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1.
J Med Econ ; : 1-17, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835965

RESUMO

Aims: To describe the incidence and identify prognostic factors of central nervous system (CNS) adverse events (AEs) and any AEs (CNS, skin rash, or fracture) and evaluate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), direct medical costs, and therapy discontinuation associated with these AEs among non-metastatic prostate cancer (nmPC) patients who received secondary hormone therapies.Methods and results: nmPC patients who had initiated secondary hormonal therapy with enzalutamide, bicalutamide, or abiraterone ≥1 year after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were identified in the MarketScan database. Survival analyses were used to describe the incidence of CNS or any AEs. Annual HCRU and costs were compared across patient groups (CNS AE vs no CNS AE; any AE vs no AE) using propensity score weighted generalized linear models. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify AE predictors and compare risks of discontinuation.Results: The analysis included 532 patients who initiated secondary hormonal therapies, among whom 201 (38%) and 244 (46%) experienced a CNS AE and any AE, respectively. Median times to CNS AE and any AE from therapy initiation were 17.90 and 11.00 months, respectively. Predictors of any AE were any AE in the baseline period (≤6 months before starting therapy), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score (1 vs 0), surgical castration, and older age. Predictors of CNS AEs were CNS AE in the baseline period and CCI score (1 vs 0). CNS and any AEs were associated with significantly higher HCRU. CNS AEs were associated with significantly higher incremental total medical costs ($18,522). CNS AEs and any AEs significantly increased therapy discontinuation risk by 48% and 38%, respectively.Conclusions: AEs increase the economic burden and therapy discontinuation among nmPC patients receiving secondary hormonal therapies subsequent to ADTs. These patients should be carefully evaluated for AEs to reduce therapy discontinuation, HCRU, and direct medical costs.

2.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1613-1620, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the significant morbidity and mortality of maternal sepsis, early identification is key to improve outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the performance characteristics of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), and maternal early warning (MEW) criteria for identifying cases of impending sepsis in parturients. The secondary objective of this study is to identify etiologies and risk factors for maternal sepsis and to assess timing of antibiotics in patients diagnosed with sepsis. METHODS: Validated maternal sepsis cases during the delivery hospitalization from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively identified at 7 academic medical centers in the United States and Israel. Control patients were matched by date of delivery in a 1:4 ratio. The sensitivity and specificity of SIRS, qSOFA, and MEW criteria for identifying sepsis were calculated. Data including potential risk factors, vital signs, laboratory values, and clinical management were collected for cases and controls. RESULTS: Eighty-two sepsis cases during the delivery hospitalization were identified and matched to 328 controls. The most common causes of sepsis were the following: chorioamnionitis 20 (24.4%), endometritis 19 (23.2%), and pneumonia 9 (11.0%). Escherichia coli 12 (14.6%), other Gram-negative rods 8 (9.8%), and group A Streptococcus 6 (7.3%) were the most commonly found pathogens. The sensitivities and specificities for meeting criteria for screening tools were as follows: (1) SIRS (0.93, 0.63); (2) qSOFA (0.50, 0.95); and (3) MEW criteria for identifying sepsis (0.82, 0.87). Of 82 women with sepsis, 10 (12.2%) died. The mortality rate for those who received antibiotics within 1 hour of diagnosis was 8.3%. The mortality rate was 20% for the patients who received antibiotics after >1 hour. CONCLUSIONS: Chorioamnionitis and endometritis were the most common causes of sepsis, together accounting for about half of cases. Notable differences were observed in the sensitivity and specificity of sepsis screening tools with the highest to lowest sensitivity being SIRS, MEW, and qSOFA criteria, and the highest to lowest specificity being qSOFA, MEW, and SIRS. Mortality was doubled in the cohort of patients who received antibiotics after >1 hour. Clinicians need to be vigilant to identify cases of peripartum sepsis early in its course and prioritize timely antibiotic therapy.

