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1.
J Opioid Manag ; 16(3): 215-218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two patient case reports are presented describing the use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the symptomatic relief of a lumbar compression fracture and in the mitigation of thoracic discomfort and dysesthesia secondary to a surgically resected meningioma. DISCUSSION: CBD appears to have antisnociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on opioid-naive patients with neuro-pathic and radicular pain. Of note, the patients in this case series used the same CBD cream: Baskin Essentials Body Wellness Cream (400 mg CBD per two oz.) Conclusion: Hemp-derived CBD in a transdermal cream provided significant symptom and pain relief for the patients described in this case series. Based on these results, we believe further investigation is warranted to see if CBD-containing products should have a more prominent role in the treatment of acute and chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas , Canabidiol , Cannabis , Dor Crônica , Analgésicos Opioides , Dor nas Costas/tratamento farmacológico , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
2.
Pain Physician ; 23(2): E85-E131, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders has become increasingly popular over the last several years, as technology has improved along with the need for better solutions for these pathologies. The use of cellular tissue raises a number of issues regarding the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation in classifying these treatments as a drug versus just autologous tissue transplantation. In the case of BMC in musculoskeletal and spine care, this determination will likely hinge on whether BMC is homologous to the musculoskeletal system and spine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to describe the current regulatory guidelines set in place by the FDA, specifically the terminology around "minimal manipulation" and "homologous use" within Regulation 21 CFR Part 1271, and specifically how this applies to the use of BMC in interventional musculoskeletal medicine. METHODS: The methodology utilized here is similar to the methodology utilized in preparation of multiple guidelines employing the experience of a panel of experts from various medical specialties and subspecialties from differing regions of the world. The collaborators who developed these position statements have submitted their appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest. Trustworthy standards were employed in the creation of these position statements. The literature pertaining to BMC, its effectiveness, adverse consequences, FDA regulations, criteria for meeting the standards of minimal manipulation, and homologous use were comprehensively reviewed using a best evidence synthesis of the available and relevant literature. RESULTS/Summary of Evidence: In conjunction with evidence-based medicine principles, the following position statements were developed: Statement 1: Based on a review of the literature in discussing the preparation of BMC using accepted methodologies, there is strong evidence of minimal manipulation in its preparation, and moderate evidence for homologous utility for various musculoskeletal and spinal conditions qualifies for the same surgical exemption. Statement 2: Assessment of clinical effectiveness based on extensive literature shows emerging evidence for multiple musculoskeletal and spinal conditions. • The evidence is highest for knee osteoarthritis with level II evidence based on relevant systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies. There is level III evidence for knee cartilage conditions. • Based on the relevant systematic reviews, randomized trials, and nonrandomized studies, the evidence for disc injections is level III. • Based on the available literature without appropriate systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials, the evidence for all other conditions is level IV or limited for BMC injections. Statement 3: Based on an extensive review of the literature, there is strong evidence for the safety of BMC when performed by trained physicians with the appropriate precautions under image guidance utilizing a sterile technique. Statement 4: Musculoskeletal disorders and spinal disorders with related disability for economic and human toll, despite advancements with a wide array of treatment modalities. Statement 5: The 21st Century Cures Act was enacted in December 2016 with provisions to accelerate the development and translation of promising new therapies into clinical evaluation and use. Statement 6: Development of cell-based therapies is rapidly proliferating in a number of disease areas, including musculoskeletal disorders and spine. With mixed results, these therapies are greatly outpacing the evidence. The reckless publicity with unsubstantiated claims of beneficial outcomes having putative potential, and has led the FDA Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to issue multiple warnings. Thus the US FDA is considering the appropriateness of using various therapies, including BMC, for homologous use. Statement 7: Since the 1980's and the description of mesenchymal stem cells by Caplan et al, (now called medicinal signaling cells), the use of BMC in musculoskeletal and spinal disorders has been increasing in the management of pain and promoting tissue healing. Statement 8: The Public Health Service Act (PHSA) of the FDA requires minimal manipulation under same surgical procedure exemption. Homologous use of BMC in musculoskeletal and spinal disorders is provided by preclinical and clinical evidence. Statement 9: If the FDA does not accept BMC as homologous, then it will require an Investigational New Drug (IND) classification with FDA (351) cellular drug approval for use. Statement 10: This literature review and these position statements establish compliance with the FDA's intent and corroborates its present description of BMC as homologous with same surgical exemption, and exempt from IND, for use of BMC for treatment of musculoskeletal tissues, such as cartilage, bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and spinal discs. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the review of all available and pertinent literature, multiple position statements have been developed showing that BMC in musculoskeletal disorders meets the criteria of minimal manipulation and homologous use. KEY WORDS: Cell-based therapies, bone marrow concentrate, mesenchymal stem cells, medicinal signaling cells, Food and Drug Administration, human cells, tissues, and cellular tissue-based products, Public Health Service Act (PHSA), minimal manipulation, homologous use, same surgical procedure exemption.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Manejo da Dor/normas , Médicos/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/normas
5.
Pain Physician ; 16(4): 321-34, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23877448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transforaminal technique for epidural steroid injections, unlike other approaches, is uniquely associated with permanent, bilateral, lower extremity paralysis. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature and analyze the reported cases of paralysis from lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections to possibly establish a cause and to prevent this complication. STUDY DESIGN: Eighteen cases of paralysis from transforaminal epidural injection have been reported. We could analyze the position of the needle within the neural foramen based on the available images and/or description among 10 of these 18 cases. Five cases were performed with computed tomography guidance and 12 cases were performed with fluoroscopic guidance [unknown in one case]. Additionally, other variables associated with the procedure, including the technique, were also examined. METHODS: Analysis of the needle position in the neural foramen in cases of paralysis from transforaminal epidural steroid injections. This analysis is based on images and/or description provided in published reports. RESULTS: Paralysis in these cases seems to be associated with a well performed traditional safe triangle approach with good epidural contrast spreads. Analyzed data shows that 77.7% of the time, the needle was in the superior part of the foramen. In 71.4% of the cases, the needle was in the anterior part of the foramen. This coincides with the location of the radicular artery in the foramen. In 22.2%, the needle was in the midzone (neither in the superior nor inferior zone). No level was spared as this event occurred at every foramen from T12 to S1. Ten of these events happened during a left-sided procedure and 8 during a right-sided procedure. No relation to this complication was noted when other variables like type and size of the needles, side of the injection, local anesthetic, contrast, or volume of injectate were taken into consideration. LIMITATIONS: Only 18 cases of paralysis from transforaminal epidurals have been reported. Out of these, only 10 cases included images or descriptions which could be evaluated for our study. CONCLUSION: In light of the anatomical and radiological evidence in the literature that radicular arteries dwell in the superior part of the foramen and along with our needle position analysis, we suggest that the traditional technique of placing the needle in the superior and anterior part of the foramen must be reexamined. Alternative, safer techniques must be considered, one of which is described.


