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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253106, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345544


Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar modelos baseados em dados para previsão da produção florestal em diferentes cenários de mudanças climáticas na divisão florestal Gallies do distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os modelos Random Forest (RF) e Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) foram desenvolvidos e avaliados usando dados de produção de duas espécies (pinheiro-azul e abeto-prateado) como uma variável objetiva e dados climáticos (temperatura, umidade, precipitação e velocidade do vento) como preditivos variáveis. A precisão da previsão de ambos os modelos foi avaliada por meio de erro quadrático médio (RMSE), erro absoluto médio (MAE), coeficiente de correlação (r), erro quadrático médio relativo (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), índice de Willmott (WI) e métricas Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE). No geral, o modelo RF superou o modelo KRR devido à sua maior precisão na previsão do rendimento florestal. O estudo recomenda fortemente que o modelo RF seja aplicado em outras regiões do país para previsão do crescimento e produtividade florestal, o que pode ajudar no manejo e planejamento futuro da produtividade florestal no Paquistão.

Mudança Climática , Paquistão
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509


This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.

Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.

Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Florestas , Gastroenteropatias , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão
Braz J Biol ; 83: e271009, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37672433


Salt stress and heavy metal are instigating hazard to crops, menace to agricultural practices. Single and combined stresses affecting adversely to the growth and metabolism of plants. To explore salt and heavy metal resistant plant lines as phytoremediants is a need of time. Physiological responses are main adaptive responses of the plants towards stresses. This response varies with species and ecotype as well as type and level of stress. Two cucurbit weeds from two ecotypes were selected to evaluate their physiological adaptations against independent and combined stresses of various levels of salt (NaCl) and heavy metal (NiCl2). Various physiological parameters like water potential, osmotic potential, pressure potential, CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, and production of adaptive chemicals like SOD, CAT, proteins, sugars and proline were studied. Citrullus colocynthis showed more adaptive response than Cucumis melo agrestis and desert ecotype was more successful than agricultural ecotype against stresses.

Metais Pesados , Plantas Daninhas , Clorofila A , Adaptação Fisiológica , Agricultura , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
Anat Histol Embryol ; 2023 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37724616


The mammalian snout has Meissner's corpuscles (MCs), which transmit epicritic sensations as the animal explores its surroundings. To comprehend the somatosensory acuity in mammals, we examined the structural organization and density of bovine Meissner-like corpuscles (BMLCs) at various ages and compared the changes with other mammalian MCs. The skin from the snout of cows or oxen (2-11 years old) was obtained and processed through routine histological technique. Five-µm thick sections were prepared, silver stained according to the Bielschowsky technique as modified by Winkelman and Schmidt (Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 1957, 217), and observed under a compound light microscope quantitatively and qualitatively. The glabrous skin of the cow snout consisted of two types of BMLCs: One was a cylindrical or elongated structure found in the dermal papillae. The other type was spherical and developed in the superficial layers of the epidermis. BMLCs consisted of both coarse and fine nerve fibres. In the young, the corpuscle comprised thin nerve fibres with indistinct cell outlines. In adults, nerve fibres in the corpuscles were closely packed, and networks, varicosities and end bulbs were well developed. With advancing age, the MCs attenuated into a disorganized mass of nerve fibres. The bovine snout is a highly evolved somatosensory organ due to its rich nerve supply and functionally resembles the anthropoid fingertip. Somatosensory acuity will be lower in the glabrous bovine skin than in primate glabrous skin of the fingertip, as the nerve terminals within the BMLCs are less elaborate in content and structural complexity.

