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2.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 27(10): 1478-1486.e8, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27397619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in the presence of dilated and refluxing pelvic veins is often described as pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), although the causal relationship between pelvic vein incompetence and CPP has not been established. Percutaneous embolization is the principal treatment for PCS, with high success rates cited. This study was undertaken to systematically and critically review the effectiveness of embolization of incompetent pelvic veins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy encompassing various terms for pelvic congestion, pelvic pain, and embolization was deployed in 17 bibliographic databases, with no restriction on study design. Methodologic quality was assessed. The quality and heterogeneity generally precluded meta-analysis. Results were tabulated and described narratively. RESULTS: Twenty-one prospective case series and one poor-quality randomized trial of embolization (involving a total of 1,308 women) were identified. Early substantial relief from pain was observed in approximately 75% of women undergoing embolization, and generally increased over time and was sustained. Significant pain reductions following treatment were observed in all studies that measured pain on a visual analog scale. Repeat intervention rates were generally low. There were few data on the impact on menstruation, ovarian reserve, or fertility, but no concerns were noted. Transient pain was common following foam embolization, and there was a < 2% risk of coil migration. CONCLUSIONS: Embolization appears to provide symptomatic relief of CPP in the majority of women and is safe, although the quality of the evidence is low.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/prevenção & controle , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Dor Pélvica/prevenção & controle , Pelve/irrigação sanguínea , Escleroterapia/métodos , Varizes/terapia , Veias , Insuficiência Venosa/terapia , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dilatação Patológica , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Pélvica/diagnóstico , Dor Pélvica/etiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Escleroterapia/efeitos adversos , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/complicações , Varizes/diagnóstico , Varizes/fisiopatologia , Veias/patologia , Veias/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Venosa/complicações , Insuficiência Venosa/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Venosa/fisiopatologia
3.
Health Technol Assess ; 20(5): 1-108, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26789334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is described as chronic pelvic pain (CPP) arising from dilated and refluxing pelvic veins, although the causal relationship between pelvic vein incompetence (PVI) and CPP is not established. Non-invasive screening methods such as Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance venography are used before confirmation by venography. Percutaneous embolisation has become the principal treatment for PCS, with high success rates often cited. OBJECTIVES: Our proposal aimed to systematically and critically review the definitions and diagnostic criteria of PCS, the association between PVI and CPP, the accuracy of various non-invasive imaging techniques and the effectiveness of embolisation for PVI; and to identify factors associated with successful outcome. We also wished to survey clinicians and patients to assess awareness and management of PCS and gauge the enthusiasm for further research. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search strategy encompassing various terms for pelvic congestion, pain, imaging techniques and embolisation was deployed in 17 bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. There was no restriction on study design. METHODS: Methodological quality was assessed using appropriate tools. Online surveys were sent to clinicians and patients. The quality and heterogeneity generally precluded meta-analysis and so results were tabulated and described narratively. RESULTS: We identified six association studies, 10 studies involving ultrasound, two studies involving magnetic resonance venography, 21 case series and one poor-quality randomised trial of embolisation. There were no consistent diagnostic criteria for PCS. We found that the associations between CPP and PVI were generally fairly similar, with three of five studies with sufficient data showing statistically significant associations (odds ratios of between 31 and 117). The prevalence of PVI ranged widely, although the majority of women with PVI had CPP. Transvaginal ultrasound with Doppler and magnetic resonance venography are both useful screening methods, although the data on accuracy are limited. Early substantial relief from pain symptoms was observed in approximately 75% of women undergoing embolisation, a figure which generally increased over time and was sustained. Reintervention rates were generally low. Transient pain was a common occurrence following foam embolisation, while there was a < 2% risk of coil migration. Confidence in the embolisation technique is reasonably high, although there is a desire to strengthen the evidence base. Even among women with CPP, fewer than half had any knowledge about PCS. CONCLUSIONS: The data supporting the diagnosis and treatment of PCS are limited and of variable methodological quality. There is some evidence to tentatively support a causative association, but it cannot be categorically stated that PVI is the cause of CPP in women with no other pathology, as the six most pertinent drew on clinically disparate populations and defined PVI inconsistently. Embolisation appears to provide symptomatic relief in the majority of women and is safe. However, the majority of included studies of embolism were relatively small case series and only the randomised controlled trial was considered at risk of potential biases. There is scope and demand for considerable further research. The question of the association of PVI and CPP requires a well-designed and well-powered case-control study, which will also provide data to derive a diagnostic standard. An adequately powered randomised trial is essential to provide evidence on the effectiveness of embolisation, but this faces methodological challenges. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42012002237 and CRD42012002238. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica , Dor Pélvica/terapia , Pelve/irrigação sanguínea , Insuficiência Venosa/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Dor Pélvica/etiologia , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência Venosa/complicações , Insuficiência Venosa/diagnóstico
