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1.
Nat Med ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958795

RESUMO

We have conducted a pragmatic clinical trial aimed to assess whether an electrocardiogram (ECG)-based, artificial intelligence (AI)-powered clinical decision support tool enables early diagnosis of low ejection fraction (EF), a condition that is underdiagnosed but treatable. In this trial ( NCT04000087 ), 120 primary care teams from 45 clinics or hospitals were cluster-randomized to either the intervention arm (access to AI results; 181 clinicians) or the control arm (usual care; 177 clinicians). ECGs were obtained as part of routine care from a total of 22,641 adults (N = 11,573 intervention; N = 11,068 control) without prior heart failure. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of low EF (≤50%) within 90 days of the ECG. The trial met the prespecified primary endpoint, demonstrating that the intervention increased the diagnosis of low EF in the overall cohort (1.6% in the control arm versus 2.1% in the intervention arm, odds ratio (OR) 1.32 (1.01-1.61), P = 0.007) and among those who were identified as having a high likelihood of low EF (that is, positive AI-ECG, 6% of the overall cohort) (14.5% in the control arm versus 19.5% in the intervention arm, OR 1.43 (1.08-1.91), P = 0.01). In the overall cohort, echocardiogram utilization was similar between the two arms (18.2% control versus 19.2% intervention, P = 0.17); for patients with positive AI-ECGs, more echocardiograms were obtained in the intervention compared to the control arm (38.1% control versus 49.6% intervention, P < 0.001). These results indicate that use of an AI algorithm based on ECGs can enable the early diagnosis of low EF in patients in the setting of routine primary care.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about persistence of asthma biologic use in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To assess persistence of asthma biologic use and time to clinical response in clinical practice. METHODS: A cohort of people with asthma who used at least 1 asthma biologic was constructed using data from 2003-2019 in the OptumLabs Data Warehouse (OLDW). Treatment persistence was defined by the length of time that a person continuously used an asthma biologic, allowing for a lapse in use up to 4 months before confirming that a person stopped. Clinical response to treatment (defined as a decline in asthma exacerbations of at least 50% compared to the 6 months before starting an asthma biologic) was described over time and in relation to biologic persistence. RESULTS: There were 9,575 people who had at least 1 episode of asthma biologic use. There were 5,319 people (64%, 95% CI: 63%, 65%) who completed ≥6 months on an asthma biologic and 3,284 (45%, 95% CI; 44%, 46%) who completed ≥ 12 months. Of people with ≥1 asthma exacerbation 6 months before index biologic use, 63%, 76%, 80% and 81% realized a ≥50% reduction in post-index asthma exacerbations in the first 6 months, 6-12 months, 12-18 months and 18-24 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Between 48% and 64% of people remained on an asthma biologic for ≥6 months after first use. Most people who achieved a reduction in asthma exacerbations did so in the first 6 months of treatment.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837667

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the impact of the combination of cardiogenic shock (CS) and cardiac arrest (CA) complicating non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult (>18 years) NSTEMI admissions using the National Inpatient Sample database (2000 to 2017) were stratified by the presence of CA and/or CS. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, early coronary angiography, hospitalization costs, and length of stay. Of the 7 302 447 hospitalizations due to NSTEMI, 147 795 (2.0%) had CS only, 155 522 (2.1%) had CA only, and 41 360 (0.6%) had both CS and CA. Compared with 2000, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for CS, CA, and both CS and CA in 2017 were 3.75 (3.58-3.92), 1.46 (1.42-1.50), and 4.52 (4.16-4.87), respectively (all P < 0.001). The CS + CA (61.2%) cohort had higher multiorgan failure than CS (42.3%) and CA only (32.0%) cohorts, P < 0.001. The CA only cohort had lower rates of overall (52% vs. 59-60%) and early (17% vs. 18-27%) angiography compared with the other groups (all P < 0.001). CS + CA admissions had higher in-hospital mortality compared with those with CS alone (aOR 4.12 [95% CI 4.00-4.24]), CA alone (aOR 1.69 [95% CI 1.65-1.74]), or without CS/CA (aOR 22.66 [95% CI 22.06-23.27]). The presence of CS, either alone or with CA, was associated with higher hospitalization costs and longer hospital length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of CS and CA is associated with higher rates of acute non-cardiac organ failure and in-hospital mortality in NSTEMI admissions as compared with those with either CS or CA alone.

