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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088366

RESUMO

Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) have been increasingly used for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation compared to bone marrow stem cells. Currently, the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) policy recommends 5 days of daily filgrastim followed by either 1 or 2 days of apheresis for unrelated donors, depending on collection center choice. To date, there are no studies that compare the differences in donor experience between one and two days of apheresis. We examined 22,348 adult unrelated donor collections in 184 centers from 2006-2016. 20,004 (89.5%) donors had collections on 1 day vs. 2,344 (9.5%) over 2 days. Information on why donors were apheresed in one day vs. two days were not available. Donors who underwent apheresis in 1 day were more likely to be male (67% vs. 46%, p<0.001), younger (age <30 years 48% vs. 36%, p<0.001) and have a higher body weight (83.0 kg vs. 75.9 kg, p<0.001) and BMI (BMI>30: 30% vs. 22%, p<0.001). Successful collection of the requested CD34+ cell count was achieved on the first day in 82% of one day collections vs 16% of 2-day collections. Despite not administering filgrastim the evening after the first day of collection in patients who underwent 2 days of apheresis, the median concentration of CD34+ cells/L in the product on the second day of apheresis was higher than the first day (23.8 × 106 CD34+/L 1st day vs. 28.7 × 106 CD34+/L 2nd day, p<0.001). Donors collected in one day were less likely to experience citrate toxicity (36% vs 52%, p<0.001), hospitalizations (1% vs 6%, p<0.001), and other side effects related to apheresis (Modified Toxicity Criteria incidence: 20% vs. 26%, p<0.001). Female sex, older age, collection via central lines, and greater BMI were factors associated with greater likelihood for development of toxicity whereas less toxicity was noted in those with higher CD34+ counts and more blood processed on the first day of collection. We conclude that although unrelated donors can be successfully collected in one or two days, one day apheresis procedures were associated with less overall toxicity and we therefore recommend single day collections, especially if the requested number of cells have been collected in one day.

2.
Blood Adv ; 4(4): 706-716, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092138

RESUMO

There are limited data on the effect of donor body mass index (BMI) on peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), especially in unrelated donors. Obesity has been associated with persistent leukocytosis, elevated circulating progenitor cells, and enhanced stem cell mobilization. Therefore, we hypothesized that adequate collection of CD34+ cells may be achieved with lower doses (per kilogram of body weight) of G-CSF in donors with higher BMI compared with donors with lower BMI. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we evaluated the impact of donor BMI on G-CSF-mobilized PBSC yield in healthy unrelated donors. We examined 20 884 PBSC donations collected at National Marrow Donor Program centers between 2006 and 2016. We found significantly higher collection yields in obese and severely obese donors compared with normal and overweight donors. An increase in average daily G-CSF dose was associated with an increase in stem cell yield in donors with normal or overweight BMI. In contrast, an increase in average daily G-CSF dose beyond 780 µg per day in obese and 900 µg per day in severely obese donors did not increase cell yield. Pain and toxicities were assessed at baseline, during G-CSF administration, and postcollection. Obesity was associated with higher levels of self-reported donation-related pain and toxicities in the pericollection and early postdonation recovery periods. This study suggests a maximum effective G-CSF dose for PBSC mobilization in obese and severely obese donors, beyond which higher doses of G-CSF add no increased yield.

3.
Nat Immunol ; 21(3): 254-258, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094649

RESUMO

Women have been at the forefront of tremendous achievements in immunology in the past decade. However, disparities still exist, limiting upward potential and further advancements. As four NIH intramural women scientists who care deeply about scientific progress and the progress of women in our field, we review ongoing challenges and discuss potential approaches to help advance the promotion of women in the sciences.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(526)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941826

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis is associated with various age-related morbidities. Error-corrected sequencing (ECS) of human blood samples, with a limit of detection of ≥0.0001, has demonstrated that nearly every healthy individual >50 years old harbors rare hematopoietic clones below the detection limit of standard high-throughput sequencing. If these rare mutations confer survival or proliferation advantages, then the clone(s) could expand after a selective pressure such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or chronic immunosuppression. Given these observations and the lack of quantitative data regarding clonal hematopoiesis in adolescents and young adults, who are more likely to serve as unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donors, we completed this pilot study to determine whether younger adults harbored hematopoietic clones with pathogenic mutations, how often those clones were transferred to recipients, and what happened to these clones over time after transplantation. We performed ECS on 125 blood and marrow samples from 25 matched unrelated donors and recipients. Clonal mutations, with a median variant allele frequency of 0.00247, were found in 11 donors (44%; median, 36 years old). Of the mutated clones, 84.2% of mutations were predicted to be molecularly pathogenic and 100% engrafted in recipients. Recipients also demonstrated de novo clonal expansion within the first 100 days after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Given this pilot demonstration that rare, pathogenic clonal mutations are far more prevalent in younger adults than previously appreciated, and they engraft in recipients and persist over time, larger studies with longer follow-up are necessary to correlate clonal engraftment with post-HSCT morbidity.