3.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11034-11048, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603314

RESUMO

The spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection across the USA and various countries in the last three years will not only have a direct impact on the U.S. health care system but has caused international concerns as well. The ultimate impact of ZIKV infection remains to be understood. Currently, there are no therapeutic or vaccine options available to protect those infected by ZIKV. The drug ivermectin (IVM) was found to be a viable agent for the prevention of transmission of ZIKV. Ivermectin is unstable in the presence of water and does not remain in adequate concentration in the human bloodstream to be effective in treatment for ZIKV. Biodegradable nanoparticles would aid in the delivery of ivermectin by providing a high enough concentration of drug and ensuring the drug is gradually released to maintain an appropriate level in the body. The overall goal of this study was to develop and optimize an orally administrable nanoformulation of IVM which can circulate in the blood for a long period for efficient delivery. To achieve the goal, we synthesized and optimized a synthetic nanoformulation of IVM for oral use which can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier to enter the bloodstream. Our studies documented that when delivered with the synthetic nanoparticle (NP), IVM can be accumulated in the blood at a higher concentration and preliminary studies highlighted that NP delivered IVM has the ability to target nonstructural 1 protein of ZIKV. For potential clinical relevance, long-term storable formulation of IVM-nanoparticle in dry powder state for inclusion in a capsule form and cryoprotectant containing frozen forms revealed promising findings. Further, our preliminary in vitro studies documented that ivermectin crosses the placental barrier, thus making it unsafe for the pregnant ZIKV population, whereas the ivermectin-loaded nanoparticle did not show any significant placental barrier crossing, thus indicating its potential suitability for such population. We envision that this work will fill a great unmet need by developing safer and more effective therapies for the treatment of viral infections, including ZIKV.

4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 97: 169-173, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Varenicline is an effective smoking cessation agent; however, its use is limited because of black box warnings issued by regulatory agencies in the U.S. and Australia. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration updated the label for varenicline in 2015 to warn about the risk of varenicline-induced seizures. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of seizure associated with varenicline use. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed using IMS LifeLink PharMetrics Plus administrative claims data (2009-2015). The outcome was presumptive seizures. All smokers making an attempt to quit smoking and having no recent seizure events were included in the nest. Cases and controls were matched (1:4) on age (±5 years), sex, index date (±30 days), event date, and duration of enrollment. An exposure period of 90 days preceding the event date was used. Chi-square tests were used to compare the characteristics of cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to determine if an association between presumptive seizures and varenicline use exists. RESULTS: Our final sample was comprised of 1342 cases and 5368 controls. The adjusted analysis showed that odds of a seizure for patients with a varenicline prescription were 1.09 (confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-1.36) times those of patients with no varenicline exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find a significant association between varenicline and increased risk of presumptive seizures. These findings raise questions regarding the necessity for a warning label for increased risk of seizures associated with varenicline.

5.
Sex Med Rev ; 7(3): 521-529, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786958

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery offers a high satisfaction rate and low rate of complications when performed by experienced surgeons. However, reservoir placement, either in the space of Retzius (SOR), or alternative/ectopic locations, may lead to an array of serious complications that may require revision surgery. AIM: To review the prevalence and management options for non-infectious intraoperative and postoperative complications related to prosthetic reservoirs. METHODS: A Medline PubMed search was used to identify articles related to IPP reservoir-related complications including bladder and bowel injury, vascular injury, autoinflation, herniation, palpability, leakage, and tubing torsion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Rates and types of reservoir-related complications during and after IPP surgery. RESULTS: Non-infectious reservoir-related complications in the intraoperative setting include injury to pelvic structures such as bladder, bowel, and blood vessels. In the postoperative setting, patients may experience autoinflation and reservoir herniation that might require revision surgery. Patients undergoing alternative reservoir placement (ARP) may complain of reservoir palpability and premature mechanical failure secondary to reservoir leakage or tubing torsion. CONCLUSION: Although most surgeons continue to use the SOR as the main location for reservoir placement, ARP has gained popularity owing to its low risk of bother, minimal loss of functionality, and safety advantages in patients with history of pelvic surgery. Both reservoir placement in the SOR and ARP carry a low rate of complications while maintaining a high satisfaction rate. Clavell-Hernández J, Shah A, Wang R. Non-Infectious Reservoir-Related Complications During and After Penile Prosthesis Placement. Sex Med Rev 2019;7:521-529.