bioRxiv ; 2023 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37461525


Loss of proteostasis is a hallmark of aging and Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we identify ß-hydroxybutyrate (ßHB), a ketone body, as a regulator of protein solubility in the aging brain. ßHB is a small molecule metabolite which primarily provides an oxidative substrate for ATP during hypoglycemic conditions, and also regulates other cellular processes through covalent and noncovalent protein interactions. We demonstrate ßHB-induced protein insolubility across in vitro , ex vivo , and in vivo mouse systems. This activity is shared by select structurally similar metabolites, is not dependent on covalent protein modification, pH, or solute load, and is observable in mouse brain in vivo after delivery of a ketone ester. Furthermore, this phenotype is selective for pathological proteins such as amyloid-ß, and exogenous ßHB ameliorates pathology in nematode models of amyloid-ß aggregation toxicity. We have generated a comprehensive atlas of the ßHB-induced protein insolublome ex vivo and in vivo using mass spectrometry proteomics, and have identified common protein domains within ßHB target sequences. Finally, we show enrichment of neurodegeneration-related proteins among ßHB targets and the clearance of these targets from mouse brain, likely via ßHB-induced autophagy. Overall, these data indicate a new metabolically regulated mechanism of proteostasis relevant to aging and AD.

Psychiatry Res ; 326: 115301, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37390600


An unseen wave of vast infection was detected in China in December 2022, and healthcare workers faced inevitable challenges and heavy stress. We aimed to present a dynamic mental health map and, most importantly, provide a timely report of the current situation in healthcare workers. The current study conducted four national cross-sectional online surveys from February and March 2020, Apr 2022, and Jan 2023. The Psychosomatic Symptom Scale (PSSS) and Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) were used to assess psychosomatic symptoms and perceived stress. Fourteen thousand nine hundred forty-five participants (8578 healthcare workers and 6367 others) participated in the surveys. The prevalence of psychosomatic syndrome, reflected by PSSS, was 19.3% (Wave1), 22.9% (Wave2), 36.4% (Wave3), and 60.7% (Wave4) among healthcare workers, compared to 24.0% (Wave1), 35.7% (Wave2), 34.2% (Wave3) and 50.5% (Wave4) among the others. In addition, healthcare workers exhibited lower PSSS total scores at the beginning but higher in later waves. Despite their infection status, they now suffer from more severe psychosomatic symptoms than the rest of society. Our findings suggest that healthcare workers in China have now experienced severe psychosomatic symptoms and tremendous stress. Therefore, there is an urgent need to utilize social support for them.

Adv Mater ; : e2302410, 2023 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37380199


Microneedle arrays (MNAs) are small patches containing hundreds of short projections that deliver signals directly to dermal layers without causing pain. These technologies are of special interest for immunotherapy and vaccine delivery because they directly target immune cells concentrated in the skin. The targeting abilities of MNAs result in efficient immune responses-often more protective or therapeutic-compared to conventional needle delivery. MNAs also offer logistical benefits, such as self-administration and transportation without refrigeration. Thus, numerous preclinical and clinical studies are exploring these technologies. Here we discuss the unique advantages of MNA, as well as critical challenges - such as manufacturing and sterility issues - the field faces to enable widespread deployment. We explain how MNA design parameters can be exploited for controlled release of vaccines and immunotherapies, and the application to preclinical models of infection, cancer, autoimmunity, and allergies. We also discuss specific strategies to reduce off-target effects compared to conventional vaccine delivery routes, and novel chemical and manufacturing controls that enable cargo stability in MNAs across flexible intervals and temperatures. We then examine clinical research using MNAs. We conclude with drawbacks of MNAs and the implications, and emerging opportunities to exploit MNAs for immune engineering and clinical use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 2023 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37381779


INTRODUCTION: The healthcare sector contributes the equivalent of 4.4% of global net emissions to the climate carbon footprint; between 20% and 70% of healthcare waste originates from a hospital's operating theatre and up to 90% of waste is sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. This study aimed to quantify the amount and type of waste produced during an arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR), calculate the carbon footprint and assess the cost of the waste disposal. METHODS: The amount of waste generated from ACLR and RCR procedures was calculated across a range of hospital sites. The waste was separated primarily into clean and contaminated, paper or plastic. Both carbon footprint and cost of disposal across the hospital sites was subsequently calculated. RESULTS: RCR generated 3.3-15.5kg of plastic waste and 0.9-2.3kg of paper waste. ACLR generated 2.4-9.6kg of plastic waste and 1.1-1.6kg of paper waste. The cost to process waste varies widely between hospital sites, waste disposal contractors and method of waste disposal. The annual burden of the included hospital sites for the arthroscopic procedures undertaken was 6.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide. CONCLUSIONS: The data collected demonstrated a significant variability in waste production and cost for waste disposal between hospital sites. At a national level, consideration should be given to the procurement of appropriate products such that waste can be efficiently recycled or disposed of by environmentally sustainable methods.

