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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246803, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495160

RESUMO

Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431907

RESUMO

Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães , Cabras , Paquistão
4.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(7): 2763-2769, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare test characteristics of the Euroimmun line blot assay with other assays for two uncommon autoantibody specificities in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients from the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center were assayed routinely using the Euroimmun platform. Patients positive for anti-Th/To (N = 73) and anti-PM-Scl (PM75 and/or PM100; N = 290) by Euroimmun were compared with SSc patients negative for these autoantibodies. For Th/To antibodies, the comparison assay was immunoprecipitation (IP), performed using 4 Th/To complex components: POP1, RPP40, RPP30, and RPP25. For anti-PM-Scl, IPs were performed with PM100 and PM75. Different Euroimmun cut-offs for assigning antibody positive status (≥ 15/+, ≥ 36/++, ≥ 71/+++) were examined. Kappa statistics were calculated to determine agreement between assays. RESULTS: The best performing thresholds for defining anti-PM-Scl positivity were both PM75 and PM100 ≥ 15/+ on Euroimmun, corresponding to a kappa statistic of 0.79, sensitivity 72% and specificity 100%. For anti-Th/To, kappa values were lower for all comparisons (κ < 0.5). Given the high sensitivity of defining anti-Th/To by ≥ 15/+ (91-95%), a potential approach is to use Euroimmun screening (15/+ cut-off), followed by confirmatory IP. CONCLUSION: Given the increasing utilization of Euroimmun and the importance of comparing data across cohorts, continued use of this platform is warranted, acknowledging discordance with IP for some specificities. For these, using a two-step approach (Euroimmun to maximize sensitivity, confirmatory assay to increase specificity) is suggested. KEY POINTS: • For less common SSc autoantibody specificities, some discordances exist between IP and Euroimmun LIA. • The best performing thresholds for defining anti-PM-Scl positivity were both PM75 and PM100 ≥ 15/+ on Euroimmun. • For Th/To, a two-step approach (Euroimmun to maximize sensitivity, confirmatory assay to increase specificity) is suggested.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico , Autoanticorpos , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Ribonuclease P , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico
5.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(6): 413-430, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086820

RESUMO

Non-degradability of conventional plastics, filling of landfill sites, raising water and land pollution and rapid depletion of fossil resources have raised the environmental issues and global concerns. The current demand and production of plastics is putting immense pressure on fossil resources, consuming about 6% of the global oil and is expected to grow up to 20%. The polyester-based biodegradable plastics (BPs) are considered as a remedy to the issue of plastics waste in the environment. BPs appear to manage the overflow of plastics by providing new means of waste management system and help in securing the non-renewable resources of nature. This review comprehensively presents the environmental burdens due to conventional plastics as well as production of polyester-based BPs as an alternative to conventional commodity plastics. The diversity of micro-organisms and their enzymes that degrade various polyester-based BPs (PLA, PCL, PHB/PHBV and PET) has also been described in detail. Moreover, the impact of plastics degradation products on soil ecology and ecosystem functions has critically been discussed. The report ends with special focus on future recommendations for the development of sustainable waste management strategies to control pollution due to plastics waste. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Polyester-based BPs considered as a solution to current plastic waste problem as well as leading polymers in terms of biodegradability and sustainability has been critically discussed. The role of microorganisms and their enzymes involved in the biodegradation of these polymers and ecotoxicological impact of degradation products of BPs on soil microbial community and biogeochemical cycles has also been described. This report will provide an insight on the key research areas to bridge the gap for development of simulated systems as an effective and emerging strategy to divert the overflow of plastic in the environment as well as for the greener solution to the plastic waste management problems.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Poliésteres/química , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Polímeros/química , Solo/química , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 1125-1134, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336395

