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1.
Circulation ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines acknowledge the emerging role of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin for risk stratification and the early rule-out of myocardial infarction, but multiple thresholds have been described. We evaluate the safety and effectiveness of risk stratification thresholds in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=48,282) were enrolled in a multi-center trial across ten hospitals in Scotland. In a prespecified secondary and observational analysis, we compared the performance of the limit of detection (<2 ng/L) and an optimised risk stratification threshold (<5 ng/L) using the Abbott high sensitive troponin I assay. Patients with myocardial injury at presentation, with ≤ 2 hours of symptoms or with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were excluded. The negative predictive value (NPV) was determined in all patients and in subgroups for a primary outcome of myocardial infarction or cardiac death within 30 days. The secondary outcome was myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 12 months, with risk modelled using logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: In total, 32,837 consecutive patients (61±17 years, 47% female) were included, of whom 23,260 (71%) and 12,716 (39%) had cardiac troponin I concentrations <5 ng/L and <2 ng/L at presentation. The NPV for the primary outcome was 99.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.7-99.8%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-99.9%) in those with cardiac troponin I concentrations <5 ng/L and <2 ng/L, respectively. At both thresholds, the NPV was consistent in men and women and across all age groups, although the proportion of patients identified as lowrisk fell with increasing age. Compared to patients with cardiac troponin I concentrations ≥5ng/L but <99th centile, the risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 12 months was 77% lower in those <5 ng/L (5.3% versus 0.7%; adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 0.23, 95% CI 0.19-0.28), and 80% lower in those <2 ng/L (5.3% versus 0.3%; aOR 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Use of risk stratification thresholds for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I identify patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome and at least 2 hours of symptoms as low-risk at presentation irrespective of age and sex. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01852123.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic implications of standardized reporting systems for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) in patients with stable chest pain. BACKGROUND: The Coronary Artery Disease Reporting And Data System (CAD-RADS) and Coronary Artery Calcium - Data and Reporting System (CAC-DRS) aim to improve communication of CACS and CCTA results, but its influence on prognostication is unknown. METHODS: Images from 1769 patients who underwent CCTA as part of the Scottish Computed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) multi-center randomized controlled trial were assessed. CACS were classified as CAC-DRS 0 to 3 based on Agatston scores. CCTA were classified as CAD-RADS 0 to 5 based on the most clinically relevant finding per patient. The primary outcome was the five-year events of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 58 ±â€¯10 years and 56% were male. CAC-DRS 0, 1, 2 and 3 occurred in 642 (36%), 510 (29%), 239 (14%) and 379 (21%) patients respectively. CAD-RADS 0, 1, 2, 3, 4A, 4B and 5 occurred in 622 (35%), 327 (18%), 211 (12%), 165 (9%), 221 (12%), 42 (2%) and 181 (10%) patients respectively. Patients classified as CAC-DRS 3 were at an increased risk of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction compared to CAC-DRS 0 patients (hazard ratio (HR) 9.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.24, 27.31; p < 0.001). Patients with higher CAD-RADS categories were at an increased risk of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, with patients classified as CAD-RADS 4B at the highest risk compared to CAD-RADS 0 patients (HR 19.14; 95% CI 4.28, 85.53; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with higher CAC-DRS and CAD-RADS scores were at increased risk of subsequent fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. This confirms that the classification provides additional prognostic discrimination for future coronary heart disease events.