6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(8): 1419-1426, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of medical marijuana legalization with prescription opioid utilization. METHODS: A 10% sample of a nationally representative database of commercially insured population was used to gather information on opioid use, chronic opioid use, and high-risk opioid use for the years 2006-2014. Adults with pharmacy and medical benefits for the entire calendar year were included in the population for that year. Multilevel logistic regression analysis, controlling for patient, person-year, and state-level factors, were used to determine the impact of medical marijuana legalization on the three opioid use measures. Sub-group analysis among cancer-free adults and cancer-free adults with at least one chronic non-cancer pain condition in the particular year were conducted. Alternate regression models were used to test the robustness of our results including a fixed effects model, an alternate definition for start date for medical marijuana legalization, a person-level analysis, and a falsification test. RESULTS: The final sample included a total of 4,840,562 persons translating into 15,705,562 person years. Medical marijuana legalization was found to be associated with a lower odds of any opioid use: OR = 0.95 (0.94-0.96), chronic opioid use: OR = 0.93 (0.91-0.95), and high-risk opioid use: OR = 0.96 (0.94-0.98). The findings were similar in both the sub-group analyses and all the sensitivity analyses. The falsification tests showed no association between medical marijuana legalization and prescriptions for antihyperlipidemics (OR = 1.00; CI 0.99-1.01) or antihypertensives (OR = 1.00; CI 0.99-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: In states where marijuana is available through medical channels, a modestly lower rate of opioid and high-risk opioid prescribing was observed. Policy makers could consider medical marijuana legalization as a tool that may modestly reduce chronic and high-risk opioid use. However, further research assessing risk versus benefits of medical marijuana legalization and head to head comparisons of marijuana versus opioids for pain management is required.

7.
Telemed J E Health ; 25(7): 599-603, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070966

RESUMO

Background: Value enhancing telehealth (TH) lacks a robust body of formal clinically focused quality assessment studies. Innovations such as telehealth must always demonstrate that it preserves or hopefully advances quality. Introduction: We sought to determine whether adherence to the evidence-based Choosing Wisely (CW) recommendations (antibiotic stewardship) for acute sinusitis differs for encounters through direct-to-consumer (DTC) telemedicine verses "in-person" care in an emergency department (ED) or an urgent care (UC) center. Materials and Methods: Study design was a retrospective review. Patients with a symptom complex consistent with acute sinusitis treated through DTC were matched with ED and UC patients, based upon time of visit. Charts were reviewed to determine patient characteristics, chief complaint, final diagnosis, presence or absence of criteria within the CW guidelines, and whether or not antibiotics were prescribed. The main outcome was adherence to the CW campaign recommendations. Results: A total of 570 visits were studied: 190 DTC, 190 ED, and 190 UC visits. The predominant chief complaints were upper respiratory infection (36%), sore throat (25%), and sinusitis (18%). Overall, there was a 67% (95% CI 62.3-71.7) adherence rate with the CW guidelines for sinusitis: DTC visits (71%), ED visits (68%), and UC visits (61%). There was a nonsignificant difference (p = 0.29) in adherence to CW guidelines based upon type of visit (DTC, UC, and ED). Discussion: The challenge is to demonstrate whether or not DTC TH compromises quality. Conclusion: In this study, DTC visits were associated with at least as good an adherence to the CW campaign recommendations as emergency medicine (EM) and UC in-person visits.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the significant morbidity and mortality of maternal sepsis, early identification is key to improve outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the performance characteristics of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), and maternal early warning (MEW) criteria for identifying cases of impending sepsis in parturients. The secondary objective of this study is to identify etiologies and risk factors for maternal sepsis and to assess timing of antibiotics in patients diagnosed with sepsis. METHODS: Validated maternal sepsis cases during the delivery hospitalization from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively identified at 7 academic medical centers in the United States and Israel. Control patients were matched by date of delivery in a 1:4 ratio. The sensitivity and specificity of SIRS, qSOFA, and MEW criteria for identifying sepsis were calculated. Data including potential risk factors, vital signs, laboratory values, and clinical management were collected for cases and controls. RESULTS: Eighty-two sepsis cases during the delivery hospitalization were identified and matched to 328 controls. The most common causes of sepsis were the following: chorioamnionitis 20 (24.4%), endometritis 19 (23.2%), and pneumonia 9 (11.0%). Escherichia coli 12 (14.6%), other Gram-negative rods 8 (9.8%), and group A Streptococcus 6 (7.3%) were the most commonly found pathogens. The sensitivities and specificities for meeting criteria for screening tools were as follows: (1) SIRS (0.93, 0.63); (2) qSOFA (0.50, 0.95); and (3) MEW criteria for identifying sepsis (0.82, 0.87). Of 82 women with sepsis, 10 (12.2%) died. The mortality rate for those who received antibiotics within 1 hour of diagnosis was 8.3%. The mortality rate was 20% for the patients who received antibiotics after >1 hour. CONCLUSIONS: Chorioamnionitis and endometritis were the most common causes of sepsis, together accounting for about half of cases. Notable differences were observed in the sensitivity and specificity of sepsis screening tools with the highest to lowest sensitivity being SIRS, MEW, and qSOFA criteria, and the highest to lowest specificity being qSOFA, MEW, and SIRS. Mortality was doubled in the cohort of patients who received antibiotics after >1 hour. Clinicians need to be vigilant to identify cases of peripartum sepsis early in its course and prioritize timely antibiotic therapy.