RESUMO

AIM: Escherichia coli is the conventional choice as the host strain for whole-cell bioreporter construction due to its well-understood genetics and well-established cloning protocols. However, for real-world environmental biosensing applications, it is often beneficial to use a bacterial strain derived directly from the environment under study to better ensure chemical target specificity and optimal response time. The aim of this study was to develop a whole-cell bioreporter for detection of bioavailable mercury by replacing E. coli with a wild-type bacterial host derived from a soil environment. MATERIALS AND RESULTS: In this study, an Enterobacter cloacae strain isolated from soil derived from a municipal and electronic waste dumping site was engineered to serve as a bioluminescent bioreporter for mercury toxicity by linking its merR-like gene and promoter sequence to a reorganized luxABCDE gene cassette from Photorhabdus luminescens. This bioreporter, designated as E. cloacae DWH4lux , detected mercury (HgCl2 ) at a minimum concentration of 0·2 µg l-1 with a linear response profile being maintained between a range of 0·4-1600 µg l-1 (R2  = 0·9604) with a peak bioluminescent response occurring within 1 h after exposure. No significant synergistic or antagonistic influences were observed on the bioluminescent response by other contaminating metal elements. Enterobacter cloacae DWH4lux was also demonstrated to detect mercury effectively in artificially contaminated water sample with linear correlation (R2  = 0·9623). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that E. cloacae DWH4lux could detect mercury in quantities below the US Environmental Protection Agency's permitted limit values (2 µg l-1 ). Hence, it is concluded that E. cloacae DWH4lux has the potential to serve as an effective whole-cell bioreporter for the environmental monitoring of mercury contamination. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study provides new insight into the recruitment of mercury-tolerant bacterial hosts derived from environmental samples over the conventional lab-based E. coli host for the construction of mercury bioreporters. With improved response time and selectivity, the environmentally sourced bacteria can serve as an alternative host choice to improve biosensing technology in the near future.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia/métodos , Enterobacter cloacae , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes , Photorhabdus/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
J Dent Res ; 98(6): 705-712, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958726

RESUMO

During organogenesis, the timing and patterning of dental pulp innervation require both chemoattractive and chemorepellent cues for precise spatiotemporal regulation. Our understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate tooth innervation during development, as well as the basic biology of these sensory neurons, remains rudimentary. In this study, we analyzed the expression and function of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase, Ret, in the regulation of innervation of the mouse tooth pulp by dental pulpal afferent (DPA) neurons of the trigeminal ganglion (TG). Using reporter mouse models, we demonstrate that Ret is highly expressed by a subpopulation of DPA neurons projecting to the tooth pulp at both postnatal day 7 (P7) and in the adult. In the adult tooth, GDNF is highly expressed by many cell types throughout the dental pulp. Using a ubiquitous tamoxifen (TMX)-inducible Cre ( UBC-Cre/ERT2) line crossed to Ret conditional knockout mice ( Retfx/fx), Ret was deleted immediately prior to tooth innervation, and the neural projections into P7 molars were analyzed. TMX treatment was efficient in ablating >95% of Ret protein. We observed that UBC-Cre/ERT2; Retfx/fx mice had a significant reduction in the total number of neurites present within the pulp at P7, with a significant accumulation of aberrant fibers in the dental follicle and periodontium. In agreement with these findings, inhibition of Ret signaling through in vivo administration of a highly specific pharmacologic inhibitor (1NM-PP1) of Ret also caused a substantial reduction in pulpal innervation. Taken together, these findings indicate that Ret signaling regulates the timing and patterning of tooth innervation by dental primary afferent neurons of the TG during organogenesis and provide a rationale to explore whether alterations in the GDNF-Ret pathway contribute to pathophysiological conditions in the adult dentition.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/inervação , Organogênese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/fisiologia , Dente , Animais , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Gânglio Trigeminal
8.
Transp Porous Media ; 126(1): 39-77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872876

RESUMO

In this paper, we develop a surrogate modelling approach for capturing the output field (e.g. the pressure head) from groundwater flow models involving a stochastic input field (e.g. the hydraulic conductivity). We use a Karhunen-Loève expansion for a log-normally distributed input field and apply manifold learning (local tangent space alignment) to perform Gaussian process Bayesian inference using Hamiltonian Monte Carlo in an abstract feature space, yielding outputs for arbitrary unseen inputs. We also develop a framework for forward uncertainty quantification in such problems, including analytical approximations of the mean of the marginalized distribution (with respect to the inputs). To sample from the distribution, we present Monte Carlo approach. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of our approach: a Darcy flow model with contaminant transport in 2-d and a Richards equation model in 3-d.

9.
Transp Porous Media ; 126(1): 79-95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872877

RESUMO

Groundwater flow models are usually subject to uncertainty as a consequence of the random representation of the conductivity field. In this paper, we use a Gaussian process model based on the simultaneous dimension reduction in the conductivity input and flow field output spaces in order quantify the uncertainty in a model describing the flow of an incompressible liquid in a random heterogeneous porous medium. We show how to significantly reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input and output spaces while retaining the qualitative features of the original model, and secondly how to build a surrogate model for solving the reduced-order stochastic model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis on the full-order model is used for validation of the surrogate model.

