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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD009196, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours, and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children younger than five years of age. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update of this review, we searched the following databases on 12 March 2019: Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web), which includes the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 11 March 2019); and ClinicalTrials.gov. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the utility of an EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors selected and retrieved the articles and independently assessed which articles should be included. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion and by consultation with the Cochrane Epilepsy Group. We applied standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: Of 48 potentially eligible studies, no RCTs met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no RCTs as evidence to support or refute the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children under the age of five. An RCT can be planned in such a way that participants are randomly assigned to the EEG group and to the non-EEG group with sufficient sample size. Since the last version of this review, we have found no new studies.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3342, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463823

RESUMO

We report on optimisation of the environmental stability and high temperature operation of surface transfer doping in hydrogen-terminated diamond using MoO3 and V2O5 surface acceptor layers. In-situ annealing of the hydrogenated diamond surface at 400 °C was found to be crucial to enhance long-term doping stability. High temperature sheet resistance measurements up to 300 °C were performed to examine doping thermal stability. Exposure of MoO3 and V2O5 transfer-doped hydrogen-terminated diamond samples up to a temperature of 300 °C in ambient air showed significant and irreversible loss in surface conductivity. Thermal stability was found to improve dramatically however when similar thermal treatment was performed in vacuum or in ambient air when the oxide layers were encapsulated with a protective layer of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ). Inspection of the films by X-ray diffraction revealed greater crystallisation of the MoO3 layers following thermal treatment in ambient air compared to the V2O5 films which appeared to remain amorphous. These results suggest that proper encapsulation and passivation of these oxide materials as surface acceptor layers on hydrogen-terminated diamond is essential to maximise their environmental and thermal stability.

3.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 30(5)2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171961

RESUMO

Background Adolescence is a period of physiological, psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood and is characterized by the onset of menstruation in girls. A adolescent girls are naïve about menstruation and they take time to adapt to these changes both socially and psychologically. This study was carried out to assess the psychosocial impact of menstrual problems among schoolgoing adolescent girls. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study carried out in 350 schoolgoing adolescent girls in the year 2012 in the Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu. Girls who attained menarche 1 year prior to the data collection were included in the study. Data regarding background characteristics and psychosocial impact of menstrual problems were collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS ver. 15 software. The χ2-test was carried out to assess the statistical significance at the 95% level of significance. Results The mean age of the participants was 14.7 years. In this study, 87.7% of the girls had at least one menstrual problem. Among these, 78.5% could not attend school during menstruation, 51.1% were unable to perform household/sports activities (p < 0.001). It was observed that dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia were at increased risk of absenting the girls from school (p < 0.05). Conclusion The key to a sound adolescent health programme is a holistic approach which also focuses on the psychological and social domain of health. This could be achieved by involving all the stakeholders like parents, teachers, etc. to work as a team. It is also essential to develop adolescent friendly health services at the grass root level.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Mudança Social , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Menstruação , Distúrbios Menstruais/complicações , Distúrbios Menstruais/psicologia , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD009196, 2017 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours, and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children younger than five years of age. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update of this review, we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (23 January 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (CRSO, 23 January 2017), MEDLINE (Ovid, 23 January 2017), and ClinicalTrials.gov (23 January 2017). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the utility of an EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors selected and retrieved the articles and independently assessed which articles should be included. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion and by consultation with the Cochrane Epilepsy Group. We applied standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: Of 41 potentially eligible studies, no RCTs met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no RCTs as evidence to support or refute the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. An RCT can be planned in such a way that participants are randomly assigned to the EEG group and to the non-EEG group with sufficient sample size. Since the last version of this review, we have found no new studies.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Convulsões Febris , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3580-8, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26866442

RESUMO

When designing semiconductor heterostructures, it is expected that epitaxial alignment will facilitate low-defect interfaces and efficient vertical transport. Here, we report lattice-matched epitaxial growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) directly on gallium nitride (GaN), resulting in high-quality, unstrained, single-layer MoS2 with strict registry to the GaN lattice. These results present a promising path toward the implementation of high-performance electronic devices based on 2D/3D vertical heterostructures, where each of the 3D and 2D semiconductors is both a template for subsequent epitaxial growth and an active component of the device. The MoS2 monolayer triangles average 1 µm along each side, with monolayer blankets (merged triangles) exhibiting properties similar to that of single-crystal MoS2 sheets. Photoluminescence, Raman, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses identified monolayer MoS2 with a prominent 20-fold enhancement of photoluminescence in the center regions of larger triangles. The MoS2/GaN structures are shown to electrically conduct in the out-of-plane direction, confirming the potential of directly synthesized 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructures for vertical current flow. Finally, we estimate a MoS2/GaN contact resistivity to be less than 4 Ω·cm(2) and current spreading in the MoS2 monolayer of approximately 1 µm in diameter.

6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (12): CD009196, 2015 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26644213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2014.Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children younger than five years of age. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update of this review, we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (6 July 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2005, Issue 6), MEDLINE (6 July 2015) and ClinicalTrials.gov (6 July 2015). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the utility of an EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors selected and retrieved the articles and independently assessed which articles should be included. We resolved disagreements by discussion and by consultation with the Cochrane Epilepsy Group. We applied standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: Of 37 potentially eligible studies, no RCTs met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no RCTs as evidence to support or refute the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. An RCT can be planned in such a way that participants are randomly assigned to the EEG group and to the non-EEG group with sufficient sample size. Since the last version of this review, we found no new studies.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Convulsões Febris , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Nanotechnology ; 25(15): 155702, 2014 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24642948

RESUMO

We have studied temperature-dependent (77-300 K) electrical characteristics and low-frequency noise (LFN) in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based back-gated field-effect transistors (FETs). Electrical characterization and LFN measurements were conducted on MoS2 FETs with Al2O3 top-surface passivation. We also studied the effect of top-surface passivation etching on the electrical characteristics of the device. Significant decrease in channel current and transconductance was observed in these devices after the Al2O3 passivation etching. For passivated devices, the two-terminal resistance variation with temperature showed a good fit to the activation energy model, whereas for the etched devices the trend indicated a hopping transport mechanism. A significant increase in the normalized drain current noise power spectral density (PSD) was observed after the etching of the top passivation layer. The observed channel current noise was explained using a standard unified model incorporating carrier number fluctuation and correlated surface mobility fluctuation mechanisms. Detailed analysis of the gate-referred noise voltage PSD indicated the presence of different trapping states in passivated devices when compared to the etched devices. Etched devices showed weak temperature dependence of the channel current noise, whereas passivated devices exhibited near-linear temperature dependence.

9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (1): CD009196, 2014 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24459080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children younger than five years of age. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialised Register (17 October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 9, 2013), MEDLINE (17 October 2013) and the Clinical Trial Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov (17 October 2013)). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the utility of an EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures in children. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors selected and retrieved the articles and independently assessed which articles should be included. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and by consultation with the Cochrane Epilepsy Group. We applied standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Colloboration. MAIN RESULTS: Of 33 potentially eligible studies, no RCTs met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no RCTs as evidence to support or refute the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children. A randomised controlled trial can be planned in such a way that participants are randomly assigned to the EEG group and to the non-EEG group with sufficient sample size.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Convulsões Febris , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
CMAJ ; 183(6): 696; author reply 696, 2011 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21464181
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