5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 690-698, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673920

RESUMO

In March 2020, our institution developed an interdisciplinary predictive analytics task force to provide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospital census forecasting to help clinical leaders understand the potential impacts on hospital operations. As the situation unfolded into a pandemic, our task force provided predictive insights through a structured set of visualizations and key messages that have helped the practice to anticipate and react to changing operational needs and opportunities. The framework shared here for the deployment of a COVID-19 predictive analytics task force could be adapted for effective implementation at other institutions to provide evidence-based messaging for operational decision-making. For hospitals without such a structure, immediate consideration may be warranted in light of the devastating COVID-19 third-wave which has arrived for winter 2020-2021.


Assuntos
/terapia , Tomada de Decisões , Gerenciamento Clínico , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , /epidemiologia , Previsões , Humanos
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044010, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate associations between ACE inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and clinical outcomes in acute viral respiratory illness (AVRI). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of claims data. SETTING: The USA; 2018-2019 influenza season. PARTICIPANTS: Main cohort: people with hypertension (HTN) taking an ACEi, ARB or other HTN medications, and experiencing AVRI. Falsification cohort: parallel cohort receiving elective knee or hip replacement. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main cohort: hospital admission, intensive care unit, acute respiratory distress (ARD), ARD syndrome and all-cause mortality. Falsification cohort: complications after surgery and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The main cohort included 236 843 episodes of AVRI contributed by 202 629 unique individuals. Most episodes were in women (58.9%), 81.4% in people with Medicare Advantage and 40.3% in people aged 75+ years. Odds of mortality were lower in the ACEi (0.78 (0.74 to 0.83)) and ARB (0.64 (0.61 to 0.68)) cohorts compared with other HTN medications. On all other outcomes, people taking ARBs (but not ACEis) had a >10% reduction in odds of inpatient stays compared with other HTN medications.In the falsification analysis (N=103 353), both ACEis (0.89 (0.80 to 0.98)) and ARBs (0.82 (0.74 to 0.91)) were associated with decreased odds of complications compared with other HTN medications; ARBs (0.64 (0.47 to 0.87)) but not ACEis (0.79 (0.60 to 1.05)) were associated with lower odds of death compared with other HTN medications. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient use of ARBs was associated with better outcomes with AVRI compared with other medications for HTN. ACEis were associated with reduced risk of death, but with minimal or no reduction in risk of other complications. A falsification analysis conducted to provide context on the possible causal implications of these findings did not provide a clear answer. Further analysis using observational data will benefit from additional approaches to assess causal relationships between these drugs and outcomes in AVRI.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several vaccines are now clinically available under emergency use authorization in the United States and have demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. The impact of vaccines on asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive, asymptomatic adult patients (n = 39,156) within a large United States healthcare system who underwent 48,333 pre-procedural SARS-CoV-2 molecular screening tests between December 17, 2020 and February 8, 2021. The primary exposure of interest was vaccination with at least one dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The primary outcome was relative risk of a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test among those asymptomatic persons who had received at least one dose of vaccine, as compared to persons who had not received vaccine during the same time period. Relative risk was adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, patient residence relative to the hospital (local vs. non-local), healthcare system regions, and repeated screenings among patients using mixed effects log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Positive molecular tests in asymptomatic individuals were reported in 42 (1.4%) of 3,006 tests performed on vaccinated patients and 1,436 (3.2%) of 45,327 tests performed on unvaccinated patients (RR=0.44 95% CI: 0.33-0.60; p<.0001). Compared to unvaccinated patients, the risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among those >10 days after 1 st dose (RR=0.21; 95% CI: 0.12-0.37; p<.0001) and >0 days after 2 nd dose (RR=0.20; 95% CI: 0.09-0.44; p<.0001) in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine showed a significant association with a reduced risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured during pre-procedural molecular screening. The results of this study demonstrate the impact of the vaccines on reduction in asymptomatic infections supplementing the randomized trial results on symptomatic patients.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about outcomes associated with stopping asthma biologics. OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes in people who stopped or continued asthma biologics. METHODS: We identified a cohort of people with asthma who stopped or continued asthma biologics in the Optum Labs Database Warehouse, using a propensity matching method for case and control groups with the variables of age, sex, race, region, insurance, income, specialist access, Charlson comorbidity, specific medical conditions, pre-index exacerbation count, pre-index rescue inhaler pharmacy fills, and pre-index inhaled corticosteroid with or without long-acting ß-agonist pharmacy fills. Primary outcome used to assess failure of stopping was an increase of 50% or more in the asthma exacerbation rate in the 6 months after discontinuing the biologic compared with the 6-month period before biologic initiation. RESULTS: Among a cohort of 4960 asthma biologic users, 1249 were observed to stop use after 6 to 12 months of use. We identified a matched cohort of 1247 stoppers and 1247 people who continued biologic use for at least 18 months. In the first 6 months after stopping or sham stopping, 10.2% of stoppers and 9.5% of continuers had an increase of 50% or more in asthma exacerbations. We found a similar adjusted odds of failing among stoppers and continuers (odds ratio = 1.085; 95% confidence interval, 0.833-1.413). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in asthma exacerbations is infrequently observed in people who stopped asthma biologics and was observed at similar rates as in matched controls who continued asthma biologics.