3.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(8): e008574, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography identifies ruptured and high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. The optimal method to identify, to quantify, and to categorize increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake and determine its reproducibility has yet to be established. This study aimed to optimize the identification, quantification, categorization, and scan-rescan reproducibility of increased 18F-fluoride activity in coronary atherosclerotic plaque. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease underwent serial 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography. Coronary 18F-fluoride activity was visually assessed, quantified, and categorized with reference to maximal tissue to background ratios. Levels of agreement for both visual and quantitative methods were determined between scans and observers. RESULTS: Thirty patients (90% male, 20 patients with stable coronary artery disease, and 10 with recent type 1 myocardial infarction) underwent paired serial positron emission tomography-coronary computed tomography angiography imaging within an interval of 12±5 days. A mean of 3.7±1.8 18F-fluoride positive plaques per patient was identified after recent acute coronary syndrome, compared with 2.4±2.3 positive plaques per patient in stable coronary artery disease. The bias in agreement in maximum tissue to background ratio measurements in visually positive plaques was low between observers (mean difference, -0.01; 95% limits of agreement, -0.32 to 0.30) or between scans (mean difference, 0.06; 95% limits of agreement, -0.49 to 0.61). Good agreement in the categorization of focal 18F-fluoride uptake was achieved using visual assessment alone (κ=0.66) and further improved at higher maximum tissue to background ratio values. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary 18F-fluoride activity is a precise and reproducible metric in the coronary vasculature. The analytical performance of 18F-fluoride is sufficient to assess the prognostic utility of this radiotracer as a noninvasive imaging biomarker of plaque vulnerability. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT02110303 and NCT02278211.

4.
Circulation ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in cardiac troponin concentrations by age, sex and time between samples in patients with suspected myocardial infarction are not currently accounted for in diagnostic approaches. We aimed to combine these variables through machine learning to improve the assessment of risk for individual patients. METHODS: A machine learning algorithm (myocardial-ischemic-injury-index [MI3]) incorporating age, sex, and paired high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations, was trained on 3,013 patients and tested on 7,998 patients with suspected myocardial infarction. MI3 uses gradient boosting to compute a value (0-100) reflecting an individual's likelihood of a diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction and estimates the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for that individual. Assessment was by calibration and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC). Secondary analysis evaluated example MI3 thresholds from the training set that identified patients as low-risk (99% sensitivity) and high-risk (75% PPV), and performance at these thresholds was compared in the test set to the 99th percentile and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) rule-out pathways. RESULTS: Myocardial infarction occurred in 404 (13.4%) patients in the training set and 849 (10.6%) patients in the test set. MI3 was well calibrated with a very high AUC of 0.963 [0.956-0.971] in the test set and similar performance in early and late presenters. Example MI3 thresholds identifying low-risk and high-risk patients in the training set were 1.6 and 49.7 respectively. In the test set, MI3 values were <1.6 in 69.5% with a NPV of 99.7% (99.5%-99.8%) and sensitivity of 97.8% (96.7-98.7%), and were ≥49.7 in 10.6% with a PPV of 71.8% (68.9-75.0%) and specificity of 96.7% (96.3-97.1%). Using these thresholds, MI3 performed better than the ESC 0/3-hour pathway (sensitivity 82.5% [74.5-88.8%], specificity 92.2% [90.7-93.5%]) and the 99th percentile at any time-point (sensitivity 89.6% [87.4-91.6%]), specificity 89.3% [88.6-90.0%]). CONCLUSIONS: Using machine learning, MI3 provides an individualized and objective assessment of the likelihood of myocardial infarction, which can be used to identify low-risk and high-risk patients who may benefit from earlier clinical decisions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Unique Identifier: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12616001441404. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine whether ticagrelor reduces high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations in patients with established coronary artery disease and high-risk coronary plaque. BACKGROUND: High-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaque is associated with higher plasma troponin concentrations suggesting ongoing myocardial injury that may be a target for dual antiplatelet therapy. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with multivessel coronary artery disease underwent coronary 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography/coronary computed tomography scanning and measurement of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or matched placebo. The primary endpoint was troponin I concentration at 30 days in patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake. RESULTS: In total, 202 patients were randomized to treatment, and 191 met the pre-specified criteria for inclusion in the primary analysis. In patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake (120 of 191), there was no evidence that ticagrelor had an effect on plasma troponin concentrations at 30 days (ratio of geometric means for ticagrelor vs. placebo: 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 0.90 to 1.36; p = 0.32). Over 1 year, ticagrelor had no effect on troponin concentrations in patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake (ratio of geometric means: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 1.17; p = 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor did not reduce plasma troponin concentrations in patients with high-risk coronary plaque, suggesting that subclinical plaque thrombosis does not contribute to ongoing myocardial injury in this setting. (Dual Antiplatelet Therapy to Reduce Myocardial Injury [DIAMOND]; NCT02110303).

