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1.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Quantify prehospital time intervals, describe prehospital stroke management, and estimate potential time saved if certain procedures were performed en route to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients who arrived via emergency medical services (EMS) between 2012 and 2016 were identified. We determined the following prehospital time intervals: chute, response, on-scene, transport, and total prehospital times. Proportions of patients receiving the following were determined: Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS) assessment, prenotification, glucose assessment, vascular access, and 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). For glucose assessment, ECG acquisition, and vascular access, the location (on-scene vs. en route) in which they were performed was described. Difference in on-scene times among patients who had these three interventions performed on-scene vs. en route was assessed. RESULTS: Data from 870 patients were analyzed. Median total prehospital time was 39 min and comprised the following: chute time: 1 min; response time: 9 min; on-scene time: 15 min; and transport time: 14 min. CPSS was assessed in 64.7% of patients and prenotification was provided for 52.0% of patients. Glucose assessment, vascular access initiation, and ECG acquisition was performed on 84.1%, 72.6%, and 67.2% of patients, respectively. 59.0% of glucose assessments, 51.2% of vascular access initiations, and 49.8% of ECGs were performed on-scene. On-scene time was 9 min shorter among patients who had glucose assessments, vascular access initiations, and ECG acquisitions all performed en route vs. on-scene. CONCLUSIONS: On-scene time comprised 38.5% of total prehospital time. Limiting on-scene performance of glucose assessments, vascular access initiations, and ECG acquisitions may decrease prehospital time.

2.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both open cranial vault remodeling (CVR) and endoscopic suturectomy are effective in treating the anatomical deformity of craniosynostosis. While parents are increasingly knowledgeable about these 2 treatment options, information regarding the perioperative outcomes remains qualitative. This makes preoperative counseling regarding surgical choices difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes in patients with craniosynostosis who underwent traditional CVR versus endoscopic suturectomy. METHODS: Open and endoscopic craniosynostosis surgeries performed at our institution from January 2014 through December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed and perioperative data, including operative time, estimated blood loss, transfusion rate and length of stay, was analyzed. A student t test was used with significance determined at P < 0.05. RESULTS: CVR was performed for 51 children while 33 underwent endoscopic procedures. Endoscopic suturectomy was performed on younger patients (3.8 versus 14.0 months, P < 0.001), had shorter operative time (70 versus 232 minutes, P < 0.001), shorter total anesthesia time (175 versus 352 minutes, P < 0.001), lower estimated blood loss (10 versus 28 ml/kg, P < 0.001), lower percentage transfused (42% versus 98%, P < 0.001), lower transfusion volume (22 versus 48 ml/kg, P < 0.001), and shorter length of stay (1.8 versus 4.1 days, P < 0.001) when compared to open CVR. CONCLUSION: Both open CVR and endoscopic suturectomy are effective in treating deformities due to craniosynostosis. The endoscopic suturectomy had significantly shorter operative and anesthesia time as well as overall and PICU length of stay. CVR was associated with greater intraoperative blood loss and more frequently required higher rates of blood transfusions.

4.
Ann Emerg Med ; 75(2): 147-158, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668571

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Older adults with syncope are commonly treated in the emergency department (ED). We seek to derive a novel risk-stratification tool to predict 30-day serious cardiac outcomes. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study of older adults (≥60 years) with unexplained syncope or near syncope who presented to 11 EDs in the United States. Patients with a serious diagnosis identified in the ED were excluded. We collected clinical and laboratory data on all patients. Our primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality or serious cardiac outcome. RESULTS: We enrolled 3,177 older adults with unexplained syncope or near syncope between April 2013 and September 2016. Mean age was 73 years (SD 9.0 years). The incidence of the primary outcome was 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9% to 6.5%). Using Bayesian logistic regression, we derived the FAINT score: history of heart failure, history of cardiac arrhythmia, initial abnormal ECG result, elevated pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and elevated high-sensitivity troponin T. A FAINT score of 0 versus greater than or equal to 1 had sensitivity of 96.7% (95% CI 92.9% to 98.8%) and specificity 22.2% (95% CI 20.7% to 23.8%), respectively. The FAINT score tended to be more accurate than unstructured physician judgment: area under the curve 0.704 (95% CI 0.669 to 0.739) versus 0.630 (95% CI 0.589 to 0.670). CONCLUSION: Among older adults with syncope or near syncope of potential cardiac cause, a FAINT score of zero had a reasonably high sensitivity for excluding death and serious cardiac outcomes at 30 days. If externally validated, this tool could improve resource use for this common condition.

