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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 785-791, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153392

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted to study seasonal abundance and distribution of dragonflies in upper Siran valley district Mansehra Pakistan. To collect data, eleven localities were visited for three consecutive years (2016-2018). Results come up with a sum of 300 specimens identified under three families, eight genera and twenty species. Highest seasonal abundance recorded during summer and spring were 80.67% and 13.33% respectively while minimum 6.00% was recorded during early autumn. Dominant species observed were, Orthetrum chrysis (14.00%), followed by O. gluacum (12.00%), Palpoleura sexmaculata sexmaculata (11.33%) and O. cancellatum cancellatum (8.00%). However the highest population of dragonflies was found in Munda Gucha with a percentage of 11.33 followed by Jabbar (11.00%) and Sachan (9.67%). The lowest populations were recorded in Suham (6.00%), Dadar (7.67%) and Jabori (7.67%). The surveyed valley showed diverse Anisopterous fauna and thus further extensive surveys are recommended that can come up with more important species from the area.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para verificar a abundância sazonal e a distribuição de libélulas no vale superior de Siran, distrito de Mansehra, Paquistão. Para a coleta de dados, 11 localidades foram visitadas por três anos consecutivos (2016-2018). Os resultados apresentaram uma soma de 300 espécimes identificados em três famílias, 8 gêneros e 20 espécies. A maior abundância sazonal registrada durante o verão e a primavera foi de 80,67% e 13,33%, respectivamente, enquanto o mínimo de 6% foi registrado no início do outono. As espécies dominantes observadas foram Orthetrum chrysis (14%), seguido por O. gluacum (12%), Palpoleura sexmaculata sexmaculata (11,33%) e O. cancellatum cancellatum (8%). No entanto, a maior população de libélulas foi encontrada em Munda Gucha (11,33%), seguida por Jabbar (11%) e Sachan (9,67%). As populações mais baixas foram registradas em Suham (6%), Dadar (7,67%) e Jabori (7,67%). O vale pesquisado mostrou fauna Anisopterous diversificada, e, portanto, recomenda-se a realização de mais pesquisas que possam apresentar mais espécies importantes da área.

3.
J Postgrad Med ; 67(2): 100-102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942774

RESUMO

Therapies used to tide over acute crisis of COVID-19 infection may lower the immunity, which can lead to secondary infection or a reactivation of latent infection. We report a 75-years-old male patient who had suffered from severe COVID-19 infection three weeks earlier and who had been treated with corticosteroids and convalescent plasma along with other supportive therapies. At time of discharge he had developed leukopenia which worsened at 1-week follow up visit. On 18th day post-discharge, he became very sick and was brought to our hospital with complaints of severe persistent dysphagia. During evaluation he was diagnosed to have an acute cytomegalovirus infection and severe oropharyngeal thrush. Both COVID-19 and cytomegalovirus are known to cause synergistic decrease in T cells and NK cells leading to immunosuppression. The patient made complete recovery with a course of intravenous ganciclovir and fluconazole. Persistent leukopenia in high risk and severely ill cases should give rise to a suspicion of COVID-19 and cytomegalovirus co-infection.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 387-391, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153349

RESUMO

Abstract Poor storage conditions provide favorable environment to stored grain pests for their growth. The bio-pesticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Present study was conducted to compare toxicity of Rubus fruticosus and Valeriana jatamansi against granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius and subsequent changes in enzyme activity responsible for grain damage. In current research 5 g of R. fruticosus fruit and V. jatamansi rhizome powders were tested separately against S. granarius, in 50 g wheat whole grains for seven days in comparison with the control. The enzymatic activity of malate dehydrogenase and α-amylase was observed in the cellular extracts of S. granarius. The insects were crushed and homogenized in phosphate-buffer solution and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 5 minutes. For the enzymatic measurement supernatant was tested; the spectrophotometer was adjusted at 340 nm. The reagents were mixed and incubated at 25 °C for five minutes. The cuvettes were placed in the experimental and reference sites of spectrophotometer and recorded the change in absorbance for 3-4 minutes. There was 5.60% and 14.92% reduction in the activity of malate dehydrogenase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. The alpha amylase enzyme activity was 6.82% reduced and 63.63% increase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. Present study addresses that both plant powders are effective against granary weevil by altering enzyme activities so both the plant powders can be used as bio-pesticides against the stored grains pests.