5.
Oncologist ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric phase I oncology trials have historically focused on safety and toxicity, with objective response rates (ORRs) <10%. Recently, with an emphasis on targeted approaches, response rates may have changed. We analyzed outcomes of recent phase I pediatric oncology trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a systematic review of phase I pediatric oncology trials published in 2012-2017, identified through PubMed and EMBASE searches conducted on March 14, 2018. Selection criteria included full-text articles with a pediatric population, cancer diagnosis, and a dose escalation schema. Each publication was evaluated for patient characteristics, therapy type, trial design, toxicity, and response. RESULTS: Of 3,431 citations, 109 studies (2,713 patients) met eligibility criteria. Of these, 78 (72%) trials incorporated targeted therapies. Median age at enrollment/trial was 11 years (range 3-21 years). There were 2,471 patients (91%) evaluable for toxicity, of whom 300 (12.1%) experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Of 2,143 patients evaluable for response, 327 (15.3%) demonstrated an objective response. Forty-three (39%) trials had no objective responses. Nineteen trials (17%) had an ORR >25%, of which 11 were targeted trials and 8 were combination cytotoxic trials. Targeted trials demonstrated a lower DLT rate compared with cytotoxic trials (10.6% vs. 14.7%; p = .003) with similar ORRs (15.0% vs. 15.9%; p = .58). CONCLUSION: Pediatric oncology phase I trials in the current treatment era have an acceptable DLT rate and a pooled ORR of 15.3%. A subset of trials with target-specific enrollment or combination cytotoxic therapies showed high response rates, highlighting the importance of these strategies in early phase trials. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Enrollment in phase I oncology trials is crucial for development of novel therapies. This systematic review of phase I pediatric oncology trials provides an assessment of outcomes of phase I trials in children, with a specific focus on the impact of targeted therapies. These data may aid in evaluating the landscape of current phase I options for patients and enable more informed communication regarding risk and benefit of phase I clinical trial participation. The results also suggest that, in the current treatment era, there is a rationale to increase earlier access to targeted therapy trials for this refractory patient population.

6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28112, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a multicenter phase 1 study of children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), moxetumomab pasudotox, an anti-CD22 immunotoxin, demonstrated a manageable safety profile and preliminary evidence of clinical activity. A phase 2 study further evaluated efficacy. PROCEDURE: This international, multicenter, phase 2 study enrolled children with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor ALL who received moxetumomab pasudotox 40 µg/kg intravenously every other day, for six doses per 21-day cycle. The primary objective was to evaluate the complete response (CR) rate. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity evaluations. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients (median age, 10 years) were enrolled at 16 sites; 30 received study drug and were evaluable for safety; 28 were evaluable for response. The objective response rate was 28.6%, with three patients (10.7%) achieving morphologic CR, and five patients (17.9%) achieving partial response. Disease progression occurred in 11 patients (39.3%). Ten patients (33.3%) experienced at least one treatment-related serious adverse event, including capillary leak syndrome (CLS; n = 6), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS; n = 4), and treatment-related death (n = 1) from pulmonary edema. No differences were observed in inflammatory markers in patients who did or did not develop CLS or HUS. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a signal for clinical activity, this phase 2 study was terminated at interim analysis for a CR rate that did not reach the stage 1 target. Preclinical data suggest enhanced efficacy of moxetumomab pasudotox via continuous infusion or in combination regimens; thus, further studies designed to optimize the efficacy and safety of moxetumomab pasudotox in pediatric ALL may be warranted.

