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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(6): 1179-1186, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772511


Sickle cell disease is a potentially debilitating hemoglobinopathy associated with early mortality. The only established curative therapy is hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with a matched sibling donor. The National Institutes of Health nonmyeloablative regimen of alemtuzumab/300 cGy total body irradiation and prolonged sirolimus exposure for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was administered to 16 children and adolescents. Infused products were unmanipulated granulocyte colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. All patients achieved mixed donor-recipient engraftment with no cases of secondary graft failure to date. Two patients have donor myeloid chimerism in the range of 30% to 40%. No sickling crises post-HCT have been observed. Event-free and overall survival rates are 100% with median follow-up of 19.5 months. No cases of GVHD have been observed. Sirolimus weaning was possible in all but one eligible patient to date. Ongoing follow-up and a larger prospective clinical trial are required to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of this regimen in children.

J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 280-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731121


BACKGROUND: Mismatched stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of graft loss, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and transplant-related mortality. Alternative graft manipulation strategies have been used over the last 11 years to reduce these risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the outcome of using different graft manipulation strategies among children with primary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2017, 147 patients with primary immunodeficiencies received 155 mismatched grafts: 30 T-cell receptor (TCR) αß/CD19-depleted grafts, 43 cord blood (CB) grafts (72% with no serotherapy), 17 CD34+ selection with T-cell add-back grafts, and 65 unmanipulated grafts. RESULTS: The estimated 8-year survival of the entire cohort was 79%, transplant-related mortality was 21.7%, and the graft failure rate was 6.7%. Posttransplantation viral reactivation, grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) complicated 49.6%, 35%, and 15% of transplantations, respectively. Use of TCRαß/CD19 depletion was associated with a significantly lower incidence of grade II to IV aGvHD (11.5%) and cGvHD (0%), although with a greater incidence of viral reactivation (70%) in comparison with other grafts. T-cell immune reconstitution was robust among CB transplants, although with a high incidence (56.7%) of grade II to IV aGvHD. Stable full donor engraftment was significantly greater at 80% among TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted and CB transplants versus 40% to 60% among the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly accessible CB and haploidentical grafts are suitable alternatives for patients with no HLA-matched donor. Cord transplantation without serotherapy and TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted grafts produced comparable survival rates of around 80%, although with a high rate of aGvHD with the former and a high risk of viral reactivation with the latter that need to be addressed.

J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(4): 1417-1426.e1, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780238


BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is used as a therapeutic approach for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). The best outcomes have been achieved with HLA-matched donors, but when a matched donor is not available, a haploidentical or mismatched unrelated donor (mMUD) can be useful. Various strategies are used to mitigate the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and rejection associated with such transplants. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the outcomes of haploidentical or mMUD HSCT after depleting GvHD-causing T-cell receptor (TCR) αß CD3+ cells from the graft. METHODS: CD3+TCRαß+/CD19+ depleted grafts were given in conditioned (except 3) children with PIDs. Treosulfan (busulfan in 1 patient), fludarabine, thiotepa, and anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab conditioning were used in 77% of cases, and all but 4 received GvHD prophylaxis. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients with 12 types of PIDs received 26 HSCTs. Three underwent transplantation for refractory GvHD that developed after the first cord transplantation. At a median follow-up of 20.8 months (range, 5 month-3.3 years), 21 of 25 patients survived and were cured of underlying immunodeficiency. Overall and event-free survival at 3 years were 83.9% and 80.4%, respectively. Cumulative incidence of grade II to IV acute GvHD was 22% ± 8.7%. No case of visceral or chronic GvHD was seen. Cumulative incidences of graft failure, cytomegalovirus, and/or adenoviral infections and transplant-related mortality at 1 year were 4.2% ± 4.1%, 58.8% ± 9.8%, and 16.1% ± 7.4%, respectively. Patients undergoing transplantation with systemic viral infections had poor survival in comparison with those with absent or resolved infections (33.3% vs 100%). CONCLUSION: CD3+TCRαß+ and CD19+ cell-depleted haploidentical or mMUD HSCT is a practical and viable alternative for children with a range of PIDs.

Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Alemtuzumab/imunologia , Soro Antilinfocitário/imunologia , Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Bussulfano/imunologia , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tiotepa/imunologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/imunologia