Assuntos
Espaço Epidural , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Dor Lombar/cirurgia , Agulhas , Paralisia/etiologia , Anestésicos Locais , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/efeitos adversos , Injeções Epidurais/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Pain Physician ; 16(2): E51-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23511691
7.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 37(24): 1991-3, 2012 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22941096
9.
Spine J ; 12(2): 113-20, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22405614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Sacral insufficiency fractures and metastases are a source of severe intractable pain, with limited therapeutic options. Sacroplasty has demonstrable efficacy and safety; sacral kyphoplasty, however, is rarely reported. PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of sacral kyphoplasty for sacral insufficiency fractures and metastases. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, with long-term follow-up; rural community-based practice. PATIENT SAMPLE: Patients with sacral insufficiency fractures and metastases. OUTCOME MEASURES: Numerical pain rating scale, opioid equivalent usage. SELF-REPORT MEASURE: Numerical pain rating scale. FUNCTIONAL MEASURE: Opioid equivalent consumption. METHODS: Retrospective analysis. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in pain; overall, an improvement in opioid consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Sacral kyphoplasty appears to be a safe and efficacious procedure, comparable to sacroplasty, in the treatment of SIFs and sacral metastases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas de Estresse/cirurgia , Cifoplastia/métodos , Sacro/lesões , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor nas Costas/tratamento farmacológico , Dor nas Costas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sacro/patologia , Sacro/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Pain Med ; 13(2): 198-203, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22239702