7.
Blood ; 135(5): 303-304, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999814
8.
Pediatr Transplant ; 24(2): e13653, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944498

RESUMO

Secondary malignancies are a significant cause of non-relapse mortality in patients who undergo allogeneic HCT. However, secondary liver cancer is rare, and ICC following HCT has never been reported in the literature. Secondary solid cancers typically have a long latency period, and cholangiocarcinoma is classically a malignancy occurring in older individuals. Here, we report the first case of secondary ICC, which presented just 3 years after HCT in a young adult with a history of childhood ALL. A 26-year-old male with history of precursor B-cell ALL presented with asymptomatic elevated liver function tests 3 years after HCT. Laboratories were indicative of biliary obstruction. ERCP showed focal biliary stricturing of the common and left hepatic ducts. MRCP revealed left intrahepatic duct dilatation, suggestive of intrahepatic obstructing mass. Additional workup lead to a clinical diagnosis of ICC. The patient underwent left hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection and portal lymphadenectomy. Surgical pathology was consistent with moderately differentiated cholangiocarcinoma. Our case illustrates a rare SMN following HCT for ALL. It is the first case report of ICC occurring as a secondary cancer in this patient population. Although cholangiocarcinoma is characteristically diagnosed in the older population, it must remain on the differential for biliary obstruction in post-HCT patients.

9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(4): e28149, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate disease detection is integral to risk stratification in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The gold standard used to evaluate response in the United States includes morphologic evaluation and minimal residual disease (MRD) testing of aspirated bone marrow (BM) by flow cytometry (FC). This MRD assessment is usually made on a single aspirate sample that is subject to variability in collection techniques and sampling error. Additionally, central nervous system (CNS) assessments for ALL include evaluations of cytopathology and cell counts, which can miss subclinical involvement. PROCEDURE: We retrospectively compared BM biopsy, aspirate, and FC samples obtained from children and young adults with relapsed/refractory ALL to identify the frequency and degree of disease discrepancies in this population. We also compared CNS FC and cytopathology techniques. RESULTS: Sixty of 410 (14.6%) BM samples had discrepant results, 41 (10%) of which were clinically relevant as they resulted in a change in the assignment of marrow status. Discrepant BM results were found in 28 of 89 (31.5%) patients evaluated. Additionally, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) FC identified disease in 9.7% of cases where cytopathology was negative. CONCLUSIONS: These results support further investigation of the role of concurrent BM biopsy, with aspirate and FC evaluations, and the addition of FC to CSF evaluations, to fully assess disease status and response, particularly in patients with relapsed/refractory ALL. Prospective studies incorporating more comprehensive analysis to evaluate the impact on clinical outcomes are warranted.

10.
Bioorg Chem ; 94: 103460, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791682

RESUMO

One-pot synthesis of caprylic, lauric and palmitic acid mono- and diesters of trehalose was catalyzed by the lipase Fermase CALB™ 10000. An optimized molar conversion of 35% of trehalose to its palmitate esters was obtained in acetone at 60 °C with a trehalose:palmitic acid molar ratio of 1:5 in 4 h. Trehalose fatty acid esters (THFAE) were purified by column chromatography and characterized using TLC, HPTLC, HR-MS, ATR-FTIR, and differential scanning calorimetry. THFAE were studied for their antimicrobial potential against four bacterial, and two fungal species. Trehalose monolaurate and trehalose dicaprylate demonstrated MIC of 0.45 mM and 16 mM against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, respectively. Trehalose monocaprylate showed the highest inhibition of biofilm forming property against Staphylococcus aureus (86.25%) at 99.2 mM and trehalose dipalmitate had lowest IC50 of 13.23 mM. Furthermore, their anti-inflammatory property was studied in vitro using 15-LOX inhibition assay and human red blood cell membrane stabilization assay. In the confirmatory in vivo tests using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema assay, inflammation in disease control group reached up to 63% as against 32% and 20% for trehalose dilaurate and diclofenac treated groups, respectively. THFAE can hence find potential applications in pharmaceuticals, functional foods, and nutraceuticals.