Resumo As más condições de armazenamento proporcionam um ambiente favorável às pragas armazenadas para o crescimento. Os biopesticidas são as melhores alternativas aos pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo foi conduzido para comparar a toxicidade de Rubus fruticosus e Valeriana jatamansi contra gorgulhos, Sitophilus granarius e subsequentes alterações na atividade enzimática responsáveis ​​por danos aos grãos. Na pesquisa atual, 5 g de frutos de R. fruticosus e pós de rizoma de V. jatamansi foram testados separadamente contra S. granarius, em 50 g de grãos integrais de trigo por sete dias, em comparação com o controle. A atividade enzimática da malato desidrogenase e α-amilase foi observada nos extratos celulares de S. granarius. Os insetos foram esmagados e homogeneizados em solução tampão fosfato e centrifugados a 10000 rpm por 5 minutos. Para a medição enzimática, o sobrenadante foi testado; o espectrofotômetro foi ajustado a 340 nm. Os reagentes foram misturados e incubados a 25 °C por cinco minutos. As cubetas foram colocadas nos locais experimentais e de referência do espectrofotômetro e registradas as alterações na absorbância por 3-4 minutos. Houve redução de 5,60% e 14,92% na atividade da malato desidrogenase em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. A atividade da enzima alfa amilase foi reduzida em 6,82% e aumento de 63,63% em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. O presente estudo aborda que ambos os pós de plantas são eficazes contra o gorgulho do celeiro, alterando as atividades enzimáticas, de modo que ambos os pós de plantas possam ser usados ​​como biopesticidas contra pragas de grãos armazenados.

5.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902318

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the prevalence, serovar distribution, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates from vegetable, fruit, and water samples in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Salmonella was detected in 75% (30/40), 57.1% (12/21), 17.5% (28/160), and 2.5% (1/40) of river water, irrigation water, vegetable, and ice water samples, respectively. However, no Salmonella was isolated from 160 fruit and 40 tap water samples examined. A total of 102 isolates obtained from 71 samples belonged to 34 different serovars, of which Salmonella Rissen was the most prevalent, followed by Salmonella London, Salmonella Hvittingfoss, and Salmonella Weltevreden. Certain Salmonella serovars such as Newport, Rissen, and Weltevreden were isolated from both vegetable and water samples. Antimicrobial resistance was most commonly observed against tetracycline (35.3%), followed by chloramphenicol (34.3%), ampicillin (31.4%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (23.5%), and nalidixic acid (10.8%). Of 102 isolates analyzed, 52 (51%) showed resistance to at least 1 antimicrobial class whereas 27 (26.5%) showed multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype, being resistant to at least three different classes of antimicrobials. Determination of the presence and type of ß-lactamase genes showed the cooccurrence of blaTEM-1 and blaCMY-2 in one Salmonella Agona isolate from a river water sample. Taken together, these data indicated that both environmental water and vegetables were contaminated with Salmonella, including MDR strains, and that environmental water used in irrigation might have been the source of Salmonella contamination in the vegetables.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
7.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713357

RESUMO

Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLS) is a chronic inflammatory condition that can present with a range of debilitating symptoms. Sexual dysfunction is reported by most women with lichen sclerosus but by relatively few men. This prospective study looked at 78 men with MGLS. Sexual difficulties were experienced by 64 (82%) patients, with 54 of the 64 attributing their sexual dysfunction directly to their MGLS. Sexual dysfunction appears to be more common in MGLS than other genital diseases such as psoriasis and sexually transmitted infections. Penile soreness due to active inflammation is the commonest cause of dyspareunia. Psychological factors are also important. Assessment and management of MGLS must include sexual history as men will not usually volunteer this information. Monitoring sexual function may be useful to assess disease outcome.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 77-82, Feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153328