6.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-6, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a surgical procedure used to treat spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Currently, there is a lack of work examining the efficacy of optimizing pain management protocols after single-level laminectomy for SDR. This pilot study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of SDR completed with a traditional pain management protocol versus one designed for opioid dosage reduction. METHODS: The Texas Comprehensive Spasticity Center prospective database was queried for all patients who underwent SDR between 2015 and 2018. Demographic, surgical, and postoperative data for all patients who underwent SDR were collected from medical records. The study was designed as a retrospective study between the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and dexmedetomidine infusion (INF) groups with 80% power to detect a 50% difference at a significance level of 0.05. Patients in the INF group received perioperative gabapentin, intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion, and scheduled acetaminophen and NSAIDs postoperatively. RESULTS: Medication administration records, pain scores, and therapy notes were collected for 30 patients. Patients who underwent SDR between June 2015 and the end of December 2017 received traditional pain management (PCA group, n = 14). Patients who underwent SDR between January 2018 and the end of December 2018 received modified pain management (INF group, n = 16). No patients were lost to follow-up. Differences in age, weight, height, preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System scores, operative duration, hospital length of stay, and sex distribution were not statistically different between the 2 groups (p > 0.05). Analysis of analgesic medication doses demonstrated that the INF group required fewer doses and lower amounts of opioids overall, and also fewer NSAIDs than the PCA group. When converted to the morphine milligram equivalent, the patients in the INF group used fewer doses and lower amounts of opioids overall than the PCA group. These differences were either statistically significant (p < 0.05) or trending toward significance (p < 0.10). Both groups participated in physical and occupational therapy similarly postoperatively (p > 0.05). Pain scores were comparable between the groups (p > 0.05) despite patients in the INF group requiring fewer opioids. CONCLUSIONS: Infusion with dexmedetomidine during SDR surgery combined with perioperative gabapentin and scheduled acetaminophen and NSAIDs postoperatively resulted in similar pain scores to traditional pain management with opioids. In addition, this pilot study demonstrated that patients who received the INF pain management protocol required reduced opioid dosages and were able to participate in therapy similarly to the control PCA group.

7.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-8, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scoliosis is frequently a presenting sign of Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syrinx. The authors' goal was to define scoliosis in this population and describe how radiological characteristics of CM-I and syrinx relate to the presence and severity of scoliosis. METHODS: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°). RESULTS: Based on available imaging of patients with CM-I and syrinx, 260 of 825 patients (31%) had a clear diagnosis of scoliosis based on radiographs or coronal MRI. Forty-nine patients (5.9%) did not have scoliosis, and in 516 (63%) patients, a clear determination of the presence or absence of scoliosis could not be made. Comparison of patients with and those without a definite scoliosis diagnosis indicated that scoliosis was associated with wider syrinxes (8.7 vs 6.3 mm, OR 1.25, p < 0.001), longer syrinxes (10.3 vs 6.2 levels, OR 1.18, p < 0.001), syrinxes with their rostral extent located in the cervical spine (94% vs 80%, OR 3.91, p = 0.001), and holocord syrinxes (50% vs 16%, OR 5.61, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed syrinx length and the presence of holocord syrinx to be independent predictors of scoliosis in this patient cohort. Scoliosis was not associated with sex, age at CM-I diagnosis, tonsil position, pB-C2 distance (measured perpendicular distance from the ventral dura to a line drawn from the basion to the posterior-inferior aspect of C2), clivoaxial angle, or frontal-occipital horn ratio. Average curve magnitude was 29.9°, and 37.7% of patients had a left thoracic curve. Older age at CM-I or syrinx diagnosis (p < 0.0001) was associated with greater curve magnitude whereas there was no association between syrinx dimensions and curve magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: Syrinx characteristics, but not tonsil position, were related to the presence of scoliosis in patients with CM-I, and there was an independent association of syrinx length and holocord syrinx with scoliosis. Further study is needed to evaluate the nature of the relationship between syrinx and scoliosis in patients with CM-I.