10.
Health Serv Res ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe physicians' variation in de-adopting concurrent statin and fibrate therapy for type 2 diabetic patients following a reversal in clinical evidence. DATA SOURCES: We analyzed 2007-2015 claims data from OptumLabs® Data Warehouse, a longitudinal, real-world data asset with de-identified administrative claims and electronic health record data. STUDY DESIGN: We modeled fibrate use among Medicare Advantage and commercially insured type 2 diabetic statin users before and after the publication of the ACCORD lipid trial, which found statins and fibrates were no more effective than statins alone in reducing cardiovascular events among type 2 diabetic patients. We modeled fibrate use trends with physician random effects and physician characteristics such as age and specialty. DATA EXTRACTION: We identified patient-year-quarters with one year of continuous insurance enrollment, type 2 diabetes diagnoses, and fibrate use. We designated the physician most responsible for patients' diabetes care based on evaluation and management visits and prescriptions of glucose-lowering drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fibrate use increased by 0.12 percentage points per quarter among commercial patients (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.14) and 0.17 percentage points per quarter among Medicare Advantage patients (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.20) before the trial and then decreased by 0.16 percentage points per quarter among commercial patients (95% CI, -0.18 to -0.15) and 0.05 percentage points per quarter among Medicare Advantage patients (95% CI, -0.06 to -0.03) after the trial. However, 45% of physicians treating commercial patients and 48% of physicians treating Medicare Advantage patients had positive trends in prescribing following the trial. Physicians' characteristics did not explain their variation (pseudo R2  = 0.000). CONCLUSION: On average, physicians decreased fibrate prescribing following the ACCORD lipid trial. However, many physicians increased prescribing following the trial. Observable physician characteristics did not explain variations in prescribing. Future research should examine whether physicians vary similarly in other de-adoption settings.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing the risk of serious infections between patients treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) antagonists vs. vedolizumab in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: Using an administrative claims database, we identified patients with IBD who were new-users of either TNFα antagonists or vedolizumab between 2014-2018 and had insurance coverage for at least 1y before and after treatment initiation. We compared the risk of serious infections (infections requiring hospitalization) between patients treated with vedolizumab or TNFα antagonists using marginal structural Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for baseline disease characteristics, healthcare utilization, comorbidities, and time-varying use of corticosteroids, immunomodulators and opiates. RESULTS: We included 4881 patients treated with TNFα antagonists (age, 41±15y, 60% with Crohn's disease [CD]) of whom 434 developed serious infections over 5786 person-year [PY] follow-up, and 1106 patients treated with vedolizumab (age, 44±16y, 39% with CD) of whom 86 developed serious infections over 1040-PY follow-up. Vedolizumab was associated with 46% lower risk of serious infections as compared with TNFα antagonists in patients with ulcerative colitis (HR,0.54 [95% CI,0.35-0.83), but no significant differences were observed in patients with CD (HR,1.30 [0.80-2.11]). Vedolizumab was associated with lower risk of extra-intestinal serious infections in patients with UC, but higher risk of gastrointestinal serious infections in patients with CD. CONCLUSIONS: In an observational study of patients with IBD, vedolizumab was associated with lower risk of serious infections as compared with TNFα antagonists, in patients with UC, but not in patients with CD.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2035792, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523188