RESUMO

Skeletal metastases can cause severe pain and functional impairment, secondary to direct invasion or osteolysis. Direct palliation of these metastases can reduce the burden of pain. Surgical excision or radiotherapy has been used to target these tumors. In precarious locations, such as the sternum, surgery may lead to significant morbidity. Radiotherapy requires multiple visits, which may be difficult for the severely disabled. Minimally invasive, image-guided procedures are gaining wider acceptance in treating these lesions. Kyphoplasty has been used for vertebral column metastases. Osteoplasty of a metastasis to a flat, non-weight-bearing bone is rarely reported. The author reports the successful palliation of a sternal metastasis with kyphoplasty. Ultrasound imaging was used with fluoroscopy. Reproducibility, by other providers, is imperative with any emerging technique; this will facilitate wider patient access and device innovation. Hopefully, future multicenter trials will validate the efficacy and safety of this technique.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Cifoplastia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Esterno/patologia , Esterno/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Esterno/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
11.
Pain Physician ; 14(2): E119-31, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21412377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) has increased in recent years because this pain had been undertreated. There was also a simultaneous increase in misuse and abuse of opioids. Deaths due to such abuse and misuse also have risen as seen in the many reports published every day in local papers as well as in the medical literature. So, it is imperative that patients who are prescribed these medications be monitored for adherence so misuse and abuse can be curtailed and opioids are available to those who genuinely need them for chronic pain control. There are various screening tools available to monitor such adherence, and there is an abundance of literature about it in addiction and psychiatric medicine. There is, though, a paucity of such literature as applied to pain medicine. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives for this review were twofold. We wanted to identify which screening tools are available to monitor opioid adherence and we wanted to see if there were prospective comparative studies of these tools to identify a single best tool that can be applied to all chronic non-cancer pain patients managed with opioids. STUDY DESIGN: We did a review of the current literature about monitoring of opioid adherence. We also looked at their use, validity, and comparative studies. METHODS: We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library. The search was conducted using the terms opioids, non-cancer pain, monitoring, and adherence. The databases from 1996 to November 2010 were reviewed. The search included prospective and retrospective studies, review articles, and FDA records. Bibliographies and cross references were reviewed when deemed appropriate. CONCLUSION: We found 52 publications, of which 22 met the criteria to be included in this manuscript. We found only one study that was prospective, and compared the various screening tools that are available to monitor opioid adherence. In the majority of the studies the number treated was small. There was not a single screening tool that can be applied universally to all patients who are on opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Adesão à Medicação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Pain Physician ; 13(4): 337-41, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20648202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal analgesia, mediated by opioid receptors, requires only a fraction of the opioid dose that is needed systemically. By infusing a small amount of opioid into the cerebrospinal fluid in close proximity to the receptor sites in the spinal cord, profound analgesia may be achieved while sparing some of the side effects due to systemic opioids. Intraspinal drug delivery (IDD) has been increasingly used in patients with intractable chronic pain, when these patients have developed untoward side effects with systemic opioid usage. The introduction of intrathecal opioids has been considered one of the most important breakthroughs in pain management in the past three decades. A variety of side effects associated with the long-term usage of IDD have been recognized. Among them, respiratory depression is the most feared. OBJECTIVE: To describe a severe adverse event, i.e., respiratory failure, following delayed intrathecal morphine pump refill. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old woman with intractable chronic low back pain, due to degenerative disc disease, and was referred to our clinic for an intraspinal drug delivery evaluation, after failing to respond to multidisciplinary pain treatment. Following a psychological evaluation confirming her candidacy, she underwent an outpatient patient-controlled continuous epidural morphine infusion trial. The infusion trial lasted 12 days and was beneficial in controlling her pain. The patient reported more than 90% pain reduction with improved distance for ambulation. She subsequently consented and was scheduled for permanent intrathecal morphine pump implantation. The intrathecal catheter was inserted at right paramedian L3-L4, with catheter tip advanced to L1, confirmed under fluoroscopy. Intrathecal catheter placement was confirmed by positive CSF flow and by myelogram. A non-programmable Codman 3000 constant-flow rate infusion pump was placed in the right mid quandrant between right rib cage and right iliac crest. The intrathecal infusion consisted of preservative free morphine, delivering 1.0 mg /day. Over the following 6 months, the dosage was gradually titrated up to 4 mg/day with satisfactory pain control without significant side effects. However, the patient was not able to return to the clinic for pump refill until 12 days later than the previously scheduled pump-refill date. Her pump was accessed and was noted to be empty. Her intrathecal pump was refilled with preservative free morphine, delivering 4 mg/day (the same daily dose as her previous refill). However, on the night of pump refill, 10 hours after the pump refill, the patient was found to be unresponsive by her family members. 911 was called. Upon arriving, paramedics found her in respiratory failure, with shallow breathing at a rate of 5/min, pulse oxymetry showing oxygen saturation about 55-58%. She was emergently intubated on site and rushed to local hospital ER. The on call physician for our clinic was immediately contacted, and advised the administration of intravenous Naloxone. Her respiratory effort improved dramatically after receiving a total of 0.6 mg IV Naloxone IV over 25 minutes. Her intrathecal pump was immediately accessed by clinic on call physician and the remainder of the medication in the catheter space was aspirated. The pump infusate was immediately diluted with preservative free normal saline, to deliver preservative free morphine at 1mg/day. She was transferred to the intensive care unit and extubated the next morning. She recovered fully without any sequelae. CONCLUSION: Loss of opioid tolerance due to delayed pump refill may subject patients to the development of severe respiratory depression. Meticulous approach should be employed when refilling pumps in these patients when their pumps are completely empty. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this type.