6.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(10): 794-804, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 70 million people worldwide are estimated to have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Emerging evidence indicates an association between HCV and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the association between HCV and cardiovascular disease, and estimate the national, regional, and global burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to HCV. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid Global Health, and Web of Science databases from inception to May 9, 2018, without language restrictions, for longitudinal studies that evaluated the risk ratio (RR) of cardiovascular disease in people with HCV compared with those without HCV. Two investigators independently reviewed and extracted data from published reports. The main outcome was cardiovascular disease, defined as hospital admission with, or mortality from, acute myocardial infarction or stroke. We calculated the pooled RR of cardiovascular disease associated with HCV using a random-effects model. Additionally, we calculated the population attributable fraction and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) from HCV-associated cardiovascular disease at the national, regional, and global level. We also used age-stratified and sex-stratified HCV prevalence estimates and cardiovascular DALYs for 100 countries to estimate country-level burden associated with HCV. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018091857. FINDINGS: Our search identified 16 639 records, of which 36 studies were included for analysis, including 341 739 people with HCV. The pooled RR for cardiovascular disease was 1·28 (95% CI 1·18-1·39). Globally, 1·5 million (95% CI 0·9-2·1) DALYs per year were lost due to HCV-associated cardiovascular disease. Low-income and middle-income countries had the highest disease burden with south Asian, eastern European, north African, and Middle Eastern regions accounting for two-thirds of all HCV-associated cardiovascular DALYs. INTERPRETATION: HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The global burden of cardiovascular disease associated with HCV infection was responsible for 1·5 million DALYs, with the highest burden in low-income and middle-income countries. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation and Wellcome Trust.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(17): e012307, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431112

RESUMO

Background Sex-specific criteria are recommended for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, but the impact of these on presenting characteristics is unknown. Methods and Results We evaluated patient-reported symptoms in 1941 patients (39% women) with suspected acute coronary syndrome attending the emergency department in a substudy of a prospective trial. Standardized criteria defined typical and atypical presentations based on pain nature, location, radiation, and additional symptoms. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction was adjudicated using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific thresholds (>16 ng/L women, >34 ng/L men). Patients identified who were missed by the contemporary assay with a uniform threshold (≥50 ng/L) were reclassified by this approach. Type 1 myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 16% (184/1185) of men and 12% (90/756) of women, with 9 (5%) men and 27 (30%) women reclassified using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and sex-specific thresholds. Chest pain was the presenting symptom in 91% (1081/1185) of men and 92% (698/756) of women. Typical symptoms were more common in women than in men with myocardial infarction (77% [69/90] versus 59% [109/184]; P=0.007), and differences were similar in those reclassified (74% [20/27] versus 44% [4/9]; P=0.22). The presence of ≥3 typical features was associated with a positive likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in women (positive likelihood ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31) but not in men (positive likelihood ratio 1.09; 95% CI, 0.96-1.24). Conclusions Typical symptoms are more common and have greater predictive value in women than in men with myocardial infarction whether or not they are diagnosed using sex-specific criteria. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01852123.