RESUMO

Importance: Glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are associated with low rates of hypoglycemia, and postmarketing trials of GLP-1RA and SGLT2i demonstrated that these medications improved cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Objective: To compare trends in initiation of treatment with GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, and DPP-4i by older adults with type 2 diabetes insured by Medicare Advantage vs commercial health plans. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used administrative claims data from a deidentified database of commercially insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries. Adults aged 58 to 66 years with type 2 diabetes who filled any medication prescription to lower glucose levels from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2019, were compared between groups. Exposure: Enrollment in a Medicare Advantage or commercial health insurance plan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The odds of initiating GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, and DPP-4i treatment were examined for Medicare Advantage vs commercial insurance beneficiaries using 3 separate logistic regression models adjusted for year and demographic and clinical factors. These models were used to calculate adjusted annual rates of medication initiation by health plan. Results: A total of 382 574 adults with pharmacologically treated type 2 diabetes (52.9% men; mean [SD] age, 62.4 [2.7] years) were identified, including 172 180 Medicare Advantage and 210 394 commercial beneficiaries. From 2016 to 2019, adjusted rates of initiation of GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, and DPP-4i treatment increased among all beneficiaries, from 2.14% to 20.02% for GLP-1RA among commercial insurance beneficiaries and from 1.50% to 11.44% among Medicare Advantage beneficiaries; from 2.74% to 18.15% for SGLT2i among commercial insurance beneficiaries and from 1.57% to 8.51% among Medicare Advantage beneficiaries; and from 3.30% to 11.71% for DPP-4i among commercial insurance beneficiaries and from 2.44% to 7.68% among Medicare Advantage beneficiaries. Initiation rates for all 3 drug classes were consistently lower among Medicare Advantage than among commercial insurance beneficiaries. Within each calendar year, the odds of initiating GLP-1RA treatment ranged from 0.28 (95% CI, 0.26-0.29) to 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.75) for Medicare Advantage and commercial insurance beneficiaries, respectively; SGLT2i, from 0.21 (95% CI, 0.20-0.22) to 0.57 (95% CI, 0.53-0.61), respectively; and DPP-4i, from 0.37 (95% CI, 0.34-0.39) to 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.78), respectively (P < .001 for all). The odds of starting GLP-1RA and SGLT2i increased with income; for an income of $200 000 and higher vs less than $40 000, the odds ratio for GLP-1RA was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.15-1.32) and for SGLT2i was 1.16 (95% CI, 1.09-1.24). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that Medicare Advantage beneficiaries may be less likely than commercially insured beneficiaries to be treated with newer medications to lower glucose levels, with greater disparities among lower-income patients. Better understanding of nonclinical factors contributing to treatment decisions and efforts to promote greater equity in diabetes management appear to be needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Seguro Saúde , Medicare Part C , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037748, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616664