8.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 28(4): 1479-1490, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454258

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of this study was to characterize language comprehension in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by testing a speed-based hypothesis. We hypothesized that adults with mTBI would perform worse than a group of adults with orthopedic injuries (OIs) on an experimental language comprehension task. Method The study employed a prospective experimental design. Participants were 19 adults with mTBI and 19 adults with OI ages 18-55 years. Participants completed the Whatdunit task, a sentence agent selection task in speeded and unspeeded conditions. Results In the unspeeded condition, the mTBI group performed with a marginally significant higher accuracy than the OI group. In the speeded condition, the mTBI group performed with lower accuracy than the OI group; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was a marginally significant interaction of Sentence Type × Group for reaction time in the speeded condition. Conclusions While our task might have been sensitive to cognitive processing abilities in both groups (as evidenced by the main effects of condition and sentence type), the task was not specific enough to capture mTBI-related deficits. The similarities in performance between both groups have clinical implications for the treatment of not just brain-related trauma but also trauma in general.

9.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 19(1): 138, 2019 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls among older adults are both a common reason for presentation to the emergency department, and a major source of morbidity and mortality. It is critical to identify fall patients quickly and reliably during, and immediately after, emergency department encounters in order to deliver appropriate care and referrals. Unfortunately, falls are difficult to identify without manual chart review, a time intensive process infeasible for many applications including surveillance and quality reporting. Here we describe a pragmatic NLP approach to automating fall identification. METHODS: In this single center retrospective review, 500 emergency department provider notes from older adult patients (age 65 and older) were randomly selected for analysis. A simple, rules-based NLP algorithm for fall identification was developed and evaluated on a development set of 1084 notes, then compared with identification by consensus of trained abstractors blinded to NLP results. RESULTS: The NLP pipeline demonstrated a recall (sensitivity) of 95.8%, specificity of 97.4%, precision of 92.0%, and F1 score of 0.939 for identifying fall events within emergency physician visit notes, as compared to gold standard manual abstraction by human coders. CONCLUSIONS: Our pragmatic NLP algorithm was able to identify falls in ED notes with excellent precision and recall, comparable to that of more labor-intensive manual abstraction. This finding offers promise not just for improving research methods, but as a potential for identifying patients for targeted interventions, quality measure development and epidemiologic surveillance.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Algoritmos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Geriatria/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(8): 942-946, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individuals with dementia have high rates of emergency department (ED) use for acute illnesses. We evaluated the effect of a high-intensity telemedicine program that delivers care for acute illnesses on ED use rates for individuals with dementia who reside in senior living communities (SLCs; independent and assisted living). DESIGN: We performed a secondary analysis of data for patients with dementia from a prospective cohort study over 3.5 years that evaluated the effectiveness of high-intensity telemedicine for acute illnesses among SLC residents. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied patients cared for by a primary care geriatrics practice at 22 SLCs in a northeastern city. Six SLCs were selected as intervention facilities and had access to patient-to-provider high-intensity telemedicine services to diagnose and treat illnesses. Patients at the remaining 15 SLCs served as controls. Participants were considered to have dementia if they had a diagnosis of dementia on their medical record problem list, were receiving medications for the indication of dementia, or had cognitive testing consistent with dementia. MEASURES: We compared the rate of ED use among participants with dementia and access to high-intensity telemedicine services to control participants with dementia but without access to services. RESULTS: Intervention group participants had 201 telemedicine visits. In participants with dementia, it is estimated that 1 year of access to telemedicine services is associated with a 24% decrease in ED visits (rate ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.96). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Telemedicine in SLCs can effectively decrease ED use by individuals with dementia, but further research is needed to confirm this secondary analysis and to understand how to best implement and optimize telemedicine for patients with dementia suffering from acute illnesses.