11.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(1): 94-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493539

RESUMO

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Safe and effective reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) approaches that are associated with low toxicity, use alternative donors, and afford good immune reconstitution are needed to advance the field. Twenty PID patients, ranging in age from 4 to 58 years, were treated on a prospective clinical trial of a novel, radiation-free and serotherapy-free RIC, T-cell-replete BMT approach using pentostatin, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and busulfan for conditioning with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a high-risk cohort with a median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index of 3. With median follow-up of survivors of 1.9 years, 1-year overall survival was 90% and grade III to IV acute GVHD-free, graft-failure-free survival was 80% at day +180. Graft failure incidence was 10%. Split chimerism was frequently observed at early post-BMT timepoints, with a lower percentage of donor T cells, which gradually increased by day +60. The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 15% and 5%, respectively. All aGVHD was steroid responsive. No patients developed chronic GVHD. Few significant organ toxicities were observed. Evidence of phenotype reversal was observed for all engrafted patients, even those with significantly mixed chimerism (n = 2) or with unknown underlying genetic defect (n = 3). All 6 patients with pre-BMT malignancies or lymphoproliferative disorders remain in remission. Most patients have discontinued immunoglobulin replacement. All survivors are off immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. This novel RIC BMT approach for patients with PID has yielded promising results, even for high-risk patients.

12.
Blood Adv ; 3(21): 3393-3405, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714961

RESUMO

Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) pre- and post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been associated with relapse and poor survival. Published studies have had insufficient numbers to: (1) compare the prognostic value of pre-HCT and post-HCT MRD; (2) determine clinical factors post-HCT associated with better outcomes in MRD+ patients; and (3) use MRD and other clinical factors to develop and validate a prognostic model for relapse in pediatric patients with ALL who undergo allogeneic HCT. To address these issues, we assembled an international database including sibling (n = 191), unrelated (n = 259), mismatched (n = 56), and cord blood (n = 110) grafts given after myeloablative conditioning. Although high and very high MRD pre-HCT were significant predictors in univariate analysis, with bivariate analysis using MRD pre-HCT and post-HCT, MRD pre-HCT at any level was less predictive than even low-level MRD post-HCT. Patients with MRD pre-HCT must become MRD low/negative at 1 to 2 months and negative within 3 to 6 months after HCT for successful therapy. Factors associated with improved outcome of patients with detectable MRD post-HCT included acute graft-versus-host disease. We derived a risk score with an MRD cohort from Europe, North America, and Australia using negative predictive characteristics (late disease status, non-total body irradiation regimen, and MRD [high, very high]) defining good, intermediate, and poor risk groups with 2-year cumulative incidences of relapse of 21%, 38%, and 47%, respectively. We validated the score in a second, more contemporaneous cohort and noted 2-year cumulative incidences of relapse of 13%, 26%, and 47% (P < .001) for the defined risk groups.

13.
J Parasit Dis ; 43(3): 534-536, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406422

RESUMO

A male Persian cat was presented with a history of alopecia at the dorsal tail region, with mild pruritus, flaking of skin and the owner's complaint of pruritus on herself and her family members. All the vital signs of the cat were found within the normal reference range. Skin scraping and hair samples were found to be negative for Demodex spp. and Sarcoptes spp. of mites, pediculosis and fungal infestation. Physical examination of the whole body revealed absence of fleas or flea eggs. Further, food hypersensitivity was ruled out by gradually changing the previous wheat based diet to a commercial cat food. However, eggs of Cheyletiella spp. were seen on microscopic examination of skin scraping and the lesions on the owner's body were indicative of infestation by Cheyletiella spp. as it's zoonotic in nature. A treatment protocol was initiated that included Ivermectin and bath with a shampoo containing selenium sulphide. Owners were advised to apply Calamine lotion on their lesions. Both the owner and patient recovered uneventfully 3 months post-therapy.

15.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 23(4): 417-422, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with GATA2 deficiency present with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, severe viral infections (particularly refractory human papillomavirus disease), lymphedema, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia. Patients with GATA2 deficiency who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation prior to the development of life-threatening infections or cytogenetic abnormalities may have optimal clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to determine ways in which oncology nurses can identify GATA2 deficiency in patients early and optimize treatment decisions. METHODS: A case study is presented of a 33-year-old man with recurrent infections and MDS and his two sons, all of whom were found to have the same GATA2 mutation. FINDINGS: Oncology nurses play an important role in early detection and identification by interviewing patients and obtaining a complete and thorough family history.

16.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 592-595, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267431

RESUMO

Mutations in Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) are a rare cause of combined immunodeficiency associated with atopy, infectious susceptibility, and risk for malignancy. We describe a 22-year-old male with a diagnosis of B cell lymphoblastic leukemia followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with compound heterozygous mutations in DOCK8 and normal intracellular DOCK8 protein expression. Here, B cell lymphoblastic leukemia followed by EBV-associated DLBCL led to the discovery of DOCK8 deficiency. For instances of high clinical suspicion despite normal DOCK8 protein expression, additional functional testing is critical to make a diagnosis. Understanding the spectrum of DOCK8 mutants and their phenotypes will improve our understanding of DOCK8 deficiency.