10.
Spine J ; 18(8): 1424-1433, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The systemic response regarding cytokine expression after the application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a rat spinal fusion model has recently been defined, but the local response has not been defined. Defining the local cytokine and growth factor response at the fusion site will help explain the roles of these molecules in the fusion process, as well as that of rhBMP-2. Our hypothesis is that the application of rhBMP-2 to the fusion site will alter the local levels of cytokines and growth factors throughout the fusion process, in a manner that is different from the systemic response, given the tissue-specific effects of rhBMP-2. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the local cytokine and growth factor response after the application of rhBMP-2 in a rat spinal fusion model. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: This was a basic science animal model study. METHODS: This study was partially funded by a physician-sponsored grant from Medtronic. A total of 135 Wistar rats (age 8 weeks, weighing approximately 300-400 g) underwent L4-L5 posterolateral intertransverse fusion with demineralized bone graft (approximately 0.4-cm3 rat demineralized bone matrix [DBM] per side). In the first group, 10 µg of rhBMP-2 on an allograft collagen sponge (ACS) was added to the fusion site with approximately 0.4-cm3 rat DBM per side. In the second group, 100 µg of rhBMP-2 on an ACS was added to the fusion site with approximately 0.4-cm3 rat DBM per side, and the third experiment was the control group, which consisted of only an ACS plus 0.4-cm3 DBM per side. There were nine groups of five animals each per experiment. Each group was sacrificed at time points up to 4 weeks (1, 6, 24, and 48 hours, and 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after surgery). At sacrifice, the DBM, transverse processes, and any new bone formed were harvested, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and prepared for protein extraction. ELISA was performed to compare the levels of various cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1ß, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, IL-1RA [IL-1 receptor antagonist], IL-4, and IL-10) and growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], endothelia growth factor [EGF], insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], platelet derived growth factor [PDGF], transforming growth factor beta [TGF-ß]) that are known to be involved in the fusion-fracture healing process. Fusion was evaluated on the rats sacrificed at 28 days by manual palpation and microcomputed tomography (microCT) by two independent observers. RESULTS: The expression of cytokines and growth factors varied throughout the fusion process at each time point. In the groups treated with rh-BMP-2, IL-6 and IL-1RA had higher expression in the early time points (1 and 6 hours). Tumor necrosis factor alpha demonstrated significantly lower expression in the groups treated with rhBMP-2 at Days 1, 2, and 4. At the early time points (1 and 6 hours), in the groups treated with rhBMP-2, all of the growth factors IGF-1, VEGF, platelet derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), TGF-ß had equal or lower expression compared with controls. At 24 hours, there was a peak in IGF-1, VEGF, and PDGF-AB. These growth factors then declined, with IGF-1 and PDGF-AB having a second peak at Day 7. At 4 weeks, all of the rhBMP-2-treated animals fused based on manual palpation and microCT. The control group had four of five rats fused based on manual palpation and two of five rats based on microCT. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variability in the expression of cytokines throughout the fusion process after treatment with rhBMP-2. The inflammatory response appears to peak early (1 and 6 hours), followed by a significant decrease with rhBMP-2 treatment. However, the growth factor expression appears to be suppressed early (1 and 6 hours), followed by a peak at 24 hours, and a second peak at Day 7.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Health Serv Res ; 53(5): 3329-3349, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association between opioid therapy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in participants with chronic, noncancer pain (CNCP). DATA SOURCES: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Longitudinal, Medical Conditions, and Prescription Files. STUDY DESIGN: Using a retrospective cohort study design, the Mental Health Component (MCS12) and Physical Health Component (PCS12) scores of the Short Form-12 Version 2 were assessed to measure mental and physical HRQoL. DATA COLLECTION: Chronic, noncancer pain participants were classified as chronic, nonchronic, and nonopioid users. One-to-one propensity score matching was employed to match chronic opioid users to nonchronic opioid users plus nonchronic opioid users and chronic opioid users to nonopioid users. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 5,876 participants were identified. After matching, PCS12 was not significantly different between nonchronic versus nonopioid users (LSM Diff = -0.98, 95% CI: -2.07, 0.10), chronic versus nonopioid users (LSM Diff = -2.24, 95% CI: -4.58, 0.10), or chronic versus nonchronic opioid users (LSM Diff = -2.23, 95% CI: -4.53, 0.05). Similarly, MCS12 was not significantly different between nonchronic versus nonopioid users (LSM Diff = 0.76, 95% CI: -0.46, 1.98), chronic versus nonopioid users (LSM Diff = 1.08, 95% CI: -1.26, 3.42), or chronic versus nonchronic opioid users (LSM Diff = -0.57, 95% CI: -2.90, 1.77). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should evaluate opioid use in participants with CNCP as opioid use is not correlated with better HRQoL.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Medição da Dor , Prevalência , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Diabetes Ther ; 9(1): 141-151, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) use is unclear. This study assesses the RA risk associated with DPP-4i use among a diabetic cohort initiating second-line therapy. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study, using the adult diabetic population starting second-line antidiabetic therapy from IMS LifeLink Plus® database (2006-2015). Cases were those with two or more RA diagnosis, at least one prescription, and 180 days enrollment prior to the event date (earliest of the two: first RA diagnosis, first RA prescription). Controls were drawn from the nest after matching (1:15) with cases on index date (± 90 days), age (± 5 years), sex, and event date (imputed to have the same time difference between cohort entry and event date as the matched case). Exposure and covariate information was gathered from the 180-day period prior to event date. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess exposure among cases and controls. Adjusted analysis was carried out after controlling for important medications and comorbidities. RESULTS: The final sample consists of 790 cases and 11,850 controls; of these, 151 cases (19.11%) and 2177 controls (18.37%) had DPP-4i claims during the exposure assessment period. DPP-4i therapy was not significantly associated with the development of RA after adjusting for covariates (OR = 1.156, 95% CI 0.936-1.429). Changing the exposure definition or exposure window to 1 year and subgroup analyses yielded similar results except for the non-insulin-using subgroup (OR = 1.299, 95% CI 1.001-1.985) which showed a significant positive association. CONCLUSION: DPP-4i were not significantly associated with the risk of RA compared with other second-line antidiabetic therapies.