11.
Brain Inj ; 33(9): 1173-1183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291747

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize cognitive-linguistic performance in adults with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) to advance assessment and treatment practices. We hypothesized that individuals with mTBI would demonstrate longer reaction times (RTs) and greater error rates when compared to an orthopedic injury (OI) group on a category-naming task. Method: Participants were age and education-matched adults with mTBI (n = 20; 12 females) and adults with OI (n = 21; 5 females) who were discharged to home after an Emergency Department visit. Our primary task was a category-naming task shown to be sensitive to language deficits after mTBI. The task was adapted and administered under speeded and unspeeded conditions. Results: There was a significant main effect of condition on RT (speeded faster than unspeeded) and accuracy (more errors in the speeded condition). There was a marginally significant effect of group on errors, with more errors in the mTBI group than the OI group. Naming RT and accuracy in both conditions were moderately correlated with injury variables and symptom burden. Conclusions: Our data showed a marginal effect of group on accuracy of performance. Correlations found between naming and neurobehavioural symptoms, including sleep quality, suggest that the latter should be considered in future research.

12.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255327

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite proven benefits of in-utero spina bifida (SB) repair, ≥30% of children at birth have Chiari II malformation or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage from the repair site. Our study's purpose was to determine CSF pressures in the myelomeningocele sac during mid-gestation in order to design an in-vitro model for evaluating different surgical methods used for watertight closure during in-utero SB repair. METHODS: CSF pressures were measured during in-utero SB repair at mid-gestation. An in-vitro chicken thigh model, simulating fetal tissue, tested watertight closure when attached to the base of a water column. Primary closure methods were evaluated using defect sizes of 20 × 3 mm for minimal traction or 20 × 8 mm for moderate traction. Additionally, 3 common in-utero repair patches were compared using 15 × 15 mm defects. RESULTS: Using 6-12.5 cm pre-determined CSF pressures, 165 in-vitro experiments were performed. Regardless of methodology we found that in 66 primary-based closures that minimal versus moderate wound edge traction provided better seals. The locking method was superior to the non-locking technique for watertight closure in 99 patch-based closures. CONCLUSIONS: Minimal wound edge traction was best for primary closures, and locking sutures ideal for patch-based closures, however surgical techniques should be individualized to improve upon clinical outcomes.

13.
Med Care ; 57(7): 560-566, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Machine learning is increasingly used for risk stratification in health care. Achieving accurate predictive models do not improve outcomes if they cannot be translated into efficacious intervention. Here we examine the potential utility of automated risk stratification and referral intervention to screen older adults for fall risk after emergency department (ED) visits. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated several machine learning methodologies for the creation of a risk stratification algorithm using electronic health record data and estimated the effects of a resultant intervention based on algorithm performance in test data. METHODS: Data available at the time of ED discharge were retrospectively collected and separated into training and test datasets. Algorithms were developed to predict the outcome of a return visit for fall within 6 months of an ED index visit. Models included random forests, AdaBoost, and regression-based methods. We evaluated models both by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, also referred to as area under the curve (AUC), and by projected clinical impact, estimating number needed to treat (NNT) and referrals per week for a fall risk intervention. RESULTS: The random forest model achieved an AUC of 0.78, with slightly lower performance in regression-based models. Algorithms with similar performance, when evaluated by AUC, differed when placed into a clinical context with the defined task of estimated NNT in a real-world scenario. CONCLUSION: The ability to translate the results of our analysis to the potential tradeoff between referral numbers and NNT offers decisionmakers the ability to envision the effects of a proposed intervention before implementation.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Algoritmos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Ann Emerg Med ; 74(2): 260-269, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080027