17.
Immunol Rev ; 290(1): 39-59, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355492

RESUMO

By increasing disease-free survival and offering the potential for long-term cure, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has dramatically expanded therapeutic options among those with high-risk B-cell malignancies. As CAR T-cell utilization evolves however, novel challenges are generated. These include determining how to optimally integrate CAR T cells into standard of care and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to CAR T-cell therapy, such as evolutionary stress induced on cancer cells leading to immunophenotypic changes that allow leukemia to evade this targeted therapy. Compounding these challenges are the limited ability to determine differences between various CAR T-cell constructs, understanding the generalizability of trial outcomes from multiple sites utilizing unique CAR manufacturing strategies, and comparing distinct criteria for toxicity grading while defining optimal management. Additionally, as understanding of CAR behavior in humans has developed, strategies have appropriately evolved to proactively mitigate toxicities. These challenges offer complimentary insights and guide next steps to enhance the efficacy of this novel therapeutic modality. With a focus on B-cell malignancies as the paradigm for effective CAR T-cell therapy, this review describes advances in the field as well as current challenges and future directions.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia de Células B/terapia , Linfoma de Células B/imunologia , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Leucemia de Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Mol Ther ; 27(7): 1275-1285, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178392

RESUMO

As clinical applications for chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CART) therapy extend beyond early phase trials, commercial manufacture incorporating cryopreservation steps becomes a logistical necessity. The effect of cryopreservation on CART characteristics is unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of cryopreservation on product release criteria and in vivo characteristics in 158 autologous CART products from 6 single-center clinical trials. Further, from 3 healthy donor manufacturing runs, we prospectively identified differentially expressed cell surface markers and gene signatures among fresh versus cryopreserved CARTs. Within 2 days of culture initiation, cell viability of the starting fraction (peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMNCs]) decreased significantly in the cryo-thawed arm compared to the fresh arm. Despite this, PBMNC cryopreservation did not affect final CART fold expansion, transduction efficiency, CD3%, or CD4:CD8 ratios. In vivo CART persistence and clinical responses did not differ among fresh and cryopreserved final products. In healthy donors, compared to fresh CARTs, early apoptotic cell-surface markers were significantly elevated in cryo-thawed CARTs. Cryo-thawed CARTs also demonstrated significantly elevated expression of mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis signaling, and cell cycle damage pathways. Cryopreservation during CART manufacture is a viable strategy, based on standard product release parameters. The clinical impact of cryopreservation-related subtle micro-cellular damage needs further study.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(17): 5329-5341, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) therapy targeting CD22 induces remission in 70% of patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, the majority of post-CD22 CART remissions are short and associated with reduction in CD22 expression. We evaluate the implications of low antigen density on the activity of CD22 CART and propose mechanisms to overcome antigen escape. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using ALL cell lines with variable CD22 expression, we evaluate the cytokine profile, cytotoxicity, and in vivo CART functionality in the setting of low CD22 expression. We develop a high-affinity CD22 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) as an approach to improve CAR sensitivity. We also assess Bryostatin1, a therapeutically relevant agent, to upregulate CD22 and improve CAR functionality. RESULTS: We demonstrate that low CD22 expression negatively impacts in vitro and in vivo CD22 CART functionality and impairs in vivo CART persistence. Moreover, low antigen expression on leukemic cells increases naïve phenotype of persisting CART. Increasing CAR affinity does not improve response to low-antigen leukemia. Bryostatin1 upregulates CD22 on leukemia and lymphoma cell lines for 1 week following single-dose exposure, and improves CART functionality and in vivo persistence. While Bryostatin1 attenuates IFNγ production by CART, overall in vitro and in vivo CART cytotoxicity is not adversely affected. Finally, administration of Bryostain1 with CD22 CAR results in longer duration of in vivo response. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that target antigen modulation is a promising strategy to improve CD22 CAR efficacy and remission durability in patients with leukemia and lymphoma.See related commentary by Guedan and Delgado, p. 5188.


Assuntos
Linfoma , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Antígenos CD19 , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos
20.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(11): 1868-1880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092900

RESUMO

On August 30, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) approved tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring and disease assessments. To address these issues, experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant (ASBMT), the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT), formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.

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