14.
Int J Med Educ ; 8: 439-445, 2017 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286282

RESUMO

Objectives: To define the emotional intelligence (EI) profile of emergency medicine (EM) residents, and identify resident EI strengths and weaknesses. Methods: First-, second-, and third-year residents (post-graduate years [PGY] 1, 2, and 3, respectively) of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital's EM Program completed the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0), a validated instrument offered by Multi-Health Systems. Reported scores included total mean EI, 5 composite scores, and 15 subscales of EI. Scores are reported as means with 95% CIs. The unpaired, two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences in means. Results: Thirty-five residents completed the assessment (response rate 97.2%). Scores were normed to the general population (mean 100, SD 15). Total mean EI for the cohort was 103 (95%CI,100-108). EI was higher in female (107) than male (101) residents. PGY-2s demonstrated the lowest mean EI (95) versus PGY-1s (104) and PGY-3s (110). The difference in PGY-3 EI (110; 95%CI,103-116) and PGY-1 EI (95, 95%CI,87-104) was statistically significant (unpaired t-test, p<0.01). Highest composite scores were in interpersonal skills (107; 95%CI,100-108) and stress management (105; 95%CI,101-109). Subscale cohort strengths included self-actualization (107); empathy (107); interpersonal relationships (106); impulse control (106); and stress tolerance (106). Lowest subscale score was in assertiveness (98). Self-regard (89), assertiveness (88), and independence (90) were areas in which PGY-2s attained relatively lower scores (unpaired t-test, p<0.05) compared to their peers and the general population. PGY-3's scored highest in nearly all subscales. Conclusions: The EQ-i offers insight into training that may assist in developing EM residents, specifically in self-regard, assertiveness, and self-expression. Further study is required to ascertain if patterns in level of training are idiosyncratic or relate to the natural maturation of residents.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/educação , Inteligência Emocional , Internato e Residência , Médicos/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Habilidades Sociais
15.
J Pain ; 18(11): 1374-1383, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711636

RESUMO

The relationships between the initial opioid prescription characteristics and pain etiology with the probability of opioid discontinuation were explored in this retrospective cohort study using health insurance claims data from a nationally representative database of commercially insured patients in the United States. We identified 1,353,902 persons aged 14 years and older with no history of cancer or substance abuse, with new opioid use episodes and categorized them into 11 mutually exclusive pain etiologies. Cox proportional hazards models were estimated to identify factors associated with time to opioid discontinuation. After accounting for losses to follow-up, the probability of continued opioid use at 1 year was 5.3% across all subjects. Patients with chronic pain had the highest probability for continued opioid use followed by patients with inpatient admissions. Patients prescribed doses ≥90 morphine milligram equivalents (hazard ratio [HR] = .91; 95% confidence interval [CI], .91-.92), initiated with tramadol (HR = .89; 95% CI, .89-.90) or long-acting opioids (HR = .79; 95% CI, .77-.82) were less likely to discontinue opioids. Increasing days' supply of the first prescription was consistently associated with a lower likelihood of opioid discontinuation (HRs, CIs: 3-4 days' supply = .70, .70-.71; 5-7 days' supply = .48, .47-.48; 8-10 days' supply = .37, .37-.38; 11-14 days' supply = .32, .31-.33; 15-21 days' supply = .29, .28-.29; ≥22 days supplied = .20, .19-.20). The direction of this relationship was consistent across all pain etiologies. Clinicians should initiate patients with the lowest supply of opioids to mitigate unintentional long-term opioid use. PERSPECTIVE: This study shows that characteristics of the first opioid prescription, particularly duration of the prescription, are significant predictors of continued opioid use irrespective of the indication for an opioid prescription. These data should encourage prescribers to initiate patients using the minimum effective opioid dose and duration to reduce unintended long-term use and could motivate policies that restrict the initial supply of opioids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Dor/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 177: 187-193, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2009, the FDA required a black box warning (BBW) on bupropion and varenicline, the two commonly prescribed smoking cessation agents due to reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events. We investigated if there was a decline in use of bupropion and varenicline after the BBW by comparing the percent using these medications before and after BBW. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2007 to 2014. The study sample consisted of adult smokers, who were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We divided the time period into "pre-warning", "post-warning: immediate", and "post-warning: late." Unadjusted analysis using chi-square tests and adjusted analyses using logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the change in bupropion and varenicline use before and after the BBW. Secondary analyses using piecewise regression were also conducted. RESULTS: On an average, 49.04% of smokers were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We observed a statistically significant decline in varenicline use from 22.1% in year 2007 to 9.23% in 2014 (p value<0.001). In the logistic (Adjusted Odds Ratio=0.36, 95% CI=0.22-0.58) and piecewise regressions (Odds Ratio=0.64, 95% CI=0.41-0.99) smokers who were advised to quit smoking by their physicians were less likely to use varenicline in the immediate post-BBW period as compared to pre-BBW period. While the use of varenicline continued to be significantly low in the late post-BBW period (AOR=0.45, 95% CI=0.31-0.64) as compared to the pre-BBW period, the trend in use as seen in piecewise regression remained stable (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.75-1.06). We did not observe significant differences in bupropion use between the pre- and post-BBW periods. CONCLUSION: The passage of the FDA boxed warning was associated with a significant decline in the use of varenicline, but not in the use of bupropion.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Medicamentos/tendências , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/tendências , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/tendências , United States Food and Drug Administration/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agonistas Nicotínicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Prim Care ; 44(2): 281-304, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28501230