10.
Balkan J Med Genet ; 22(2): 59-64, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942418

RESUMO

The present study was designed to measure the mean values of body mass index (BMI), random blood sugar/ fast ing blood sugar (RBS/FBS) tests, and Hb A1c and to investigate the role of a genetic variant rs1544410 in the VDR gene in a Pakistani cohort. For this purpose, a total of 917 samples including 469 diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), 145 DM type 1 (T1DM), and 303 healthy control were collected. Out of the total sample set, 500 individuals (250 T2DM cases and 250 controls) were genotyped for rs1544410. It was found that 65 (26.0%) cases and 32 (12.8%) controls had homozygous AA, while 69 (27.6%) cases and 139 (55.6%) controls had heterozygous AG, and 116 (46.4%) cases and 79 (31.6%) controls had homozygous GG (χ2 = 41.81, p = 0.0001). In addition, a similar distribution of allele frequency was determined in cases and controls [p value = 0.866; odds ratio (OR) = 0.967; relative risk (RR) = 1.034]. A significant difference was observed in homozygous dominant [OR = 2.394 (1.501-3.816); RR = 1.46 (1.225-1.740); p = 0.003] and homozygous recessive models [OR = 2.970 (2.086-4.227); RR = 1.798 (1.501-2.154); p = <0.0001] analysis of rs1544410 in the VDR gene. These findings suggest that the VDR gene is associated with T2DM and genotype GG of genetic variant rs1544410 is the susceptible genotype in our Pakistani cohort.

11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 125(2): 457-467, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729069

RESUMO

AIM: Thiss study was conducted to investigate the possible role of a compatible solute from radio-halophilic bacterium against desiccation and ultra-violet radiation-induced oxidative stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine different radio-resistant bacteria were isolated from desert soil, where strain WMA-LM19 was chosen for detailed studies on the basis of its high tolerance to ultraviolet radiation among all these isolates. Here, 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated the bacterium was closely related to Stenotrophomonas sp. (KT008383). A bacterial milking strategy was applied for extraction of intracellular compatible solutes in 70% (v/v) ethanol, which were purified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The compound was characterized as ectoine by 1 H and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Ectoine inhibited oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in comparison to the standard ascorbic acid. It also demonstrated more efficient prevention (54·80%) against lysis to erythrocytes membrane by surface active agents than lecithin. Furthermore, a high level of ectoine-mediated protection of bovine serum albumin against ionizing radiation (1 500-2 000Jm-2 ) was observed, as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that ectoine from Stenotrophomonas sp. WMA-LM19 can be used as a potential mitigator and radio-protective agent to overcome radiation- and salinity-mediated oxidative damages in extreme environment. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Due to its anti-oxidant properties, ectoine from a radio-halophilic bacterium might be used in sunscreen formulation for protection against UV-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Stenotrophomonas/química , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Stenotrophomonas/genética
12.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(2): e902-e908, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243316

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici-treated silage of King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) on the productive traits and blood biochemistry of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. King grass was ensiled without or with L. plantarum (T1), P. acidilactici (T2) and P. acidilactici + L. plantarum (T3). A total of 72 male NZW rabbits (6 weeks) of similar weight and appearance were housed in groups in metallic cages in a completely randomized design. The performance traits, daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed convention ratio were not affected by the silage treatment. Triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration was increased (p < .05) in T2 (0.92 mmol/L) compared to the other treatments. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), phosphorous (P) and magnesium (Mg) increased (p < .05) in T1 (658.01 nmol/ml, 5.1 mg/kg and 2.43 mg/kg, respectively) compared to the control and other experimental groups. Cu and Mn decreased (p < .05), while Zn increased (p < .05) in the treated groups compared to the control. The CP decreased (p < .05) in the treatment groups compared to the control. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increased (p < .05) in T2 (54.40%) compared to the other treatments. The inoculation of lactic acid bacteria-treated King grass silage supplementation positively affected rabbit performance and improved blood cholesterol profile, antioxidant status and improve nutrients digestibility.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Pediococcus acidilactici/fisiologia , Pennisetum/química , Coelhos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silagem/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Cobre , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Masculino , Manganês , Coelhos/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase
13.
Proc Math Phys Eng Sci ; 473(2200): 20160809, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484327

RESUMO

In this paper, we develop reduced-order models for dynamic, parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear partial differential equations using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The main challenges are to accurately and efficiently approximate the POD bases for new parameter values and, in the case of nonlinear problems, to efficiently handle the nonlinear terms. We use a Bayesian nonlinear regression approach to learn the snapshots of the solutions and the nonlinearities for new parameter values. Computational efficiency is ensured by using manifold learning to perform the emulation in a low-dimensional space. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a linear and a nonlinear example, with comparisons with a global basis approach.