Assuntos
Tolerância a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Injeções Espinhais/efeitos adversos , Morfina/envenenamento , Dor Intratável/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Contraindicações , Esquema de Medicação , Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis/economia , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis/normas , Injeções Espinhais/métodos , Injeções Espinhais/normas , Dor Intratável/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Pain Physician ; 13(3): 237-44, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20495587

RESUMO

The utilization rate of transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs), an elective diagnostic and therapeutic spinal procedure, has risen dramatically over the past decade. In 2006 alone, greater than 300,000 thoracolumbar TFESIs were performed on Medicare beneficiaries. Despite the purported superiority of the transforaminal route, compared to other modes of epidural injection, TFESIs are associated with potential hazards. The artery of Adamkiewicz (ARM) might enter any mid thoracic, lower thoracic, or lumbar foramen; the exact level, in a specific patient, will be unknown to the proceduralist. The authors propose that the "safe triangle" approach to transforaminal epidural injections is not safe (TFESIs). Injury to the ARM can lead to paraplegia, independent of operator skill or adjuvant safety initiatives (digital subtraction angiography, local anesthetic test dose). Injury to the ARM is a "black swan" event. The authors believe that catastrophic injury may be averted when performing TFESIs by avoiding the "un-safe," superoanterior triangle in the foramen and that transforaminal injections should be performed at the inferior aspect of the foramen, known as Kambin's triangle.


Assuntos
Injeções Epidurais/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Paraplegia/etiologia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/irrigação sanguínea
15.
Pain Physician ; 12(2): 305-21, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19305482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic neck pain represents a significant public health problem. Despite high prevalence rates, there is a lack of consensus regarding the causes or treatments for this condition. Based on controlled evaluations, the cervical intervertebral discs, facet joints, and atlantoaxial joints have all been implicated as pain generators. Cervical provocation discography, which includes disc stimulation and morphological evaluation, is often used to distinguish a painful disc from other potential sources of pain. Yet in the absence of validation and controlled outcome studies, the procedure remains mired in controversy. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of the cervical discography literature. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and usefulness of cervical provocation discography in managing and diagnosing discogenic pain by means of a systematic review. METHODS: Following a comprehensive search of the literature, selected studies were subjected to a modified Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) diagnostic accuracy evaluation. Qualitative analysis was conducted using 5 levels of evidence, ranging from Level I to III with 3 subcategories in Level II. The rating scheme was modified to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: A systematic review of the literature demonstrated that cervical discography plays a significant role in selecting surgical candidates and improving outcomes, despite concerns regarding the false-positive rate, lack of standardization, and assorted potential confounding factors. Based on the studies utilizing the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) criteria, the data show a prevalence rate ranging between 16% and 20%. Based on the 3 studies that utilized IASP criteria during the performance of cervical discography, the evidence derived from studies evaluating the diagnostic validity of the procedure, the indicated level of evidence is Level II-2 based on modified U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include a paucity of literature, poor methodologic quality, and very few studies performed utilizing IASP criteria. CONCLUSION: Cervical discography performed according to the IASP criteria may be a useful tool for evaluating chronic cervical pain, without disc herniation or radiculitis. Based on a modified AHRQ accuracy evaluation and USPSTF level of evidence criteria, this systematic review indicates the strength of evidence as Level II-2 for diagnostic accuracy of cervical discography.


