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Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148367, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465041


Following the proven concept, capabilities, and limitations of detecting the RNA of Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater, it is pertinent to understand the utility of wastewater surveillance data on various scale. In the present work, we put forward the first wastewater surveillance-based city zonation for effective COVID-19 pandemic preparedness. A three-month data of Surveillance of Wastewater for Early Epidemic Prediction (SWEEP) was generated for the world heritage city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. In this expedition, 116 wastewater samples were analyzed to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA, from September 3rd to November 26th, 2020. A total of 111 samples were detected with at least two out of three SARS-CoV-2 genes (N, ORF 1ab, and S). Monthly variation depicted a significant decline in all three gene copies in October compared to September 2020, followed by a sharp increment in November 2020. Correspondingly, the descending order of average effective gene concentration was: November (~10,729 copies/L) > September (~3047 copies/L) > October (~454 copies/L). Monthly variation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the wastewater samples may be ascribed to a decline of 20.48% in the total number of active cases in October 2020 and a rise of 1.82% in November 2020. Also, the monthly recovered new cases were found to be 16.61, 20.03, and 15.58% in September, October, and November 2020, respectively. The percentage change in the gene concentration was observed in the lead of 1-2 weeks with respect to the percentage change in the provisional figures of confirmed cases. SWEEP data-based city zonation was matched with the heat map of the overall COVID-19 infected population in Ahmedabad city, and month-wise effective gene concentration variations are shown on the map. The results expound on the potential of WBE surveillance of COVID-19 as a city zonation tool that can be meaningfully interpreted, predicted, and propagated for community preparedness through advanced identification of COVID-19 hotspots within a given city.

COVID-19 , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias
Chemosphere ; 282: 130954, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082315


Humanity is struggling against a major problem for a proper management of generated municipal solid waste. The collected waste causes natural issues like uncontrollable emission of greenhouse gases and others. Even though, escalation of waste results in minimizing the areas accessible for disposing the waste. Creating awareness in the society to use organic products like biofuels, biofertilizers and biogas is a need of an hour. Biochemical processes such as composting, vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, and landfilling play important role in valorizing biomass and solid waste for production of biofuels, biosurfactants and biopolymer. This paper covers the details of biomass and solid waste characteristics and its composition. It is also focused to provide updated information about reutilization of biomass for value creation. Technologies and products obtained through bio-routes are discussed in current review paper together with the integrated system of solid waste management. It also covers challenges, innovations and perspectives in this field.

Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141326, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768790


We made the first ever successful effort in India to detect the genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 viruses to understand the capability and application of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) surveillance in India. Sampling was carried out on 8 and 27 May 2020 at the Old Pirana Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) at Ahmedabad, Gujarat that receives effluent from Civil Hospital treating COVID-19 patients. All three, i.e. ORF1ab, N and S genes of SARS-CoV-2, were found in the influent with no genes detected in effluent collected on 8 and 27 May 2020. Increase in SARS-CoV-2 genetic loading in the wastewater between 8 and 27 May 2020 samples concurred with corresponding increase in the number of active COVID-19 patients in the city. The number of gene copies was comparable to that reported in untreated wastewaters of Australia, China and Turkey and lower than that of the USA, France and Spain. However, temporal changes in SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations need to be substantiated further from the perspectives of daily and short-term changes of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater through long-term monitoring. The study results SARS-CoV-2 will assist concerned authorities and policymakers to formulate and/or upgrade COVID-19 surveillance to have a more explicit picture of the pandemic curve. While infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 through the excreted viral genetic material in the aquatic environment is still being debated, the presence and detection of genes in wastewater systems makes a strong case for the environmental surveillance of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Águas Residuárias , Austrália , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , França , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , Turquia