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (6): CD002815, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24936965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. The role of physiotherapy is to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety and wellbeing, thereby enhancing quality of life. Trials have shown that physiotherapy has short-term benefits in PD. However, which physiotherapy intervention is most effective remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of one physiotherapy intervention compared with a second approach in patients with PD. SEARCH METHODS: Relevant trials were identified by electronic searches of numerous literature databases (for example MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, plus handsearching of major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to the end of January 2012. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of one physiotherapy intervention versus another physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were abstracted independently from each paper by two authors. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance and martial arts. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 43 trials were identified with 1673 participants. All trials used small patient numbers (average trial size of 39 participants); the methods of randomisation and concealment of allocation were poor or not stated in most trials. Blinded assessors were used in just over half of the trials and only 10 stated that they used intention-to-treat analysis.A wide variety of validated and customised outcome measures were used to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions. The most frequently reported physiotherapy outcomes were gait speed and timed up and go, in 19 and 15 trials respectively. Only five of the 43 trials reported data on falls (12%). The motor subscales of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 were the most commonly reported clinician-rated disability and patient-rated quality of life outcome measures, used in 22 and 13 trials respectively. The content and delivery of the physiotherapy interventions varied widely in the trials included within this review, so no quantitative meta-analysis could be performed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Considering the small number of participants examined, the methodological flaws in many of the studies, the possibility of publication bias, and the variety of interventions, formal comparison of the different physiotherapy techniques could not be performed. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of one physiotherapy intervention over another in PD.This review shows that a wide range of physiotherapy interventions to treat PD have been tested . There is a need for more specific trials with improved treatment strategies to underpin the most appropriate choice of physiotherapy intervention and the outcomes measured.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (9): CD002817, 2013 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24018704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. Physiotherapy aims to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety, and well-being, thereby enhancing quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no intervention in patients with PD. SEARCH METHODS: We identified relevant trials by conducting electronic searches of numerous literature databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, and by handsearching major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to the end of January 2012. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy intervention versus no physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each article. We used standard meta-analysis methods to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no physiotherapy intervention. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance, and martial arts. We used tests for heterogeneity to assess for differences in treatment effect across these different physiotherapy interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 39 trials with 1827 participants. We considered the trials to be at a mixed risk of bias as the result of unreported allocation concealment and probable detection bias. Compared with no intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of speed (mean difference 0.04 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.06, P = 0.0002); two- or six-minute walk test (13.37 m, 95% CI 0.55 to 26.20, P = 0.04) and Freezing of Gait questionnaire (-1.41, 95% CI -2.63 to -0.19, P = 0.02); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.63 s, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.21, P = 0.003), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, 95% CI 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008), and Berg Balance Scale (3.71 points, 95% CI 2.30 to 5.11, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total -6.15 points, 95% CI-8.57 to -3.73, P < 0.00001; activities of daily living: -1.36, 95% CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -5.01, 95% CI -6.30 to -3.72, P < 0.00001). No difference between arms was noted in falls (Falls Efficacy Scale: -1.91 points, 95% CI -4.76 to 0.94, P = 0.19) or patient-rated quality of life (PDQ-39 Summary Index: -0.38 points, 95% CI -2.58 to 1.81, P = 0.73). One study reported that adverse events were rare; no other studies reported data on this outcome. Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions revealed no evidence that the treatment effect differed across physiotherapy interventions for any of the outcomes assessed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Benefit for physiotherapy was found in most outcomes over the short term (i.e. < 3 months) but was significant only for speed, two- or six-minute walk test, Freezing of Gait questionnaire, Timed Up & Go, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale, and clinician-rated UPDRS. Most of the observed differences between treatments were small. However, for some outcomes (e.g. speed, Berg Balance Scale, UPDRS), the differences observed were at, or approaching, what are considered minimal clinically important changes. These benefits should be interpreted with caution because the quality of most of the included trials was not high. Variation in measurements of outcome between studies meant that our analyses include a small proportion of the participants recruited.This review illustrates that a wide range of approaches are employed by physiotherapists to treat patients with PD. However, no evidence of differences in treatment effect was noted between the different types of physiotherapy interventions being used, although this was based on indirect comparisons. A consensus menu of 'best practice' physiotherapy is needed, as are large, well-designed randomised controlled trials undertaken to demonstrate the longer-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 'best practice' physiotherapy in PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atividades Cotidianas , Marcha , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Caminhada , Conduta Expectante
6.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 166(1): 1-9, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23041302

RESUMO

To determine the effectiveness of transversus abdominis plane blocks in gynecological surgery by systematic review and meta-analysis. Embase, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) bibliographic databases were searched using a Cochrane Library search strategy modified for gynecological surgery. We included randomized controlled trials comparing transversus abdominis plane block with no block or placebo block. We retrieved 681 citations from which we included five published studies (225 randomized participants) which fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and identified a further six ongoing studies. Quality was assessed across six risk of bias domains: randomization sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, missing outcome data, selective reporting and other biases. Data were meta-analyzed where possible and presented as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Study quality was moderate. Compared with no block or saline placebo, transversus abdominis plane block provided significantly less postoperative pain at rest on a 10 cm visual analog scale at 2h (mean difference -2.14 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.57 to -0.71) but not at 24h postoperatively (-0.52 cm, 95% CI -1.49 to 0.45). Pain on movement showed similar results. Transversus abdominis plane block resulted in significantly less postoperative requirement for morphine use at 24h (-11.76 mg, 95% CI -18.77 to -4.75) but not at 48 h (-16.01 mg, 95% CI -39.40 to 7.39). Evidence exists for the short-term efficacy (within 24 h) of transversus abdominis plane blocks during hysterectomy in terms of reported pain and morphine consumption, which may not be sustained at 48 h. Updates to this review should be undertaken periodically, and until further robust evidence is available, anesthetists should not rush to adopt this procedure into routine practice.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Histerectomia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
BMJ ; 345: e5004, 2012 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22867913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy compared with no intervention in patients with Parkinson's disease. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Literature databases, trial registries, journals, abstract books, and conference proceedings, and reference lists, searched up to the end of January 2012. REVIEW METHODS: Randomised controlled trials comparing physiotherapy with no intervention in patients with Parkinson's disease were eligible. Two authors independently abstracted data from each trial. Standard meta-analysis methods were used to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy compared with no intervention. Tests for heterogeneity were used to assess for differences in treatment effect across different physiotherapy interventions used. Outcome measures were gait, functional mobility and balance, falls, clinician rated impairment and disability measures, patient rated quality of life, adverse events, compliance, and economic analysis outcomes. RESULTS: 39 trials of 1827 participants met the inclusion criteria, of which 29 trials provided data for the meta-analyses. Significant benefit from physiotherapy was reported for nine of 18 outcomes assessed. Outcomes which may be clinically significant were speed (0.04 m/s, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.06, P<0.001), Berg balance scale (3.71 points, 2.30 to 5.11, P<0.001), and scores on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (total score -6.15 points, -8.57 to -3.73, P<0.001; activities of daily living subscore -1.36, -2.41 to -0.30, P=0.01; motor subscore -5.01, -6.30 to -3.72, P<0.001). Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the interventions for any outcomes assessed, apart from motor subscores on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (in which one trial was found to be the cause of the heterogeneity). CONCLUSIONS: Physiotherapy has short term benefits in Parkinson's disease. A wide range of physiotherapy techniques are currently used to treat Parkinson's disease, with little difference in treatment effects. Large, well designed, randomised controlled trials with improved methodology and reporting are needed to assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of physiotherapy for treating Parkinson's disease in the longer term.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciais , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (8): CD002817, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22895932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. The role of physiotherapy aims to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety and well-being, thereby enhancing quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no intervention in patients with PD. SEARCH METHODS: We identified relevant trials by electronic searches of numerous literature databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, plus handsearching of major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to end of December 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy intervention versus no physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each article. We used standard meta-analysis methods to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no physiotherapy intervention. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance and martial arts. We used tests for heterogeneity to assess for differences in treatment effect across these different physiotherapy interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 33 trials with 1518 participants. Compared with no-intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of velocity (mean difference 0.05 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02 to 0.07, P = 0.0002), two- or six-minute walk test (16.40 m, CI: 1.90 to 30.90, P = 0.03) and step length (0.03 m, CI: 0 to 0.06, P = 0.04); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.61 s, CI: -1.06 to -0.17, P = 0.006), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, CI: 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008) and Berg Balance Scale (3.36 points, CI: 1.91 to 4.81, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total: -4.46 points, CI -7.16 to -1.75, P = 0.001; activities of daily living: -1.36, CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -4.09, CI: -5.59 to -2.59, P < 0.00001). There was no difference between arms in falls or patient-rated quality of life. Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the physiotherapy interventions for any of the outcomes assessed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Benefit for physiotherapy was found in most outcomes over the short-term (i.e. < three months), but was only significant for velocity, two- or six-minute walk test, step length, Timed Up & Go, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and clinician-rated UPDRS. Most of the observed differences between the treatments were small. However, for some outcomes (e.g. velocity, Berg Balance Scale and UPDRS), the differences observed were at, or approaching, what are considered minimally clinical important changes.The review illustrates that a wide range of approaches are employed by physiotherapists to treat PD. However, there was no evidence of differences in treatment effect between the different types of physiotherapy interventions being used, though this was based on indirect comparisons. There is a need to develop a consensus menu of 'best-practice' physiotherapy, and to perform large well-designed randomised controlled trials to demonstrate the longer-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 'best practice' physiotherapy in PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atividades Cotidianas , Marcha , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Caminhada , Conduta Expectante
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (7): CD002817, 2012 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22786482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. The role of physiotherapy aims to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety and well-being, thereby enhancing quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no intervention in patients with PD. SEARCH METHODS: We identified relevant trials by electronic searches of numerous literature databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, plus handsearching of major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to end of December 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy intervention versus no physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each article. We used standard meta-analysis methods to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no physiotherapy intervention. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance and martial arts. We used tests for heterogeneity to assess for differences in treatment effect across these different physiotherapy interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 33 trials with 1518 participants. Compared with no-intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of velocity (mean difference 0.05 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02 to 0.07, P = 0.0002), two- or six-minute walk test (16.40 m, CI: 1.90 to 30.90, P = 0.03) and step length (0.03 m, CI: 0 to 0.06, P = 0.04); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.61 s, CI: -1.06 to -0.17, P = 0.006), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, CI: 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008) and Berg Balance Scale (3.36 points, CI: 1.91 to 4.81, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total: -4.46 points, CI -7.16 to -1.75, P = 0.001; activities of daily living: -1.36, CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -4.09, CI: -5.59 to -2.59, P < 0.00001). There was no difference between arms in falls or patient-rated quality of life. Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the physiotherapy interventions for any of the outcomes assessed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Benefit for physiotherapy was found in most outcomes over the short-term (i.e. < three months), but was only significant for velocity, two- or six-minute walk test, step length, Timed Up & Go, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and clinician-rated UPDRS. Most of the observed differences between the treatments were small. However, for some outcomes (e.g. velocity, Berg Balance Scale and UPDRS), the differences observed were at, or approaching, what are considered minimally clinical important changes.The review illustrates that a wide range of approaches are employed by physiotherapists to treat PD. However, there was no evidence of differences in treatment effect between the different types of physiotherapy interventions being used, though this was based on indirect comparisons. There is a need to develop a consensus menu of 'best-practice' physiotherapy, and to perform large well-designed randomised controlled trials to demonstrate the longer-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 'best practice' physiotherapy in PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Terapia através da Dança/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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