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Many adults with syncope are hospitalized solely for observation and testing. We seek to determine whether hospitalization versus outpatient management for older adults with unexplained syncope is associated with a reduction in postdisposition serious adverse events at 30 days. METHODS: We performed a propensity score analysis using data from a prospective, observational study of older adults with unexplained syncope or near syncope who presented to 11 emergency departments (EDs) in the United States. We enrolled adults (≥60 years) who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients with a serious diagnosis identified in the ED. Clinical and laboratory data were collected on all patients. The primary outcome was rate of post-ED serious adverse events at 30 days. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,492 older adults with syncope and no serious ED diagnosis from April 2013 to September 2016. Mean age was 73 years (SD 8.9 years), and 51% were women. The incidence of serious adverse events within 30 days after the index visit was 7.4% for hospitalized patients and 3.19% for discharged patients, representing an unadjusted difference of 4.2% (95% confidence interval 2.38% to 6.02%). After propensity score matching on risk of hospitalization, there was no statistically significant difference in serious adverse events at 30 days between the hospitalized group (4.89%) and the discharged group (2.82%) (risk difference 2.07%; 95% confidence interval -0.24% to 4.38%). CONCLUSION: In our propensity-matched sample of older adults with unexplained syncope, for those with clinical characteristics similar to that of the discharged cohort, hospitalization was not associated with improvement in 30-day serious adverse event rates.

15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(12): 2215-2223, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common chief complaint among older adults in the Emergency Department (ED), and orthostatic vital signs are often a part of their evaluation. We assessed whether abnormal orthostatic vital signs in the ED are associated with composite 30-day serious outcomes in older adults presenting with syncope. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study at 11 EDs in adults ≥ 60 years who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients lost to follow up. We used the standard definition of abnormal orthostatic vital signs or subjective symptoms of lightheadedness upon standing to define orthostasis. We determined the rate of composite 30-day serious outcomes, including those during the index ED visit, such as cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, cardiac intervention, new diagnosis of structural heart disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hemorrhage/anemia requiring transfusion, with major traumatic injury from fall, recurrent syncope, and death) between the groups with normal and abnormal orthostatic vital signs. RESULTS: The study cohort included 1974 patients, of whom 51.2% were male and 725 patients (37.7%) had abnormal orthostatic vital signs. Comparing those with abnormal to those with normal orthostatic vital signs, we did not find a difference in composite 30-serious outcomes (111/725 (15.3%) vs 184/1249 (14.7%); unadjusted odds ratio, 1.05 [95%CI, 0.81-1.35], p = 0.73). After adjustment for gender, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), history of arrhythmia, dyspnea, hypotension, any abnormal ECG, physician risk assessment, medication classes and disposition, there was no association with composite 30-serious outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 0.82 [95%CI, 0.62-1.09], p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of older adult patients presenting with syncope who were able to have orthostatic vital signs evaluated, abnormal orthostatic vital signs did not independently predict composite 30-day serious outcomes.

