unaffected relatives of patients with non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P) show distinctive facial features, which can be an expression of underlying NSCL/P susceptibility genes. These results support the hypothesis that genes involved in the occurrence of a cleft also play a role in normal craniofacial development. In this study, we investigated the influence of genetic variants associated with NSCL/P on normal-range variation in facial shape. Methods: A literature review of genome wide association studies (GWAS) investigating the genetic etiology of NSCL/P was performed, resulting in a list of 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 38 genetic loci. Genotype data were available for 65 of these selected SNPs in three datasets with a combined sample size of 7,418 participants of European ancestry, whose 3D facial images were also available. The effect of each SNP was tested using a multivariate canonical correlation analysis (CCA) against 63 hierarchically-constructed facial segments in each of the three datasets and meta-analyzed. This allowed for the investigation of associations between SNPs known to be involved in NSCL/P and normal-range facial shape variations in a global-to-local perspective, without preselecting specific facial shape features or characteristics. Results: Six NSCL/P SNPs showed significant associations with variation in normal-range facial morphology. rs6740960 showed significant effects in the chin area (p = 3.71 × 10-28). This SNP lies in a non-coding area. Another SNP, rs227731 near the NOG gene, showed a significant effect in the philtrum area (p = 1.96 × 10-16). Three SNPs showed significant effects on the shape of the nose. rs742071 (p = 8.71 × 10-14), rs34246903 (p = 6.87 × 10-12), and rs10512248 (p = 8.4 × 10-9). Respectively, these SNPs are annotated to PAX7, MSX1, and PTCH1. Finally, rs7590268, an intron variant of THADA, showed an effect in the shape of the supraorbital ridge (p = 3.84 × 10-7). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence NSCL/P-associated genetic variants influence normal-range craniofacial morphology, with significant effects observed for the chin, the nose, the supraorbital ridges and the philtrum area.

20.
PLoS Genet ; 14(8): e1007501, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067744

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that genetic risk variants for non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (nsCL/P) are also associated with normal-range variation in facial morphology. However, previous analyses are mostly limited to candidate SNPs and findings have not been consistently replicated. Here, we used polygenic risk scores (PRS) to test for genetic overlap between nsCL/P and seven biologically relevant facial phenotypes. Where evidence was found of genetic overlap, we used bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) to test the hypothesis that genetic liability to nsCL/P is causally related to implicated facial phenotypes. Across 5,804 individuals of European ancestry from two studies, we found strong evidence, using PRS, of genetic overlap between nsCL/P and philtrum width; a 1 S.D. increase in nsCL/P PRS was associated with a 0.10 mm decrease in philtrum width (95% C.I. 0.054, 0.146; P = 2x10-5). Follow-up MR analyses supported a causal relationship; genetic variants for nsCL/P homogeneously cause decreased philtrum width. In addition to the primary analysis, we also identified two novel risk loci for philtrum width at 5q22.2 and 7p15.2 in our Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) of 6,136 individuals. Our results support a liability threshold model of inheritance for nsCL/P, related to abnormalities in development of the philtrum.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Lábio/anormalidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
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