RESUMO

Importance: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices, including intravascular microaxial left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs), are used in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock despite limited evidence of their clinical benefit. Objective: To examine trends in the use of MCS devices among patients who underwent PCI for AMI with cardiogenic shock, hospital-level use variation, and factors associated with use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used the CathPCI and Chest Pain-MI Registries of the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Patients who underwent PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, were identified from both registries. Data were analyzed from October 2018 to August 2020. Exposures: Therapies to provide hemodynamic support were categorized as intravascular microaxial LVAD, IABP, TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LVAD, other devices, combined IABP and intravascular microaxial LVAD, combined IABP and other device (defined as TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LVAD, or another MCS device), or medical therapy only. Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of MCS devices overall and specific MCS devices, including intravascular microaxial LVAD, at both patient and hospital levels and variables associated with use. Results: Among the 28 304 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.6) years and 18 968 were men (67.0%). The overall MCS device use was constant from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the fourth quarter of 2017, although use of intravascular microaxial LVADs significantly increased (from 4.1% to 9.8%; P < .001), whereas use of IABPs significantly decreased (from 34.8% to 30.0%; P < .001). A significant hospital-level variation in MCS device use was found. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) proportion of patients who received MCS devices was 42% (30%-54%), and the median proportion of patients who received intravascular microaxial LVADs was 1% (0%-10%). In multivariable analyses, cardiac arrest at first medical contact or during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.58-2.09) and severe left main and/or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.20-1.54) were patient characteristics that were associated with higher odds of receiving intravascular microaxial LVADs only compared with IABPs only. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, among patients who underwent PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock, overall use of MCS devices was constant, and a 2.5-fold increase in intravascular microaxial LVAD use was found along with a corresponding decrease in IABP use and a significant hospital-level variation in MCS device use. These trends were observed despite limited clinical trial evidence of improved outcomes associated with device use.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/tendências , Coração Auxiliar/tendências , Balão Intra-Aórtico/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Idoso , Circulação Assistida/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia
14.
Chest ; 159(3): 924-932, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about adherence to asthma biologics. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is adherence to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) associated with subsequent asthma biologic adherence? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed individuals with asthma who started asthma biologics in the OptumLab Data Warehouse and used that data until October 2019. We calculated proportion days covered (PDC) for ICS ± long-acting ß-agonists in the 6 months before and after asthma biologics were started and asthma biologic PDC for the first 6 months of use. We performed a multivariable analysis to identify factors associated with asthma biologic PDC ≥0.75, ICS PDC ≥0.75 during the 6-month period after asthma biologic were started, and achievement of a ≥50% reduction in asthma exacerbations during the first 6 months of asthma biologic use. RESULTS: We identified 5,319 people who started asthma biologics. The mean PDC for asthma biologics was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.75-0.77) in the first 6 months after starting, higher than the mean PDCs for ICS in the 6 months before (0.44 [95% CI, 0.43-0.45]) and after (0.40 [95% CI, 0.39-0.40]) starting the asthma biologic. PDC ≥0.75 for ICS 6 months before index biologic use is associated with PDC for asthma biologics ≥0.75 (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10-1.43) and for ICS during the first 6 months of biologic use (OR, 9.93; 95% CI, 8.55-11.53). Neither ICS PDC ≥0.75 (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.74-1.14) nor asthma biologic PDC ≥0.75 (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.36) is associated with a statistically significant reduction in asthma exacerbations during the first 6 months of asthma biologic use among people with any exacerbation in the 6 months before first use. INTERPRETATION: Adherence to asthma biologic is higher than to ICS and is associated with different factors.

15.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaders play a crucial role in implementing and sustaining changes in clinical practice, yet there is limited evidence on the strategies to engage them in team problem solving and communication. OBJECTIVE: Examine the impact of an intervention focused on facilitating leadership during daily huddles on optimizing team-based care and improving outcomes. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized trial using intention-to-treat analysis to measure the effects of the intervention (n = 13 teams) compared with routine practice (n = 16 teams). PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-nine primary care clinics affiliated with a large integrated health system in the upper Midwest; representing differing practice types and geographic settings. INTERVENTION: Full-day leadership training retreat for team leaders to facilitate of care team huddles. Biweekly coaching calls and two site visits with an assigned coach. MAIN MEASURES: Primary outcomes of team development and function were collected, pre- and post-intervention using surveys. Patient satisfaction and quality outcomes were compared pre- and post-intervention as secondary outcomes. Leadership engagement and adherence to the intervention were also assessed. KEY RESULTS: A total of 279 pre-intervention and 272 post-intervention surveys were completed. We found no impact on team development (- 0.98, 95% CI (- 3.18, 1.22)), improved team credibility (0.18, 95% CI (0.00, 0.35)), but worse psychological safety (- 0.19, 95% CI (- 0.38, 0.00)). No differences were observed in patient satisfaction; however, results were mixed among quality outcomes. Post hoc analysis within the intervention group showed higher adherence to the intervention was associated with improvement in team coordination (0.47, 95% CI (0.18, 0.76)), credibility (0.28, 95% CI (0.02, 0.53)), team learning (0.42, 95% CI (0.10, 0.74)), and knowledge creation (0.74, 95% CI (0.35, 1.13)) compared to teams that were less engaged. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this evaluation showed that leadership training and facilitation were not associated with better team functioning. Additional components to the intervention tested may be necessary to enhance team functioning. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT03062670. Registration Date: February 23, 2017. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03062670.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244081, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471808