14.
Cryo Letters ; 38(2): 145-154, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catalase enzyme is usually distributed in mammalian seminal plasma, where it decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen and enhances sperm survivability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of catalase (0, 100, 200 or 300 IU/ml) added in tris-citric acid (TCA) based extender on motion characteristics, viability and DNA integrity of bubaline spermatozoa at post dilution (PD) and post thawing (PT) stages of cryopreservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Collection of semen was done in four Nili-Ravi bulls with an artificial vagina (42 degree C). Qualified semen samples from each bull were further subdivided into four aliquots for dilution with the experimental TCA extender containing either 0.0 (T1), 100 IU (T2), 200 IU (T3) or 300 IU (T4) catalase (activity12660 U/mg). RESULTS: At PT, mean computer progressive motility, average path velocity, straight line velocity, curvilinear velocity, visual motility and DNA integrity were higher (P < 0.05) in catalase fortified treatment groups as compared with control. Regarding plasma membrane integrity and supra-vital plasma membrane integrity, at PT the mean values were higher (P < 0.05) in T4 as compared with control. At PD and PT, mean acrosomal integrity of buffalo bull spermatozoa was higher (P < 0.05) in T4 group as compared with control. CONCLUSION: Addition of catalase at a concentration of 300IU/ml in TCA cryodiluent improved the freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Catalase/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Espermatozoides , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Búfalos/fisiologia , Bovinos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
15.
Int J Surg ; 38: 74-77, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28034772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robotic retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) has become one of the most commonly performed robotic procedures in the United States. Ventral hernia (VH) has been increasingly recognized as an important complication after laparoscopic procedures, in general. However, data related to VH after robotic procedures is relatively scarce, especially after RRP. With increasing popularity of RRP, the purpose of this study was to look at the incidence of VH and outcomes of ventral hernia repair (VHR) after RRP. METHODS: All patients who underwent RRP at a single institution between January 2012 and June 2014 were studied retrospectively using electronic medical records. RESULTS: A total of 570 patients underwent RRP, of which 33 (5.8%) developed VH during the study period. Fourteen (42%) patients were obese and five (15%) had diabetes. One patient (3%) had a surgical site infection after RRP and two (6%) patients were on immunomodulators/steroids. Median duration to develop VH after RRP was 12 (1-25) months. Out of the 33 patients with VH, ten (33%) underwent VHR; five laparoscopic and five open. Median size of hernia defect and mesh used was 25 (1-144) cm2 and 181 (15-285) cm2, respectively. Median length of hospital stay and follow up was 0 (0-4) days and 12 (1-14) months, respectively. One patient who had initial VHR done at an outside institution had a recurrence. Thirty-two (97%) patients were alive at their last follow up. One patient died secondary to progression of prostate cancer. There was no significant 30 day morbidity (surgical site infection, fascial dehiscence, pneumonia, acute kidney injury, myocardial infarction). Of patients who decided non-operative management of VH (n = 23, 67%), none developed a complication requiring emergent surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: The incidence of VH after RRP is likely underreported in prior studies. Repair, either laparoscopic or open, is safe and effective in experienced hands. Patients who decide on watchful waiting can be followed with minimal risk of incarceration/strangulation. Further studies are needed to analyze the extraction techniques after RRP and correlate with incidence of VH.


Assuntos
Hérnia Ventral/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Arizona/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Hérnia Ventral/etiologia , Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BJS Open ; 1(4): 97-105, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951611

RESUMO

Background: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are widely used to inform the development of protocols for clinical management. Previous work has demonstrated that the quality of CPGs varies widely. This systematic review aimed to determine the quality of CPGs in kidney transplantation in the UK. Methods: CPGs in kidney transplantation published between 2010 and 2017 were identified through searches of MEDLINE, NHS NICE Evidence, and websites of relevant UK societies. Using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II tool, three appraisers rated the quality of CPGs across six domains, the overall quality of each CPG, and whether it should be recommended for future use. Domain scores were calculated, and inter-rater reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was reported. Results: Thirteen CPGs met the inclusion criteria. The domain 'clarity of presentation' scored highest, followed closely by 'scope and purpose'. The poorest scoring domains were 'applicability' and 'editorial independence'. Editorial independence also had the widest range of scores. Of the 13 CPGs, one was not recommended for future use, seven were recommended for use with modifications, and five for future use with no need for modification. Mean overall CPG quality was 5 (range 3-6) of a maximum score of 7, and mean inter-rater reliability was substantial with an ICC of 0·71. Conclusion: UK CPGs scored satisfactorily, although with wide variation in how well each domain scored both within and across CPGs. The quality of UK CPGs can still be improved.