Assuntos
Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Cervicalgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Animais , Vértebras Cervicais , Doença Crônica , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Cervicalgia/etiologia , Cervicalgia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Radiografia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Pain Physician ; 11(5): 631-42, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18850027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though the prevalence of thoracic pain has been reported to be 15% of the general population and up to 22% of the population in interventional pain management settings, the role of thoracic discs as a cause of chronic thoracic and extrathoracic pain has not been well researched. The intervertebral discs, zygapophysial or facet joints, and other structures including the costovertebral and costotransverse joints have been identified as a source of thoracic pain. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the quality of clinical studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of provocation thoracic discography. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of provocation thoracic discography. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic discography with respect to chronic, function limiting, thoracic or extrathoracic pain. Studies meeting the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) methodologic quality criteria with scores of 50 or higher were included for the assessment of the level of evidence. Level of evidence was based on the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria for the assessment of accuracy of diagnostic studies. Based on the level of evidence, recommendations were made according to Guyatt et al's criteria. RESULTS: The clinical value of thoracic provocation discography is limited (Level II-3) with 2C/weak recommendation derived from low quality or very low quality evidence indicating that other alternatives may be equally reasonable. CONCLUSION: Based on the available evidence for this systematic review, thoracic provocation discography is provided with a weak recommendation for the diagnosis of discogenic pain in the thoracic spine, if conservative management has failed. This is qualified by the need to appropriately evaluate and diagnose other causes of chronic thoracic pain including pain originating from thoracic facet joints.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Dor nas Costas/tratamento farmacológico , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
17.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 21(4): 433-8, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18660648

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interventional pain management is an emerging specialty that uses procedures to diagnose and treat chronic pain. Most of these procedures are performed percutaneously and carry a risk of bleeding. Patients undergoing these treatments may be receiving exogenous anticoagulants. The pain practitioner faces a dilemma in performing an elective procedure on a patient with a bleeding risk. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature review about coagulation physiology and pathophysiology, anticoagulants, and bleeding complications in interventional pain would be useful to a busy pain physician. This review aims to meet this knowledge goal. SUMMARY: Knowledge about normal and impaired hemostasis, coupled with a bleeding risk tool, enables practitioners to make informed decisions when offering interventional pain care to their patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Pain Physician ; 10(5): 707-11, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17876369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraspinal drug delivery (IDD) therapy has been increasingly used in patients with intractable, nonmalignant pain who fail to respond to conventional treatment or can not tolerate systemic opioid therapy due to side effects. By infusing a small amount of analgesics directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in close proximity to the receptor sites in the spinal cord, one is able to achieve the spinally mediated analgesia, sparing side effects ffrom systemic opioids. Prior to permanent intraspinal pump implantation, an intraspinal opioid screening trial is required to document the efficacy of intraspinal opioid for analgesia. Although there are a few approaches in conducting such screening trials, a patient-controlled continuous epidural morphine infusion trial, performed in an outpatient setting, is widely accepted by many interventional pain specialists. The major advantage of conducting an outpatient functional opioid infusion trial versus an inpatient trial is that it more closely mimics what the patient does in his or her usual activities of daily living, therefore minimizing the false positive rate of the inpatient screening trial. OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare complication, priapism, observed during an outpatient continuous epidural morphine and bupivacaine infusion trial. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male with intractable, chronic low back pain due to diffuse lumbar degenerative disc disease, lumbar spondylosis referred to our clinic for consideration of IDD therapy, after failing to respond to multi-modality pain management including medications, physical therapy with modality, transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS), and various interventional procedures. Following a pre-implant psychological evaluation, he was scheduled for the outpatient epidural morphine and bupivacaine infusion trial. A tunneled lumbar epidural a catheter was placed at L3-L4 with the catheter tip advanced to L1 under fluoroscopic guidance. The proximal tip of the catheter was then tunneled, subcutaneously, and connected to a Microject PCEA pump (Codman, Raynham, MA, USA) and reservoir bag containing preservative-free morphine 0.4 mg/mL and bupivacaine 0.016%. The pump was programmed to deliver a basal rate of 0.5 mL/h. The bolus dose was 0.2 mL with a 60-minute lock out interval. The patient was instructed how to use the pump properly before discharging home. Two hours following the initiation of infusion trial, the patient started to experience penile erection. It was initially painless, but became progressively painful and intensified. The unremitting priapism lasted 8 hours, finally resolving 2 to 3 hours after discontinuing the infusion. The patient recovered fully without any sequelae. CONCLUSION: Priapism may occur as a rare complication following epidural morphine administration. This report represents the third case report thus far in the literature revealing priapism induced by epidural morphine administration, yet, it is the only report, to our knowledge, describing priapism occurring in a patient undergoing an outpatient epidural morphine and bupivacaine infusion trial. We believe that epidural morphine, rather than bupivacaine, is responsible for causing priapism in this patient, through a yet to be defined spinal mechanism.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Priapismo/induzido quimicamente , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Cateteres de Demora , Terapia por Infusões no Domicílio/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem
19.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 32(14): 1513-20, 2007 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17572621