J Parasit Dis ; 47(2): 265-270, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37193488


The present study was carried out to isolate and identify various species of Eimeria and to study overall prevalence of coccidiosis in central Kashmir (Srinagar, Ganderbal and Budgam). A total of 45 outbreaks, 15 from each district, of coccidiosis in chicken were recorded over the period of two years. A total of 15, 15, 10 and 5 outbreaks were recorded in chicken of 2-3, 3-4, 4-5 weeks of age and layers, respectively. The overall mortality in the flocks was 2.6%, with the highest mortality of 3.2% recorded in the age group of 3-4 weeks. An overall prevalence of coccidiosis among the total necropsies was 10.63%. A total of seven different species of Eimeria were identified in broilers and layers namely E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. necatrix, E. mitis, E. praecox and E. brunetti. Among these species, E. tenella (39.7%) was recorded with highest and E. brunetti (3.1%) with lowest prevalence in broilers, whereas, in case of layers E. necatrix (27.7%) recorded highest and E. mitis, E. praecox and E. brunetti (2.7%) recorded the lowest prevalence. Morphometrically, oocyst of Eimeria maxima (30.4 × 20.8 µm) and Eimeria mitis (16.21 × 16.0 µm) exhibited the largest and smallest sizes, respectively. Most of the Eimeria species had a sporulation time of 18 h with highest in Eimeria maxima (30 h) and lowest in E. praecox (12 h).

Trop Med Infect Dis ; 8(4)2023 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37104351


Considering the ecological diversity of E. coli, the main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, phylogroup diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolated from 383 different clinical and environmental sources. In total, varied prevalence was observed of the 197 confirmed E. coli that were isolated (human-100%, animal-67.5%, prawn-49.23%, soil-30.58%, and water-27.88%). Of these isolates, 70 (36%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR). MDR E. coli was significantly associated with their sources (χ2 = 29.853, p = 0.001). Humans (51.67%) and animals (51.85%) carried more MDR E. coli than other environments. The eae gene indicative of recent fecal contamination was not detected in any isolate, indicating that these E. coli isolates could be present in these environments for a long time and became naturalized. Phylogroup B1 (48.22%) was the predominant group, being present in all hosts analyzed and with the commensal E. coli group A (26.9%) representing the second predominant group. According to chi-square analysis, phylogroup B1 was significantly associated with E. coli from humans (p = 0.024), soil (p < 0.001) and prawn samples (p < 0.001). Human samples were significantly associated with phylogroup B1 (p = 0.024), D (p < 0.001), and F (p = 0.016) of E. coli strains, whereas phylogroup A (p < 0.001), C (p < 0.001), and E (p = 0.015) were associated with animal samples. Correspondence analysis results also indicated the association of these phylogroups with their hosts/sources. The findings of this study exhibited a non-random distribution of phylogenetic groups, though the diversity index was highest for human E. coli phylogroups.

J Affect Disord ; 331: 17-24, 2023 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36934851


BACKGROUND: Two years have passed since the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported. The persistent pandemic might lead to severe psychosomatic problems and fatigue. In addition, the recent rapid rising COVID-19 cases in China have become a trending issue. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in psychosomatic problems at the initial and current stages of the pandemic. METHODS: Three waves of cross-sectional online survey were conducted during the initial COVID outbreak in China. The psychosomatic symptom scale (PSSS), perceived stress scale (PSS), and pandemic fatigue scale (PFS) were used to assess the psychosomatic problems, stress, and fatigue. RESULTS: 4317, 1096, and 2172 participants completed the first, second, and third surveys. The prevalence of psychosomatic disorder was 22 %, 28 %, and 39 %, respectively. The network structure of PSSS symptoms has not significantly changed as the pandemic progresses. However, the global strength of the PSSS networks, indicating the overall connectivity, in the third wave was significantly higher than in the first wave (s = 0.54, P = 0.007). The most central symptoms in the first and third wave networks were depressed mood and tiredness. The PFS score was higher in the people concerned with indirect impact than those concerned with health (P < 0.001). PFS has positive relationships with PSSS and PSS score (R = 0.41, P < 0.001 and R = 0.35, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The persistence of the pandemic caused critical psychosomatic issues, stress, and indirect burden over time, leading to inevitable fatigue. People endured needing immediate attention to prevent or reduce psychosomatic disorders.

COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia
Indian J Tuberc ; 70(1): 42-48, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36740317


BACKGROUND: Diagnostic modalities for diagnosing Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium group of organisms include mainly AFB smear by Ziehl Neelsen carbol fuchsin smear microscopy, GeneXpert (CB NAAT) molecular method, Line probe assay (Molecular method) and AFB culture (Liquid automated systems and solid media) methods. METHODS: This study was initiated to understand and prioritize TB lab diagnosis, with reference to selection of lab diagnostic tests and its order of preference for MTC and NTM/MOTT closely associating it with the TB irradication program initiated by the Government of India. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: The results and discussion bring to light the importance of each test and the purpose of their requisition. When diagnosis is handled half heartedly eradication of TB becomes a challenge. All the efforts including planning, resources in the form of manpower, infrastructure, finances, education, time etc., would be hampered. This challenge is not only for India but the globe. For countries harboring TB, Correct diagnostic request and timely diagnosis and treatment is the key to eradication of tuberculosis.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Rifampina , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Microscopia , Escarro/microbiologia
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 74: 467-492, 2023 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36854178


We review our recent quantum stochastic model for spectroscopic lineshapes in the presence of a coevolving and nonstationary background population of excitations. Starting from a field theory description for interacting bosonic excitons, we derive a reduced model whereby optical excitons are coupled to an incoherent background via scattering as mediated by their screened Coulomb coupling. The Heisenberg equations of motion for the optical excitons are then driven by an auxiliary stochastic population variable, which we take to be the solution of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we present an overview of the theoretical techniques we have developed as applied to predicting coherent nonlinear spectroscopic signals. We show how direct (Coulomb) and exchange coupling to the bath give rise to distinct spectral signatures and discuss mathematical limits on inverting spectral signatures to extract the background density of states.

JCI Insight ; 8(1)2023 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625345


Substantial clinical evidence supports the notion that ciliary function in the airways is important in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Although ciliary damage has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo models, the extent or nature of impairment of mucociliary transport (MCT) in in vivo models remains unknown. We hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in MCT deficiency in the airways of golden Syrian hamsters that precedes pathological injury in lung parenchyma. Micro-optical coherence tomography was used to quantitate functional changes in the MCT apparatus. Both genomic and subgenomic viral RNA pathological and physiological changes were monitored in parallel. We show that SARS-CoV-2 infection caused a 67% decrease in MCT rate as early as 2 days postinfection (dpi) in hamsters, principally due to 79% diminished airway coverage of motile cilia. Correlating quantitation of physiological, virological, and pathological changes reveals steadily descending infection from the upper airways to lower airways to lung parenchyma within 7 dpi. Our results indicate that functional deficits of the MCT apparatus are a key aspect of COVID-19 pathogenesis, may extend viral retention, and could pose a risk factor for secondary infection. Clinically, monitoring abnormal ciliated cell function may indicate disease progression. Therapies directed toward the MCT apparatus deserve further investigation.

COVID-19 , Cricetinae , Animais , Mesocricetus , COVID-19/patologia , Depuração Mucociliar , SARS-CoV-2 , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Progressão da Doença
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285612


Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.

Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Paquistão , Carbono/análise , Florestas
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242708, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339382


Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.

