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1.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103062, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal models and observational epidemiology points to a role for chronic inflammation, in which interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a key player, in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unknown whether IL-6 mediated inflammation is implicated in the pathophysiology of T2D. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies to investigate associations between IL-6 levels and incident T2D including 5,421 cases and 31,562 non-cases. We also estimated the association of a loss-of-function missense variant (Asp358Ala) in the IL-6 receptor gene (IL6R), previously shown to mimic the effects of IL-6R inhibition, in a large trans-ethnic meta-analysis of six T2D case-control studies including 260,614 cases and 1,350,640 controls. FINDINGS: In a meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies, higher levels of IL-6 (per log pg/mL) were significantly associated with a higher risk of incident T2D (1·24 95% CI, 1·17, 1·32; P = 1 × 10-12). In a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of 260,614 cases and 1,350,640 controls, the IL6R Asp358Ala missense variant was associated with lower odds of T2D (OR, 0·98; 95% CI, 0·97, 0·99; P = 2 × 10-7). This association was not due to diagnostic misclassification and was consistent across ethnic groups. IL-6 levels mediated up to 5% of the association between higher body mass index and T2D. INTERPRETATION: Large-scale human prospective and genetic data provide evidence that IL-6 mediated inflammation is implicated in the etiology of T2D but suggest that the impact of this pathway on disease risk in the general population is likely to be small. FUNDING: The EPICNorfolk study has received funding from the Medical Research Council (MRC) (MR/N003284/1, MC-UU_12015/1 and MC_PC_13048) and Cancer Research UK (C864/A14136). The Fenland Study is funded by the MRC (MC_UU_12015/1 and MC_PC_13046).

2.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003394, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 327-337, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059762

RESUMO

We aimed to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of vitamin D levels by undertaking a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). To do so, we used imputed genotypes from 401,460 white British UK Biobank participants with available 25OHD levels, retaining single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.1% and imputation quality score > 0.3. We performed a linear mixed model GWAS on standardized log-transformed 25OHD, adjusting for age, sex, season of measurement, and vitamin D supplementation. These results were combined with those from a previous GWAS including 42,274 Europeans. In silico functional follow-up of the GWAS results was undertaken to identify enrichment in gene sets, pathways, and expression in tissues, and to investigate the partitioned heritability of 25OHD and its shared heritability with other traits. Using this approach, the SNP heritability of 25OHD was estimated to 16.1%. 138 conditionally independent SNPs were detected (p value < 6.6 × 10-9) among which 53 had MAF < 5%. Single variant association signals mapped to 69 distinct loci, among which 63 were previously unreported. We identified enrichment in hepatic and lipid metabolism gene pathways and enriched expression of the 25OHD genes in liver, skin, and gastrointestinal tissues. We observed partially shared heritability between 25OHD and socio-economic traits, a feature which may be mediated through time spent outdoors. Therefore, through a large 25OHD GWAS, we identified 63 loci that underline the contribution of genes outside the vitamin D canonical metabolic pathway to the genetic architecture of 25OHD.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/sangue
4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 113, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population studies suggest that genetic factors play an important role in refractive error development; however, the precise role of genetic background and the composition of the signaling pathways underlying refractive eye development remain poorly understood. METHODS: Here, we analyzed normal refractive development and susceptibility to form-deprivation myopia in the eight progenitor mouse strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC). We used RNA-seq to analyze gene expression in the retinae of these mice and reconstruct genetic networks and signaling pathways underlying refractive eye development. We also utilized genome-wide gene-based association analysis to identify mouse genes and pathways associated with myopia in humans. RESULTS: Genetic background strongly influenced both baseline refractive development and susceptibility to environmentally-induced myopia. Baseline refractive errors ranged from - 21.2 diopters (D) in 129S1/svlmj mice to + 22.0 D in CAST/EiJ mice and represented a continuous distribution typical of a quantitative genetic trait. The extent of induced form-deprivation myopia ranged from - 5.6 D in NZO/HILtJ mice to - 20.0 D in CAST/EiJ mice and also followed a continuous distribution. Whole-genome (RNA-seq) gene expression profiling in retinae from CC progenitor strains identified genes whose expression level correlated with either baseline refractive error or susceptibility to myopia. Expression levels of 2,302 genes correlated with the baseline refractive state of the eye, whereas 1,917 genes correlated with susceptibility to induced myopia. Genome-wide gene-based association analysis in the CREAM and UK Biobank human cohorts revealed that 985 of the above genes were associated with myopia in humans, including 847 genes which were implicated in the development of human myopia for the first time. Although the gene sets controlling baseline refractive development and those regulating susceptibility to myopia overlapped, these two processes appeared to be controlled by largely distinct sets of genes. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison with data for other animal models of myopia revealed that the genes identified in this study comprise a well-defined set of retinal signaling pathways, which are highly conserved across different vertebrate species. These results identify major signaling pathways involved in refractive eye development and provide attractive targets for the development of anti-myopia drugs.