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to explore morphometric variations of Pteropus medius (the Indian flying fox) and the roosting trees in Lower Dir, Pakistan. The bats were captured from Morus alba, Morus nigra, Brousonetia papyrifera, Pinus raxburghii, Hevea brasiliensis, Platanus orientalis, Populous nigra, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Grevillea robusta through sling shot and mess net methods. A total of 12 bats were studied for the differential morphological features based on age and sex. Male bats were recorded higher in weight than females. The variations were found in body mass (821.1±34.65gm), circumference of body with wings (25.43±0.39cm), wingspan (112.58±1.90cm), Body length (20.73±0.68cm), Snout length (3.42±0.04cm), Eye length (1.45±0.033cm), Length of ear (3.56±0.05cm), Width of ear (2.46±0.04cm), Length b/w ear (5.51±0.11cm), Circumference of neck (12.23±0.24cm), Circumference of body without wings (18.68±0.31cm), Arm wing length (23.2±1.03cm), Length of thumb (5.43±0.1cm), Length of nail (1.89±0.05cm), Hand wing length (29.1±0.51cm), Maximum width of wing (21.03±0.68cm), Length b/w tip of wing to 5th digit (29.39±0.30cm), Length b/w 5th digit to foot (22.97±1.09cm), Length b/w feet (18.31±0.74cm) and Length of foot claw (4.23±0.05cm). This study was designed for analysis of external morphological variations for P. medius (the Indian flying fox) that may help in identification of these bats and their roosting sites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido com o intuito de explorar variações morfométricas de Pteropus medius (raposa-voadora indiana) e árvores de repouso em Lower Dir, Paquistão. Os morcegos foram capturados de Morus alba, Morus nigra, Broussonetia papyrifera, Pinus roxburghii, Hevea brasiliensis, Platanus orientalis, Populus nigra, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis e Grevillea robusta por meio de estilingues e redes. Doze morcegos foram estudados quanto às características morfológicas diferenciais com base na idade e no sexo. Os morcegos machos apresentaram maior peso do que as fêmeas. As variações foram encontradas em massa corporal (821,1 ± 34,65 g), circunferência do corpo com asas (25,43 ± 0,39 cm), envergadura (112,58 ± 1,90 cm), comprimento do corpo (20,73 ± 0,68 cm), comprimento do focinho (3,42 ± 0,04 cm), comprimento do olho (1,45 ± 0,033 cm), comprimento da orelha (3,56 ± 0,05 cm), largura da orelha (2,46 ± 0,04 cm), comprimento entre as orelhas (5,51 ± 0,11 cm), circunferência do pescoço (12,23 ± 0,24 cm), circunferência do corpo sem asas (18,68 ± 0,31 cm), comprimento da asa da pata dianteira (23,2 ± 1,03 cm), comprimento do polegar (5,43 ± 0,1 cm), comprimento da unha (1,89 ± 0,05 cm), comprimento da asa até a ponta do dedo (29,1 ± 0,51 cm), largura máxima da asa (21,03 ± 0,68 cm), comprimento entre a ponta da asa e o quinto dedo (29,39 ± 0,30 cm), comprimento entre o quinto dedo e a pata (22,97 ± 1,09 cm), comprimento entre as patas (18,31 ± 0,74 cm) e comprimento da garra da pata (4,23 ± 0,05 cm). Este estudo foi desenvolvido para análise de variações morfológicas externas de P. medius (raposa-voadora indiana) e pode auxiliar na identificação desses morcegos e seus locais de nidificação.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245584, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471859

RESUMO

The COVID19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus has severely affected most countries of the world including Bangladesh. We conducted comparative analysis of publicly available whole-genome sequences of 64 SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Bangladesh and 371 isolates from another 27 countries to predict possible transmission routes of COVID19 to Bangladesh and genomic variations among the viruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the pathogen was imported in Bangladesh from multiple countries. The viruses found in the southern district of Chattogram were closely related to strains from Saudi Arabia whereas those in Dhaka were similar to that of United Kingdom and France. The 64 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from Bangladesh belonged to three clusters. Compared to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 sequence reported from China, the isolates in Bangladesh had a total of 180 mutations in the coding region of the genome, and 110 of these were missense. Among these, 99 missense mutations (90%) were predicted to destabilize protein structures. Remarkably, a mutation that leads to an I300F change in the nsp2 protein and a mutation leading to D614G change in the spike protein were prevalent in SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences, and might have influenced the epidemiological properties of the virus in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Bangladesh , Simulação por Computador , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
12.
Public Health Action ; 10(3): 104-110, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134124