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive cadaveric study incorporating a novel nerve root marking technique. OBJECTIVES: To describe the displacement and strain of the lumbosacral nerve roots in the lateral recess during straight leg raise (SLR) without disrupting the foraminal ligaments. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies document 2 to 8 mm of lumbosacral nerve root displacement during SLR. Prior dissection methods incorporated laminectomy and facetectomy. METHODS: Lower limbs and associated nerve roots of 5 unembalmed cadavers (n = 10) were studied. Metal markers were inserted intraneurally within the lateral recess of L4, L5, and S1 with a modified spinal needle. Fluoroscopic images were digitized to evaluate displacement and strain during SLR. RESULTS: The lumbosacral nerve roots in the lateral recess moved less and experienced less strain during SLR than described in previously published reports. Statistically significant distal displacement occurred at hip positions greater than 60 degrees of flexion at all nerve root levels (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The lumbosacral nerve roots (L4, L5, S1) moved less and underwent less strain during SLR testing than previously reported and may require hip motion greater than 60 degrees to produce substantive displacement in the lateral recess. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of prepositioning during SLR.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Plexo Lombossacral/fisiologia , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/inervação , Plexo Lombossacral/anatomia & histologia , Região Lombossacral/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/anatomia & histologia , Estresse Mecânico
20.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 32(14): 1521-5, 2007 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17572622

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: An inferential cadaveric study. OBJECTIVES: To compare the displacement and strain of the lumbosacral nerve roots during different conditions of straight leg raise (SLR) with intact foraminal ligaments. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Clinicians use sensitizing movements such as dorsiflexion during neurodynamic testing, assuming that these prepositions influence the displacement or strain to the lumbosacral nerve roots. Little is known about the effect of these prepositions on neurodynamic behavior. METHODS: Lower limbs and associated nerve roots of 5 unembalmed cadavers (n = 10) were used to evaluate the displacement and strain of the L4, L5, and S1 roots during 2 different SLR conditions. Fluoroscopic images of intraneural metal markers were digitized to evaluate displacement and strain during SLR with no preposition (SLR NPP) of the ankle and SLR with dorsiflexion preposition (SLR DF) of the ankle, respectively. RESULTS: SLR NPP produced larger distal displacement at L5 and S1, (P < 0.001) when compared with SLR DF. Displacement comparisons at L4 were nonsignificant (P = 0.051). While nonsignificant, medium to large effect sizes (0.60-0.96) suggest that SLR DF may produce more strain than the SLR NPP condition. CONCLUSIONS: Prepositions of the SLR test alter the displacement and possibly the strain of the lumbosacral nerve roots in the lateral recess.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Plexo Lombossacral/fisiologia , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/inervação , Plexo Lombossacral/anatomia & histologia , Região Lombossacral/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/anatomia & histologia , Estresse Mecânico
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