Assuntos
Olho/fisiopatologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Miopia/genética , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/genética , Animais , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Camundongos de Cruzamento Colaborativo , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Camundongos , Retina/patologia , Retina/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
5.
Hum Genet ; 138(7): 723-737, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073882

RESUMO

Strabismus refers to an abnormal alignment of the eyes leading to the loss of central binocular vision. Concomitant strabismus occurs when the angle of deviation is constant in all positions of gaze and often manifests in early childhood when it is considered to be a neurodevelopmental disorder of the visual system. As such, it is inherited as a complex genetic trait, affecting 2-4% of the population. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for self-reported strabismus (1345 cases and 65,349 controls from UK Biobank) revealed a single genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 17q25. Approximately 20 variants across the NPLOC4-TSPAN10-PDE6G gene cluster and in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) were most strongly associated (lead variant: rs75078292, OR = 1.26, p = 2.24E-08). A recessive model provided a better fit to the data than an additive model. Association with strabismus was independent of refractive error, and the degree of association with strabismus was minimally attenuated after adjustment for amblyopia. The association with strabismus was replicated in an independent cohort of clinician-diagnosed children aged 7 years old (116 cases and 5084 controls; OR = 1.85, p = 0.009). The associated variants included 2 strong candidate causal variants predicted to have functional effects: rs6420484, which substitutes tyrosine for a conserved cysteine (C177Y) in the TSPAN10 gene, and a 4-bp deletion variant, rs397693108, predicted to cause a frameshift in TSPAN10. The population-attributable risk for the locus was approximately 8.4%, indicating an important role in conferring susceptibility to strabismus.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estrabismo/genética , Estrabismo/patologia , Tetraspaninas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Estrabismo/metabolismo , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo , Acuidade Visual
6.
Hum Genet ; 137(11-12): 881-896, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306274

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that naturally occurring genetic variation contributes to the risk of astigmatism. The purpose of this investigation was to identify genetic markers associated with corneal and refractive astigmatism in a large-scale European ancestry cohort (UK Biobank) who underwent keratometry and autorefraction at an assessment centre. Genome-wide association studies for corneal and refractive astigmatism were performed in individuals of European ancestry (N = 86,335 and 88,005 respectively), with the mean corneal astigmatism or refractive astigmatism in fellow eyes analysed as a quantitative trait (dependent variable). Genetic correlation between the two traits was calculated using LD Score regression. Gene-based and gene-set tests were carried out using MAGMA. Single marker-based association tests for corneal astigmatism identified four genome-wide significant loci (P < 5 × 10-8) near the genes ZC3H11B (1q41), LINC00340 (6p22.3), HERC2/OCA2 (15q13.1) and NPLOC4/TSPAN10 (17q25.3). Three of these loci also demonstrated genome-wide significant association with refractive astigmatism: LINC00340, HERC2/OCA2 and NPLOC4/TSPAN10. The genetic correlation between corneal and refractive astigmatism was 0.85 (standard error = 0.068, P = 1.37 × 10-35). Here, we have undertaken the largest genome-wide association studies for corneal and refractive astigmatism to date and identified four novel loci for corneal astigmatism, two of which were also novel loci for refractive astigmatism. These loci have previously demonstrated association with axial length (ZC3H11B), myopia (NPLOC4), spherical equivalent refractive error (LINC00340) and eye colour (HERC2). The shared role of these novel candidate genes for astigmatism lends further support to the shared genetic susceptibility of myopia and astigmatism.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/genética , Doenças da Córnea/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Miopia/genética , Astigmatismo/patologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Córnea/patologia , Doenças da Córnea/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Reino Unido
7.
Nat Genet ; 50(6): 834-848, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808027