RESUMO

Global HIV program stakeholders, including the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), are undertaking efforts to ensure that eligible people living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) receive a course of TB preventive treatment (TPT). In PEPFAR programming, this effort may require providing TPT not only to newly diagnosed PLHIV as part of HIV care initiation, but also to treatment-experienced PLHIV stable on ART who may not have been previously offered TPT. TPT scale-up is occurring at the same time as a trend to provide more person-centered HIV care through differentiated service delivery (DSD). In DSD, PLHIV stable on ART may receive less frequent clinical follow-up or receive care outside the traditional clinic-based model. The misalignment between traditional delivery of TPT and care delivery in innovative DSD may require adaptations to TPT delivery practices for PLHIV. Adaptations include components of planning and operationalization of TPT in DSD, such as determination of TPT eligibility and TPT initiation, and clinical management of PLHIV while on TPT. A key adaptation is alignment of timing and location for TPT and ART prescribing, monitoring, and dispensing. Conceptual examples of TPT delivery in DSD may help program managers operationalize TPT in HIV care.

13.
Poult Sci ; 99(8): R4101, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044919

RESUMO

This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). The authors retract the above paper due to: 1) conflict of interest among the authors; and 2) addition of coauthor Dr. Muhammad Younus without his knowledge or permission. The authors apologize for these two grave mistakes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122210

RESUMO

In patients with CSF rhinorrhea, accurate identification of the CSF leakage site is crucial for surgical planning. We describe the application of a novel gadolinium-enhanced high-resolution 3D compressed-sensing T1 SPACE technique for MR cisternography and compare findings with CT cisternography and intraoperative results. In our pilot experience with 7 patients, precise detection of CSF leaks was feasible using compressed-sensing T1 SPACE, which appeared to be superior to CT cisternography.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104500

RESUMO

In this review paper, we address two vital design considerations that govern the high-temperature operation of a thickness-shear mode langasite resonator: (i) electrode design, and (ii) electrode material. Optimal electrode designs to mitigate unwanted spurious modes and achieve a high Q-factor for fundamental and higher overtone modes have been discussed in great detail. Governing equations that determine the size, shape, and orientation of these electrodes have also been presented. In addition, the suitability of six platinum-group metals as electrode materials for high-temperature resonators have been assessed and summarized. Furthermore, the adhesion to the substrate, electrical conductivity, thermal stability, and various other temperature-dependent properties of these metals have been discussed. Finally, several combinations and operating ranges of these electrode materials have been thoroughly evaluated.

16.
Insects ; 11(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882812

RESUMO

Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of several economically important crops with worldwide distribution. Use of insecticides is the principal strategy for its management, which has subsequently led to insecticide resistance and control failures. Functional response of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) at larval and adult stages was evaluated in this study, using S. litura eggs as the prey at various temperatures varying between 15 and 35 °C. Based on logistic model findings, linear parameters of various predatory stages of H. axyridis at various temperatures were significantly negative, which indicate a type II functional response. The theoretical maximum number (T/Th) of eggs consumed increased with increasing temperature for all predatory stages. According to the random predator equation, the coefficients of attack rate increased and that of handling time decreased as the temperature increased. The 4th instar and adult stages were superior candidates for biocontrol of the target prey, typically at higher temperatures. The maximum attack rate (0.546 ± 0.058 h) and lowest handling time (0.189 ± 0.004 h-1) were exhibited by the females at 30 and 35 °C, respectively, whereas these parameters were inferior for early instars. These findings clearly depict that the 4th instar and adult predators are efficient egg consumers and can serve as potential suppressors of S. litura field populations. The limitations of the predictions formulated by functional response trials are also discussed.