RESUMO

RATIONAL AND OBJECTIVE: Prognosis provides critical knowledge for shared decision making between patients and clinicians. While several prognostic indices for mortality in dialysis patients have been developed, their performance among elderly patients initiating dialysis is unknown, despite great need for reliable prognostication in that context. To assess the performance of 6 previously validated prognostic indices to predict 3 and/or 6 months mortality in a cohort of elderly incident dialysis patients. STUDY DESIGN: Validation study of prognostic indices using retrospective cohort data. Indices were compared using the concordance ("c")-statistic, i.e. area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Calibration, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were also calculated. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Incident elderly (age ≥75 years; n = 349) dialysis patients at a tertiary referral center. ESTABLISHED PREDICTORS: Variables for six validated prognostic indices for short term (3 and 6 month) mortality prediction (Foley, NCI, REIN, updated REIN, Thamer, and Wick) were extracted from the electronic medical record. The indices were individually applied as per each index specifications to predict 3- and/or 6-month mortality. RESULTS: In our cohort of 349 patients, mean age was 81.5±4.4 years, 66% were male, and median survival was 351 days. The c-statistic for the risk prediction indices ranged from 0.57 to 0.73. Wick ROC 0.73 (0.68, 0.78) and Foley 0.67 (0.61, 0.73) indices performed best. The Foley index was weakly calibrated with poor overall model fit (p <0.01) and overestimated mortality risk, while the Wick index was relatively well-calibrated but underestimated mortality risk. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size, use of secondary data, need for imputation, homogeneous population. CONCLUSION: Most predictive indices for mortality performed moderately in our incident dialysis population. The Wick and Foley indices were the best performing, but had issues with under and over calibration. More accurate indices for predicting survival in older patients with kidney failure are needed.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465323

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In October 2014, the anti-fibrotic medications pirfenidone and nintedanib became the first medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Since approval, there has been no non-registry analysis of the real-world adoption of these medications in every day clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adoption, persistence, and out-of-pocket costs of pirfenidone and nintedanib since their approval in the US in 2014 Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed by identifying privately insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We then split the patients into three cohorts: those who were untreated and those that filled a prescription for either pirfenidone or nintedanib between October 1, 2014 and July 31, 2019. The primary outcome was adoption of the medications. Secondary outcomes included medication persistence and prescription drug costs. RESULTS: A total of 10,996 patients with IPF were identified in the dataset. A minority of patients (26.4%) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis identified in the cohort started either medication since approval in 2014, with the adoption of both medications comparable at around 13.2%. Those receiving the medications were younger (72 years old for both medications compared to 73.9, p-value<0.0001) and healthier (3.9 co-morbidities versus 4.9, p-value <0.0001) compared to those not receiving treatment. Men were significantly more likely to receive treatment than woman (30.0% versus 21.9%, p-value <0.0001). 42.8% of treated patients discontinued the medications during the study period. Patients' out-of-pocket expenses per month were high for both drugs (mean, $397.51 for nintedanib; $394.49 for pirfenidone). CONCLUSION: The adoption of both the anti-fibrotic medications in the United States in every day practice has been low since approval and may be associated with the high out-of-pocket cost.

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