RESUMO

Refractive errors, including myopia, are the most frequent eye disorders worldwide and an increasingly common cause of blindness. This genome-wide association meta-analysis in 160,420 participants and replication in 95,505 participants increased the number of established independent signals from 37 to 161 and showed high genetic correlation between Europeans and Asians (>0.78). Expression experiments and comprehensive in silico analyses identified retinal cell physiology and light processing as prominent mechanisms, and also identified functional contributions to refractive-error development in all cell types of the neurosensory retina, retinal pigment epithelium, vascular endothelium and extracellular matrix. Newly identified genes implicate novel mechanisms such as rod-and-cone bipolar synaptic neurotransmission, anterior-segment morphology and angiogenesis. Thirty-one loci resided in or near regions transcribing small RNAs, thus suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. Our results support the notion that refractive errors are caused by a light-dependent retina-to-sclera signaling cascade and delineate potential pathobiological molecular drivers.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cegueira/genética , Cegueira/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Erros de Refração/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Mol Vis ; 24: 127-142, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422769

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. Methods: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) cohorts was performed by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Cases were defined as having >0.75 diopters of corneal astigmatism. Subsequent gene-based and gene-set analyses of the meta-analyzed results of European ancestry cohorts were performed using VEGAS2 and MAGMA software. Additionally, estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability for corneal and refractive astigmatism and the spherical equivalent were calculated for Europeans using LD score regression. Results: The meta-analysis of all cohorts identified a genome-wide significant locus near the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) gene: top SNP: rs7673984, odds ratio=1.12 (95% CI:1.08-1.16), p=5.55×10-9. No other genome-wide significant loci were identified in the combined analysis or European/Asian ancestry-specific analyses. Gene-based analysis identified three novel candidate genes for corneal astigmatism in Europeans-claudin-7 (CLDN7), acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal (ACP2), and TNF alpha-induced protein 8 like 3 (TNFAIP8L3). Conclusions: In addition to replicating a previously identified genome-wide significant locus for corneal astigmatism near the PDGFRA gene, gene-based analysis identified three novel candidate genes, CLDN7, ACP2, and TNFAIP8L3, that warrant further investigation to understand their role in the pathogenesis of corneal astigmatism. The much lower number of genetic variants and genes demonstrating an association with corneal astigmatism compared to published spherical equivalent GWAS analyses suggest a greater influence of rare genetic variants, non-additive genetic effects, or environmental factors in the development of astigmatism.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/genética , Astigmatismo/genética , Claudinas/genética , Doenças da Córnea/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Astigmatismo/etnologia , Astigmatismo/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Córnea/metabolismo , Córnea/patologia , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Doenças da Córnea/etnologia , Doenças da Córnea/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software
9.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(2): 1158-1166, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28245296

RESUMO

Purpose: Time outdoors during childhood is negatively associated with incident myopia. Consequently, additional time outdoors has been suggested as a public health intervention to reduce the prevalence of myopia. We investigated whether there were specific ages during early childhood when the time outdoors versus incident myopia association was strongest. Methods: Children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied from age 2 to 15 years. Parentally reported time outdoors and time spent reading were assessed longitudinally in early childhood (ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 years). Noncycloplegic autorefraction was carried out longitudinally in later childhood (ages 10, 11, 12, and 15 years). Information was available for 2833 participants. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for association between time outdoors and incident myopia. Results: From 3 years of age onward, greater time outdoors was associated with a reduced risk of incident myopia. The hazard ratio for myopia changed progressively from 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98, P = 0.012) at age 3 years, to 0.86 (95% CI 0.78-0.93, P = 0.001) at age 9 years, for each additional SD of time spent outdoors per day. These associations were independent of two major risk factors for myopia: time reading and number of myopic parents. Conclusions: Additional time spent outdoors across the 3 to 9 years age range was associated with a reduced incidence of myopia between ages 10 and 15 years. There was a trend for the association to increase toward the older end of the 3 to 9 years range.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Miopia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Miopia/etiologia , Prevalência , Leitura , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
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