16.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(5): 528-538, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An estimated 1.2 million annual emergency department (ED) visits for syncope/near syncope occur in the United States. Cardiac biomarkers are frequently obtained during the ED evaluation, but the prognostic value of index high-sensitivity troponin (hscTnT) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if hscTnT and NT-proBNP drawn in the ED are independently associated with 30-day death/serious cardiac outcomes in adult patients presenting with syncope. METHODS: A prespecified secondary analysis of a prospective, observational trial enrolling participants ≥ age 60 presenting with syncope, at 11 United States hospitals, was conducted between April 2013 and September 2016. Exclusions included seizure, stroke, transient ischemic attack, trauma, intoxication, hypoglycemia, persistent confusion, mechanical/electrical invention, prior enrollment, or predicted poor follow-up. Within 3 hours of consent, hscTnT and NT-proBNP were collected and later analyzed centrally using Roche Elecsys Gen 5 STAT and 2010 Cobas, respectively. Primary outcome was combined 30-day all-cause mortality and serious cardiac events. Adjusting for illness severity, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, variations between primary outcome and biomarkers were estimated, adjusting absolute risk associated with ranges of biomarkers using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. RESULTS: The cohort included 3,392 patients; 367 (10.8%) experienced the primary outcome. Adjusted absolute risk for the primary outcome increased with hscTnT and NT-proBNP levels. HscTnT levels ≤ 5 ng/L were associated with a 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%-5%) outcome risk, and hscTnT > 50 ng/L, a 29% (95% CI = 26%-33%) risk. NT-proBNP levels ≤ 125 ng/L were associated with a 4% (95% CI = 4%-5%) risk, and NT-proBNP > 2,000 ng/L a 29% (95% CI = 25%-32%) risk. Likelihood ratios and predictive values demonstrated similar results. Sensitivity analyses excluding ED index serious outcomes demonstrated similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: hscTnT and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of 30-day death and serious outcomes in older ED patients presenting with syncope.

17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(4): 711-718, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: People with dementia (PwD) frequently use emergency care services. To mitigate the disproportionately high rate of emergency care use by PwD, an understanding of contributing factors driving reliance on emergency care services and identification of feasible alternatives are needed. This study aimed to identify clinician, caregiver, and service providers' views and experiences of unmet needs leading to emergency care use among community-dwelling PwD and alternative ways of addressing these needs. DESIGN: Qualitative, employing semistructured interviews with clinicians, informal caregivers, and aging service providers. SETTING: Wisconsin, United States. PARTICIPANTS: Informal caregivers of PwD (n = 4), emergency medicine physicians (n = 4), primary care physicians (n = 5), geriatric healthcare providers (n = 5), aging service providers (n = 6), and community paramedics (n = 3). MEASUREMENTS: Demographic characteristics of participants and data from semistructured interviews. FINDINGS: Four major themes were identified from interviews: (1) system fragmentation influences emergency care use by PwD, (2) informational, decision-making, and social support needs influence emergency care use by PwD, (3) emergency departments (EDs) are not designed to optimally address PwD and caregiver needs, and (4) options to prevent and address emergency care needs of PwD. CONCLUSION: Participants identified numerous system and individual-level unmet needs and offered many recommendations to prevent or improve ED use by PwD. These novel findings, aggregating the perspectives of multiple dementia-care stakeholder groups, serve as the first step to developing interventions that prevent the need for emergency care or deliver tailored emergency care services to this vulnerable population through new approaches. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:711-718, 2019.

18.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 49(5): 1347-1355, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric epilepsy affects 0.5-1% of children, with 10-30% of these children refractory to medical anticonvulsant therapy and potentially requiring surgical intervention. Analysis of resting state functional MRI (rsMRI) signal temporal differences (latency) has been proposed to study the pathological cognitive processes. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the correlation of rsMRI signal latency to pediatric refractory extratemporal epilepsy seizure foci lateralization. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective review. POPULATION: With Institutional Review Board approval, rsMRI and anatomical MRI scans were obtained from 38 registered pediatric epilepsy surgery patients from Washington University and 259 healthy control patients from the ADHD-200 dataset. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3 T echo planar imaging (EPI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) sequence. ASSESSMENT: The images were transformed to pediatric atlases in Talairach space. Preoperative voxelwise latency maps were generated with parabolic interpolation of the rsMRI signal lateness or earliness when compared with the global mean signal (GMS) using cross-covariance analysis. STATISTICAL TESTS: Latency z-score maps were created for each epilepsy patient by voxelwise calculation using healthy control mean and standard deviation maps. Voxelwise hypothesis testing was performed via multiple comparisons corrected (false discovery and familywise error rate) and uncorrected methods to determine significantly late and early voxels. Significantly late and/or early voxels were counted for the right and left hemisphere separately. The hemisphere with the greater proportion of significantly late and/or early voxels was hypothesized to contain the seizure focus. Preoperative rsMRI latency analysis hypotheses were compared with postoperative seizure foci lateralization determined by resection images. RESULTS: Preoperative rsMRI latency analysis correctly identified seizure foci lateralization of 64-85% of postoperative epilepsy resections with the proposed methods. RsMRI latency lateralization analysis was 77-100% sensitive and 58-79% specific. In some patients, qualitative analysis yielded preoperative rsMRI latency patterns specific to procedure performed. DATA CONCLUSION: Preoperative rsMRI signal latency of pediatric epilepsy patients was correlated with seizure foci lateralization. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;49:1347-1355.