17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 34(4): 483-488, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Seasonal rains in Pakistan result in heavy floods across the country, whereby faecal contaminants will be added to the water bodies and cause numerous food-borne outbreaks. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in the water sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred water samples collected during (2011-2012) were processed for the isolation of E. coli (EC) strains. EC strains were further analysed for antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and pathogroups-specific virulence factors stx1, stx2, stx2c, eae, tir, hlyA, bfpA, estA and eltA were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of the water samples were contaminated with EC pathotypes. Fifty percent (33/66) of the DEC pathotypes were identified as enterotoxigenic EC (ETEC). Seventy-two percent (13/18) of the enteropathogenic EC (EPEC) strains were identified as typical EPEC and 28% (5/18) as atypical EPEC. Eleven percent (7/66) of the Shiga toxin EC (STEC) isolates carried a combination of stx1 and stx2 genes. Summer was found as a peak season with 47% (31/66) for EC pathogroups' activities. Eighty-nine percent of the strains showed resistance against tetracycline. CONCLUSION: ETEC and EPEC are the primary causes of water contamination in southern regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Firm adherence to the prescribed drugs can decrease trends in antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/patogenicidade , Inundações , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Microbiologia da Água , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Paquistão
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(99): 14270-14273, 2016 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27878143

RESUMO

A membrane-less organic-inorganic flow battery based on zinc and quinone species is proposed. By virtue of the slow dissolution rate of the deposited anode (<11.5 mg h-1 cm-2), the battery has a cell voltage of ca. 1.52 V with an average energy efficiency of ca. 73% at 30 mA cm-2 over 12 cycles.

19.
Indian J Cancer ; 53(2): 309-312, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28071635

RESUMO

CONTEXT: To identify prognostic factors in carcinoma penis with its impact on survival. AIMS: To find out the relation of various prognostic factors of carcinoma penis with the various outcomes. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Each patient diagnosed as having carcinoma of penis by incision biopsy and operated from January 2004 to May 2009 at the institute was included in the study (n = 117). Data were collected and analyzed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The Chi-square (χ2) test was used to test for the significance of association between the independent (predictor) and dependent (outcome) variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictor variables that predicted the outcome. Five year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Of the total 117 patients studied, 30 patients died within 5 years (median = 25 months). Recurrences (local or systemic) were seen in 23 patients (median = 14 months). Five-year DFS was 80.34% and OS was 72.22%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that well to moderately differentiated grade, lymph node negative disease and low stage have higher survivals than poorly differentiated grade, lymph node positive disease and higher stage, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that inguinal lymph node positivity and grade were significantly associated with local or systemic recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Penile cancer patients with advanced disease had poor survival. Tumor grade and inguinal lymph node metastasis are factors affecting DFS. Lymphadenectomy remains an integral part of the management of patients with penile cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Penianas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Penianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Penianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
20.
Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol ; 52(3): 296-305, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509385

RESUMO

Geobacillus thermodenitrificans AK53 xyl gene encoding xylanase was isolated, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. After purifying recombinant xylanase from G. thermodenitrificans AK53 (GthAK53Xyl) to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography, biochemical properties of the enzyme were determined. The kinetic studies for GthAK53Xyl showed K M value to be 4.34 mg/mL (for D-xylose) and V max value to be 2028.9 µmoles mg­1 min­1. The optimal temperature and pH for enzyme activity were found out to be 70°C and 5.0, respectively. The expressed protein showed the highest sequence similarity with the xylanases of G. thermodenitrificans JK1 (JN209933) and G. thermodenitrificans T-2 (EU599644). Metal cations Mg2+ and Mn2+ were found to be required for the enzyme activity, however, Co2+, Hg2+, Fe2+ and Cu2+ ions caused inhibitor effect on it. GthAK53Xyl had no cellulolytic activity and degraded xylan in an endo-fashion. The action of the enzyme on xylan from oat spelt produced xylobiose and xylopentose. The reported results are suggestive of a xylanase exhibiting desirable kinetics, stability parameters and metal resistance required for the efficient production of xylobiose at industrial scale.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Clonagem Molecular , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases , Geobacillus , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/biossíntese , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/genética , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/isolamento & purificação , Geobacillus/enzimologia , Geobacillus/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade por Substrato
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