Resumo MicroRNAs (miRNAs) são genes essenciais não codificadores de proteínas. Em uma variedade de organismos, foi relatado que miRNAs desempenham papel essencial na regulação da expressão gênica em nível pós-transcricional. Eles participam da maioria dos processos responsivos ao estresse nas plantas. A seca é um estresse abiótico final que afeta a produção agrícola. Portanto, compreender as respostas ao estresse da seca é essencial para melhorar a produção de safras agrícolas. Ao longo da evolução, as plantas desenvolveram seus próprios sistemas de defesa para lidar com as adversidades do estresse ambiental. Entre os mecanismos de defesa está a regulação da expressão gênica por miRNAs. O estresse hídrico regula a expressão de alguns dos miRNAs funcionalmente conservados em diferentes plantas. As propriedades dadas dos miRNAs fornecem uma visão das alterações genéticas e aumentam a resistência à seca nas safras de cereais. A revisão atual apresenta um resumo dos mecanismos regulatórios nas plantas, bem como a resposta dos miRNAs ao estresse hídrico nas plantações de cereais. Algumas abordagens e diretrizes possíveis para a exploração das respostas do miRNA ao estresse da seca para melhorar as safras de cereais também são descritas.

MicroRNAs/genética , Secas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produção Agrícola
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391


Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.

Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.

Animais , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas , Fósforo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Fertilizantes , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Larva , Nitrogênio
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395


Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.

Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.

Basidiomycota/genética , Triticum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245372, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339409


Abstract Hybridization and Polyploidization are most common of the phenomenon observed in plants, especially in the genus Nicotiana leading to the duplication of genome. Although genomic changes associated with these events has been studied at various levels but the genome size and GC content variation is less understood because of absence of sufficient genomic data. In this study the flow cytometry technique was used to uncover the genome size and GC contents of 46 Nicotiana species and we compared the genomic changes associated with the hybridization events along evolutionary time scale. The genome size among Nicotiana species varied between 3.28 pg and 11.88 pg whereas GC contents varied between 37.22% and 51.25%. The tetraploid species in genus Nicotiana including section Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica and Sauveolentes revealed both up and downsizing in their genome sizes when compared to the sum of genomes of their ancestral species. The genome sizes of three homoploid hybrids were found near their ancestral species. Loss of large genome sequence was observed in the evolutionary more aged species (>10 Myr) as compared to the recently evolved one's (<0.2 Myr). The GC contents were found homogenous with a mean difference of 2.46% among the Nicotiana species. It is concluded that genome size change appeared in either direction whereas the GC contents were found more homogenous in genus Nicotiana.

Resumo A hibridização e a poliploidização são os fenômenos mais comuns observados em plantas, principalmente no gênero Nicotiana, levando à duplicação do genoma. Embora as mudanças genômicas associadas a esses eventos tenham sido estudadas em vários níveis, o tamanho do genoma e a variação do conteúdo de GC são menos compreendidos devido à ausência de dados genômicos suficientes. Neste estudo, a técnica de citometria de fluxo foi usada para descobrir o tamanho do genoma e o conteúdo de GC de 46 espécies de Nicotiana, e comparamos as mudanças genômicas associadas aos eventos de hibridização ao longo da escala de tempo evolutiva. O tamanho do genoma entre as espécies de Nicotiana variou entre 3,28 pg e 11,88 pg, enquanto os conteúdos de GC variaram entre 37,22% e 51,25%. As espécies tetraploides do gênero Nicotiana, incluindo as seções Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica e Sauveolentes, revelaram aumento e redução do tamanho do genoma quando comparados à soma dos genomas de suas espécies ancestrais. Os tamanhos do genoma de três híbridos homoploides foram encontrados perto de suas espécies ancestrais. A perda da grande sequência do genoma foi observada nas espécies evolutivas mais velhas (> 10 Myr) em comparação com as que evoluíram recentemente (< 0,2 Myr). Os teores de GC foram homogêneos com diferença média de 2,46% entre as espécies de Nicotiana. Conclui-se que a mudança no tamanho do genoma apareceu em ambas as direções, enquanto os conteúdos de GC foram encontrados mais homogêneos no gênero Nicotiana.

Tabaco/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia , Composição de Bases , Tamanho do Genoma