17.
Environ Dev Sustain ; : 1-24, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989376

RESUMO

Due to fast and deadly spread of corona virus (COVID-19), the Government of India implemented lockdown in the entire country from 25 April 2020. So, we studied the differences in the air quality index (AQI) of Delhi (DTU, Okhla and Patparganj), Haryana (Jind, Palwal and Hisar) and Uttar Pradesh (Agra, Kanpur and Greater Noida) from 17 February 2020 to 4 May 2020. The AQI was calculated by combination of individual sub-indices of seven pollutants, namely PM2.5, PM10, NO2, NH3, SO2, CO and O3, collected from the Central Pollution Control Board website. The AQI has improved by up to 30-46.67% after lockdown. The AQI slope values - 1.87, - 1.70 and - 1.35 were reported for Delhi, - 1.11, - 1.31 and - 1.04 were observed for Haryana and - 1.48, - 1.79 and - 1.78 were found for Uttar Pradesh (UP), which may be attributed to limited access of transportation and industrial facilities due to lockdown. The ozone (O3) concentration was high at Delhi because of lesser greenery as compared to UP and Haryana, which provides higher atmospheric temperature favourable for O3 formation. The air mass back trajectory (AMBT) analysis reveals the contribution of air mass from Europe, Africa and Gulf countries as well as local emissions from Indo-Gangetic Plain, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra states of India.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989563

RESUMO

Tularemia is a bacterial disease of humans, wild, and domestic animals. Francisella tularensis, which is a Gram-negative coccobacillus-shaped bacterium, is the causative agent of tularemia. Recently, an increase in the number of human tularemia cases has been noticed in several countries around the world. It has been reported mostly from North America, several Scandinavian countries, and certain Asian countries. The disease spreads through vectors such as mosquitoes, horseflies, deer flies, and ticks. Humans can acquire the disease through direct contact of sick animals, consumption of infected animals, drinking or direct contact of contaminated water, and inhalation of bacteria-loaded aerosols. Low infectious dose, aerosol route of infection, and its ability to induce fatal disease make it a potential agent of biological warfare. Tularemia leads to several clinical forms, such as glandular, ulceroglandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, respiratory, and typhoidal forms. The disease is diagnosed through the use of culture, serology, or molecular methods. Quinolones, tetracyclines, or aminoglycosides are frequently used in the treatment of tularemia. No licensed vaccine is available in the prophylaxis of tularemia and this is need of the time and high-priority research area. This review mostly focuses on general features, importance, current status, and preventive measures of this disease.

19.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965337

RESUMO

Present study was conducted to study seasonal abundance and distribution of dragonflies in upper Siran valley district Mansehra Pakistan. To collect data, eleven localities were visited for three consecutive years (2016-2018). Results come up with a sum of 300 specimens identified under three families, eight genera and twenty species. Highest seasonal abundance recorded during summer and spring were 80.67% and 13.33% respectively while minimum 6.00% was recorded during early autumn. Dominant species observed were, Orthetrum chrysis (14.00%), followed by O. gluacum (12.00%), Palpoleura sexmaculata sexmaculata (11.33%) and O. cancellatum cancellatum (8.00%). However the highest population of dragonflies was found in Munda Gucha with a percentage of 11.33 followed by Jabbar (11.00%) and Sachan (9.67%). The lowest populations were recorded in Suham (6.00%), Dadar (7.67%) and Jabori (7.67%). The surveyed valley showed diverse Anisopterous fauna and thus further extensive surveys are recommended that can come up with more important species from the area.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In women with a bad obstetric history (BOH), infection is an established cause of recurrent fetal loss. A common infecting agent is the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women with recurrent fetal loss from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. METHODS: The study included 360 females aged 16-40 years, of which 180 had a bad obstetric history (study group) and the other 180 had no such history (control group). Blood serum samples were tested for toxoplasma IgM antibodies by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and for toxoplasma IgG antibodies using an Immunochromatographic technique. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasma infection in study group females was 40.6% and in control group females it was 7.2%. Specifically, IgM prevalence was 12.8% in the study group and 1.1% in the control group. IgG prevalence was 23.9% in the study group and 6.1% in the control group. IgM and IgG combined prevalence was 3.9% in the study group cases. There is a statistically significant association between BOH and seropositivity for T. gondii (p < 0.0001, Chi square test). Various risk factors associated with T. gondii seroprevalence in study and control groups were analyzed. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in women with a bad obstetric history compared to those with no such history. Associated risk factors had no significant effects on the results.

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