9.
Heart ; 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk in stable patients. Understanding their determinants and identifying modifiable clinical targets may improve outcomes. We aimed to establish clinical and cardiac determinants of these biomarkers. METHODS: This was a prespecified substudy from the randomised Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart trial, which enrolled patients 18-75 years with suspected stable angina between 2010 and 2014 (NCT01149590). We included patients from six centres in whom high-sensitivity troponin I and BNP were measured (Singulex Erenna). Patients with troponin >99th centile upper reference limit (10.2 ng/L) or BNP ≥400 ng/L were excluded to avoid inclusion of patients with myocardial injury or heart failure. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed with troponin and BNP as dependent variables. RESULTS: In total, 885 patients were included; 881 (99%) and 847 (96%) had troponin and BNP concentrations above the limit of detection, respectively. Participants had a slight male preponderance (n=513; 56.1%), and the median age was 59.0 (IQR 51.0-65.0) years. The median troponin and BNP concentrations were 1.4 (IQR 0.90-2.1) ng/L and 29.1 (IQR 14.0-54.0) ng/L, respectively. Age and atherosclerotic burden were independent predictors of both biomarkers. Male sex, left ventricular mass and systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of increased troponin. In contrast, female sex and left ventricular volume were independent predictors of increased BNP. CONCLUSIONS: Troponin and BNP are associated with coronary atherosclerosis but have important sex differences and distinct and contrasting associations with CT-determined left ventricular mass and volume. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01149590; Post-results.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
11.
Circulation ; 139(24): 2754-2764, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is great interest in widening the use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponins for population cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure screening. However, it is not clear whether cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and troponin I (cTnI) are equivalent measures of risk in this setting. We aimed to compare and contrast (1) the association of cTnT and cTnI with CVD and non-CVD outcomes, and (2) their determinants in a genome-wide association study. METHODS: High-sensitivity cTnT and cTnI were measured in serum from 19 501 individuals in Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study. Median follow-up was 7.8 years (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 7.1-9.2). Associations of each troponin with a composite CVD outcome (1177 events), CVD death (n=266), non-CVD death (n=374), and heart failure (n=216) were determined by using Cox models. A genome-wide association study was conducted using a standard approach developed for the cohort. RESULTS: Both cTnI and cTnT were strongly associated with CVD risk in unadjusted models. After adjusting for classical risk factors, the hazard ratio for a 1 SD increase in log transformed troponin was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.17-1.32) and 1.11 (1.04-1.19) for cTnI and cTnT, respectively; ratio of hazard ratios 1.12 (1.04-1.21). cTnI, but not cTnT, was associated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Both cTnI and cTnT had strong associations with CVD death and heart failure. By contrast, cTnT, but not cTnI, was associated with non-CVD death; ratio of hazard ratios 0.77 (0.67-0.88). We identified 5 loci (53 individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms) that had genome-wide significant associations with cTnI, and a different set of 4 loci (4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) for cTnT. CONCLUSIONS: The upstream genetic causes of low-grade elevations in cTnI and cTnT appear distinct, and their associations with outcomes also differ. Elevations in cTnI are more strongly associated with some CVD outcomes, whereas cTnT is more strongly associated with the risk of non-CVD death. These findings help inform the selection of an optimal troponin assay for future clinical care and research in this setting.

12.
Am J Med ; 132(8): 964-969, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular thrombus formation is a complication of acute myocardial infarction. However, the incidence and risk of systemic thromboembolism in the era of primary angioplasty for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unclear. This study aims to determine clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI treated with primary angioplasty and left ventricular thrombus at 1 year. METHODS: Patients who underwent primary angioplasty for STEMI and had a transthoracic echocardiogram were recruited. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, stroke, and systemic thromboembolism at 1 year. For the primary endpoint, the difference between the presence and absence of left ventricular thrombus was compared using a logistic regression, adjusting for minimization variables including age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and previous stroke. RESULTS: Of 2608 patients who underwent primary angioplasty for STEMI, 1645 (63%) patients had a transthoracic echocardiogram performed during the index hospital admission. Forty patients (2.4%) had evidence of left ventricular thrombus on transthoracic echocardiography. Patients with left ventricular thrombus were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation in the immediate postinfarction period (6 [15%] vs 87 [5.4%], P = 0.025). At 1 year, the primary endpoint occurred in 4 (10%) patients with left ventricular thrombus and 146 (9.1%) who did not (logistic regression hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.23-2.70). CONCLUSIONS: In the contemporary era of mechanical reperfusion for STEMI, echocardiographic detection of left ventricular thrombus was observed in <3% patients. The presence of left ventricular thrombus was not associated with an increased risk of systemic thromboembolism.