RESUMO

An integrative approach to individuals with mood, emotional or mental health concerns involves a comprehensive model of care that is person-centered. Integrative medicine builds on a patient's personal meaning and goals (spiritual aspects) and includes herbal therapies, nutritional support, movement and physical manipulative therapies, mindfulness, relaxation strategies, and psychotherapies.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Medicina Integrativa/métodos , Medicina Integrativa/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Terapias Espirituais/métodos
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(10): 265-269, 2017 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301454

RESUMO

Because long-term opioid use often begins with treatment of acute pain (1), in March 2016, the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain included recommendations for the duration of opioid therapy for acute pain and the type of opioid to select when therapy is initiated (2). However, data quantifying the transition from acute to chronic opioid use are lacking. Patient records from the IMS Lifelink+ database were analyzed to characterize the first episode of opioid use among commercially insured, opioid-naïve, cancer-free adults and quantify the increase in probability of long-term use of opioids with each additional day supplied, day of therapy, or incremental increase in cumulative dose. The largest increments in probability of continued use were observed after the fifth and thirty-first days on therapy; the second prescription; 700 morphine milligram equivalents cumulative dose; and first prescriptions with 10- and 30-day supplies. By providing quantitative evidence on risk for long-term use based on initial prescribing characteristics, these findings might inform opioid prescribing practices.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
19.
Anesth Analg ; 124(3): 887-889, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151821

RESUMO

The Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP) annual meeting provides a forum to present new scientific work with the goal of broader dissemination of knowledge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion of research abstracts presented at SOAP meetings, from 2010 to 2014, which resulted in peer-reviewed publications. The abstract-to-publication rate was compared with the percent of abstracts presented at biomedical meetings resulting in publication, as estimated by a 2007 Cochrane Review. The SOAP abstract-to-publication rate was lower than that of the Cochrane Review (26.8% vs 44.5%, P < .0001). Future work should identify barriers to publication.

20.
Q J Econ ; 132(1): 1-54, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456270

RESUMO

We present the results of three large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) carried out in Chicago, testing interventions to reduce crime and dropout by changing the decision making of economically disadvantaged youth. We study a program called Becoming a Man (BAM), developed by the nonprofit Youth Guidance, in two RCTs implemented in 2009-2010 and 2013-2015. In the two studies participation in the program reduced total arrests during the intervention period by 28-35%, reduced violent-crime arrests by 45-50%, improved school engagement, and in the first study where we have follow-up data, increased graduation rates by 12-19%. The third RCT tested a program with partially overlapping components carried out in the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (JTDC), which reduced readmission rates to the facility by 21%. These large behavioral responses combined with modest program costs imply benefit-cost ratios for these interventions from 5-to-1 up to 30-to-1 or more. Our data on mechanisms are not ideal, but we find no positive evidence that these effects are due to changes in emotional intelligence or social skills, self-control or "grit," or a generic mentoring effect. We find suggestive support for the hypothesis that the programs work by helping youth slow down and reflect on whether their automatic thoughts and behaviors are well suited to the situation they are in, or whether the situation could be construed differently. JEL Codes: C91, C93, D03, D1, I24, I3, I32, K42.

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