19.
J Neurooncol ; 141(2): 449-457, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation inhibitors are logical therapeutic candidates for ependymomas originating in the posterior fossa of the brain. Our objective was to test the safety of infusing 5-Azacytidine (5-AZA), a DNA methylation inhibitor, directly into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces of the fourth ventricle or tumor resection cavity in children with recurrent ependymoma originating in the posterior fossa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In patients with recurrent ependymoma whose disease originated in the posterior fossa, a maximal safe subtotal tumor resection was performed. At the conclusion of the tumor resection, a catheter was surgically placed into the fourth ventricle or tumor resection cavity and attached to a ventricular access device. CSF flow from the posterior fossa to the sacrum was confirmed by CINE phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) postoperatively. 12 consecutive weekly 10 milligram (mg) infusions of 5-Azacytidine (AZA) were planned. Disease response was monitored with MRI scans and CSF cytology. RESULTS: Six patients were enrolled. One patient was withdrawn prior to planned 5-AZA infusions due to surgical complications after tumor resection. The remaining five patients received 8, 12, 12, 12, and 12 infusions, respectively. There were no serious adverse events or new neurological deficits attributed to 5-AZA infusions. All five patients with ependymoma who received 5-AZA infusions had progressive disease. Two of the five patients, however, were noted to have decrease in the size of at least one intraventricular lesion. CONCLUSION: 5-AZA can be infused into the fourth ventricle or posterior fossa tumor resection cavity without causing neurological toxicity. Future studies with higher doses and/or increased dosing frequency are warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Ependimoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Ependimoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ependimoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Quarto Ventrículo , Humanos , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/cirurgia , Infusões Intraventriculares , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(4): 783-791, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the role of social factors in pediatric gunshot wounds (GSW). METHODS: We identified medical records of victims aged 0-15 years who presented to our Level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2001 to 2016. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-eight children were treated between 2001 and 2016. Patients ranged from 2.5 months to 15 years old (mean = 10.8 years). Two hundred ninety-two patients (81.6%) were male, and 66 (18.4%) were female. The most common anatomic injury location was the head, face, neck, and/or spine (n = 168; 36.2%). 38.3% of injuries (n = 137) were caused by handguns, 25.1% (n = 90) by BB guns, and 12.6% (n = 45) by shotguns/rifles. 45.5% of incidents (n = 163) were intentional; 17 of these (4.7%) were suicide attempts. 48.9% of incidents (n = 175) were accidental. The majority (n = 229) of incidents (64.0%) occurred in a family residence. An adult supervised the victim in only 26.3% of cases (N = 94). Criminal charges were filed in 36 cases (10.1%). Fifteen victims (4.2%) were placed in CPS custody. 12.0% of charts (N = 43) mentioned gun safety education being provided to the family. CONCLUSION: Analysis of social factors associated with pediatric GSW suggests that many of these injuries could have been prevented with safe firearm storage, increased community education efforts, and other safety measures. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level III- Retrospective Comparative Study.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia
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