13.
Clin Chem ; 65(3): 484-489, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The universal definition of myocardial infarction (UDMI) standardizes the approach to the diagnosis and management of myocardial infarction. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing is recommended because these assays have improved precision at low concentrations, but concerns over specificity may have limited their implementation. METHODS: We undertook a global survey of 1902 medical centers in 23 countries evenly distributed across 5 continents to assess adoption of key recommendations from the UDMI. Respondents involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome completed a structured telephone questionnaire detailing the primary biomarker, diagnostic thresholds, and clinical pathways used to identify myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Cardiac troponin was the primary diagnostic biomarker at 96% of surveyed sites. Only 41% of centers had adopted high-sensitivity assays, with wide variation from 7% in North America to 60% in Europe. Sites using high-sensitivity troponin more frequently used serial sampling pathways (91% vs 78%) and the 99th percentile diagnostic threshold (74% vs 66%) than sites using previous-generation assays. Furthermore, high-sensitivity institutions more often used earlier serial sampling (≤3 h) and accelerated diagnostic pathways. Fewer than 1 in 5 high-sensitivity sites had adopted sex-specific thresholds (18%). CONCLUSIONS: There has been global progress toward the recommendations of the UDMI, particularly in the use of the 99th percentile diagnostic threshold and serial sampling. However, high-sensitivity assays are still used by a minority of sites, and sex-specific thresholds by even fewer. Additional efforts are required to improve risk stratification and diagnosis of patients with myocardial infarction.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(3): 291-301, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unlike most noninvasive imaging modalities, coronary computed tomography angiography can characterize subtypes of atherosclerotic plaque. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic implications of adverse coronary plaque characteristics in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. METHODS: In this SCOT-HEART (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial) post hoc analysis, the presence of adverse plaque (positive remodeling or low attenuation plaque), obstructive disease, and coronary artery calcification within 15 coronary segments was assessed on coronary computed tomography angiography of 1,769 patients who were followed-up for 5 years. RESULTS: Among study participants (mean age 58 ± 10 years; 56% male), 608 (34%) patients had 1 or more adverse plaque features. Coronary heart disease death or nonfatal myocardial infarction was 3 times more frequent in patients with adverse plaque (n = 25 of 608 [4.1%] vs. n = 16 of 1,161 [1.4%]; p < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR]: 3.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61 to 5.63; p = 0.001) and was twice as frequent in those with obstructive disease (n = 22 of 452 [4.9%] vs. n = 16 of 671 [2.4%]; p = 0.024; HR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.05 to 3.79; p = 0.036). Patients with both obstructive disease and adverse plaque had the highest event rate, with a 10-fold increase in coronary heart disease death or nonfatal myocardial infarction compared with patients with normal coronary arteries (HR: 11.50; 95% CI: 3.39 to 39.04; p < 0.001). However, these associations were not independent of coronary artery calcium score, a surrogate measure of coronary plaque burden. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse coronary plaque characteristics and overall calcified plaque burden confer an increased risk of coronary heart disease death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590).

15.
Am J Med ; 132(1): 110.e8-110.e21, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays may improve the diagnosis of myocardial infarction but increase the detection of elevated cardiac troponin in patients without acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the prevalence, determinants, and outcome of patients with elevated cardiac troponin attending the emergency department without suspected acute coronary syndrome. We measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin in 918 consecutive patients attending the emergency department without suspected acute coronary syndrome who had blood sampling performed by the attending clinician. Elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I was defined as concentrations above the sex-specific 99th percentile threshold. Clinical demographics, physiological measures, and all-cause mortality at 1 year associated with elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations were recorded. RESULTS: Elevated cardiac troponin concentration occurred in 114 (12.4%) patients, of whom 2 (0.2%), 3 (0.3%), and 109 (11.9%) were adjudicated as type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, and myocardial injury, respectively. Elevated troponin concentrations were associated with increasing age, worsening renal function, multimorbidity, and adverse physiology. Across a total of 912 patient-years follow-up, cardiac troponin concentration was a strong predictor of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26 per 2-fold increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.49) independent of age, sex, multimorbidity, and adverse physiology. CONCLUSIONS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations were elevated in 1 in 8 consecutive patients without suspected acute coronary syndrome attending the emergency department and were associated with increasing age, multimorbidity, adverse physiology, and death. Elevated cardiac troponin in unselected patients predominantly reflects myocardial injury rather than myocardial infarction.

16.
Heart ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable the early risk stratification of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome to identify those at low risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death. We evaluated the performance of a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay in early rule out pathways. METHODS: In 1920 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, cardiac troponin was measured using the Siemens Atellica high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay (99th centile: 34 ng/L women, 53 ng/L men). We evaluated three pathways which use either low risk-stratification thresholds of cardiac troponin (High-SensitivityTroponin in the Evaluation of patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (High-STEACS) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 1 hour pathway) or the 99th centile diagnostic threshold (ESC 3 hour pathway) to rule out myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The primary outcome of myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days occurred in 14.4% (277/1920). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 63% of patients (1218/1920), with five missed events for a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.5% (95% CI (CI) 99.1% to 99.8%). Similar performance was observed for the ESC 1 hour pathway with an NPV of 99.0% (97.6% to 99.8%). In contrast, the ESC 3 hour pathway ruled out 65% of patients (1248/1920), but missed 25 events for an NPV of 98.0% (97.1% to 98.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay can safely identify patients at low risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Diagnostic pathways that use low cardiac troponin concentrations for risk stratification miss fewer events than those that rely on the 99th centile to rule out myocardial infarction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT1852123.

17.
Circulation ; 138(16): 1654-1665, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays can help to identify patients who are at low risk of myocardial infarction in the emergency department. We aimed to determine whether the addition of clinical risk scores would improve the safety of early rule-out pathways for myocardial infarction. METHODS: In 1935 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of 2 rule-out pathways alone or in conjunction with low-risk TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) (0 or 1), GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) (≤108), EDACS (Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score) (<16), or HEART (History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, Troponin) (≤3) scores. The European Society of Cardiology 3-hour pathway uses a single diagnostic threshold (99th percentile), whereas the High-STEACS (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) pathway applies different thresholds to rule out (<5 ng/L) and rule in (>99th percentile) myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Myocardial infarction or cardiac death during the index presentation or at 30 days occurred in 14.3% of patients (276/1935). The European Society of Cardiology pathway ruled out 70%, with 27 missed events giving a negative predictive value of 97.9% (95% CI, 97.1-98.6). The addition of a HEART score ≤3 reduced the proportion ruled out by the European Society of Cardiology pathway to 25% but improved the negative predictive value to 99.7% (95% CI, 99.0-100; P<0.001). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 65%, with 3 missed events for a negative predictive value of 99.7% (95% CI, 99.4-99.9). No risk score improved the negative predictive value of the High-STEACS pathways, but all reduced the proportion ruled out (24% to 47%; P<0.001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical risk scores significantly improved the safety of the European Society of Cardiology 3-hour pathway, which relies on a single cardiac troponin threshold at the 99th percentile to rule in and rule out myocardial infarction. Where lower thresholds are used to rule out myocardial infarction, as applied in the High-STEACS pathway, risk scores halve the proportion of patients ruled out without improving safety. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01852123.

18.
Lancet ; 392(10151): 919-928, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays permit use of lower thresholds for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, but whether this improves clinical outcomes is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the introduction of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay with a sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold would reduce subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In this stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised controlled trial across ten secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Scotland, we evaluated the implementation of an hs-cTnI assay in consecutive patients who had been admitted to the hospitals' emergency departments with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they presented with suspected acute coronary syndrome and had paired cardiac troponin measurements from the standard care and trial assays. During a validation phase of 6-12 months, results from the hs-cTnI assay were concealed from the attending clinician, and a contemporary cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay was used to guide care. Hospitals were randomly allocated to early (n=5 hospitals) or late (n=5 hospitals) implementation, in which the high-sensitivity assay and sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold was introduced immediately after the 6-month validation phase or was deferred for a further 6 months. Patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay were defined as those with an increased hs-cTnI concentration in whom cTnI concentrations were below the diagnostic threshold on the contemporary assay. The primary outcome was subsequent myocardial infarction or death from cardiovascular causes at 1 year after initial presentation. Outcomes were compared in patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay before and after its implementation by use of an adjusted generalised linear mixed model. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01852123. FINDINGS: Between June 10, 2013, and March 3, 2016, we enrolled 48 282 consecutive patients (61 [SD 17] years, 47% women) of whom 10 360 (21%) patients had cTnI concentrations greater than those of the 99th centile of the normal range of values, who were identified by the contemporary assay or the high-sensitivity assay. The high-sensitivity assay reclassified 1771 (17%) of 10 360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction who were not identified by the contemporary assay. In those reclassified, subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within 1 year occurred in 105 (15%) of 720 patients in the validation phase and 131 (12%) of 1051 patients in the implementation phase (adjusted odds ratio for implementation vs validation phase 1·10, 95% CI 0·75 to 1·61; p=0·620). INTERPRETATION: Use of a high-sensitivity assay prompted reclassification of 1771 (17%) of 10 360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction, but was not associated with a lower subsequent incidence of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. Our findings question whether the diagnostic threshold for myocardial infarction should be based on the 99th centile derived from a normal reference population. FUNDING: The British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
19.
Clin Chem ; 64(11): 1607-1616, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data compare cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in a general population. We sought to evaluate the distribution and association between cTnT, cTnI, and cardiovascular risk factors in a large general population cohort. METHODS: High-sensitivity cTnT and cTnI were measured in serum from 19501 individuals in the Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study. Associations with cardiovascular risk factors were compared using age- and sex-adjusted regression. Observed age- and sex-stratified 99th centiles were compared with 99th centiles for cTnT (men, 15.5 ng/L; women, 9.0 ng/L) and cTnI (men, 34.2 ng/L; women, 15.6 ng/L) used in clinical practice. RESULTS: cTnT and cTnI concentrations were detectable in 53.3% and 74.8% of participants, respectively, and were modestly correlated in unadjusted analyses (R 2 = 21.3%) and only weakly correlated after adjusting for age and sex (R 2 = 9.5%). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with both troponins, but in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, cTnI was more strongly associated with age, male sex, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001 for all vs cTnT). cTnT was more strongly associated with diabetes (P < 0.0001 vs cTnI). The observed 99th centiles were broadly consistent with recommended 99th centiles in younger men and women. After the age of 60 years, observed 99th centiles increased substantially for cTnT, and beyond 70 years of age, the 99th centiles approximately doubled for both troponins. CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, cTnT and cTnI concentrations are weakly correlated and are differentially associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The 99th centiles currently in use are broadly appropriate for men and women up to but not beyond the age of 60 years.

20.
N Engl J Med ; 379(10): 924-933, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) improves diagnostic certainty in the assessment of patients with stable chest pain, its effect on 5-year clinical outcomes is unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned 4146 patients with stable chest pain who had been referred to a cardiology clinic for evaluation to standard care plus CTA (2073 patients) or to standard care alone (2073 patients). Investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes were assessed over 3 to 7 years of follow-up. The primary end point was death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 4.8 years, which yielded 20,254 patient-years of follow-up. The 5-year rate of the primary end point was lower in the CTA group than in the standard-care group (2.3% [48 patients] vs. 3.9% [81 patients]; hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.84; P=0.004). Although the rates of invasive coronary angiography and coronary revascularization were higher in the CTA group than in the standard-care group in the first few months of follow-up, overall rates were similar at 5 years: invasive coronary angiography was performed in 491 patients in the CTA group and in 502 patients in the standard-care group (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.13), and coronary revascularization was performed in 279 patients in the CTA group and in 267 in the standard-care group (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.27). However, more preventive therapies were initiated in patients in the CTA group (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.65), as were more antianginal therapies (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.54). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of cardiovascular or noncardiovascular deaths or deaths from any cause. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, the use of CTA in addition to standard care in patients with stable chest pain resulted in a significantly lower rate of death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years than standard care alone, without resulting in a significantly higher rate of coronary angiography or coronary revascularization. (Funded by the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office and others; SCOT-HEART ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01149590 .).


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dor no Peito/terapia , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco
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