Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 305
Filtrar
1.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the prognostic significance of baseline N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), whether NT-proBNP modified the treatment response to sacubitril/valsartan, and the treatment effect of sacubitril/valsartan on NT-proBNP overall and in key subgroups. BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/valsartan reduces NT-proBNP in heart failure (HF) with both reduced and preserved ejection fraction (EF), but did not significantly reduce total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death compared with valsartan in patients with HF with preserved EF (HFpEF). METHODS: In the PARAGON-HF (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction) trial, 4,796 patients with HFpEF and elevated NT-proBNP were randomized to sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. NT-proBNP was measured at screening in all patients and at 5 subsequent times in >2,700 patients: before, between, and after sequential valsartan and sacubitril/valsartan run-in periods, and 16 and 48 weeks post-randomization. RESULTS: Median NT-proBNP was 911 pg/ml (interquartile range: 464 to 1,613 pg/ml) at screening. Screening NT-proBNP was strongly associated with the primary endpoint, total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death (rate ratio [RR]: 1.68 per log increase in NT-proBNP, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53 to 1.85; p < 0.001). This relationship was stronger in patients with atrial fibrillation (adjusted RR: 2.33 [95% CI: 1.89 to 2.87] vs. 1.58 [95% CI: 1.42 to 1.75] in patients without atrial fibrillation; p interaction <0.001) and weaker in obese patients (adjusted RR: 1.50 [95% CI: 1.31 to 1.71] vs. 1.92 [95% CI: 1.70 to 2.17] in nonobese patients; p interaction <0.001). Screening NT-proBNP did not modify the treatment effect of sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan (p interaction = 0.96). Sacubitril/valsartan reduced NT-proBNP by 19% (95% CI: 14% to 23%; p < 0.001) compared with valsartan 16 weeks post-randomization, with similar reductions in men (20%) and women (18%), and in patients with left ventricular EF ≤57% (20%) and >57% (18%). Decreases in NT-proBNP predicted lower subsequent risk of the primary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline NT-proBNP predicted HF events but did not modify the sacubitril/valsartan treatment effect in patients with HFpEF. Sacubitril/valsartan reduced NT-proBNP consistently in men and women, and in patients with lower or higher EF. (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are biomarkers of endothelial activation, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, the temporal associations between E-selectin and ICAM-1 with subclinical cardiac dysfunction are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the longitudinal associations of E-selectin and ICAM-1 with subclinical alterations in cardiac function. METHODS: In the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults study, a cohort of black and white young adults, we evaluated the associations of E-selectin and ICAM-1, obtained at year 7 (Y7) and Y15 examinations, with cardiac function assessed at Y30 after adjustment for key covariates. RESULTS: Higher E-selectin (n=1,810) and ICAM-1 (n=1,548) at Y7 were associated with black race, smoking, hypertension, and higher BMI. After multivariable adjustment, higher E-selectin at Y7 (ß-coefficient per 1-SD higher: 0.22, SE: 0.06, P<0.001) and Y15 (ß-coefficient per 1-SD higher: 0.19, SE: 0.06, P=0.002) was associated with worse left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS). Additionally, higher Y15 ICAM-1 (ß-coefficient per 1-SD higher: 0.18, SE: 0.06, P=0.004) and its increase from Y7 to Y15 (ß-coefficient per 1-SD higher: 0.16, SE: 0.07, P=0.03) were also independently associated with worse LV GLS. E-selectin and ICAM-1 partially mediated the associations between higher BMI and black race with worse GLS. Neither E-selectin nor ICAM-1 were associated with measures of LV diastolic function after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: Circulating levels of E-selectin and ICAM-1 and increases in ICAM-1 over the course of young adulthood are associated with worse indices of LV systolic function in midlife. These findings suggest associations of endothelial activation with subclinical HFpEF.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216011

RESUMO

AIMS: The effects of vericiguat vs. placebo on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and serum uric acid (SUA) were assessed in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the Phase 2 SOCRATES-REDUCED study (NCT01951625). METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes from baseline hsCRP and SUA values at 12 weeks with placebo and vericiguat (1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg and 10.0 mg, respectively) were assessed. The probability of achieving an hsCRP value of ≤3.0 mg/L or SUA value of <7.0 mg/dL at week 12 was tested. Median baseline hsCRP and SUA levels were 3.68 mg/L [interquartile range (IQR) 1.41-8.41; n = 335] and 7.80 mg/dL (IQR 6.40-9.33; n = 348), respectively. Baseline-adjusted mean percentage changes in hsCRP were 0.2%, -19.5%, -24.3%, -25.7% and -31.9% in the placebo and vericiguat 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg and 10.0 mg groups, respectively; significance vs. placebo was observed in the vericiguat 10.0 mg group (P = 0.035). Baseline-adjusted mean percentage changes in SUA were 5.0%, -1.3%, -1.1%, -3.5% and -5.3% in the placebo, and vericiguat 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg and 10.0 mg groups, respectively; significance vs. placebo was observed in the 5.0 mg and 10.0 mg groups (P = 0.0202 and P = 0.004, respectively). Estimated probability for an end-of-treatment hsCRP value of ≤3.0 mg/L and SUA value of <7.0 mg/dL was higher with vericiguat compared with placebo. The effect was dose-dependent, with the greatest effect observed in the 10.0 mg group. CONCLUSIONS: Vericiguat treatment for 12 weeks was associated with reductions in hsCRP and SUA, and a higher likelihood of achieving an hsCRP value of ≤3.0 mg/L and SUA value of <7.0 mg/dL.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160420

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study is to use six previously described heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) phenotypes to describe differences in (i) the biological response to spironolactone, (ii) clinical endpoints, and (iii) patient-reported health status by HFpEF phenotype and treatment arm in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial (TOPCAT). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 1767 patients in TOPCAT from the Americas. Using 11 clinical variables, patients were classified according to six HFpEF phenotypes previously identified in the I-PRESERVE and CHARM-Preserved studies. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) measured health status. All phenotypes showed increase in potassium with spironolactone, although only three phenotypes showed significant increase in creatinine, and two phenotypes showed significant decrease in systolic blood pressure. Rate of the TOPCAT primary outcome (cardiovascular death, aborted cardiac arrest, or heart failure hospitalization) differed by HFpEF phenotype (P < 0.001) but not by treatment arm within each HFpEF phenotype. Baseline KCCQ score differed by HFpEF phenotype (P < 0.001), although some phenotypes with poor health status had lower rates of the TOPCAT primary outcome, and some phenotypes with better health status had higher rates of the TOPCAT primary outcome. However, within 3/6 phenotypes, higher baseline KCCQ score was associated with lower risk of the TOPCAT primary outcome. Change in KCCQ scores at 4 and 12 months did not differ among HFpEF phenotypes overall or by treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: Complex, data-driven HFpEF phenotypes differ according to biological response to spironolactone, baseline health status, and clinical endpoints. These differences may inform the design of targeted clinical trials focusing on improvement in outcomes most relevant for specific HFpEF phenotypes.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150314

RESUMO

AIMS: Patient-reported quality of life (QOL) is a highly prognostic and clinically relevant endpoint in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The relationships between QOL and different markers of HF severity remain unclear, particularly as they relate to functional capacity and directly measured activity levels. We hypothesized that QOL would demonstrate a stronger relationship with measures of exercise capacity and adiposity compared to other disease measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a secondary analysis of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored RELAX, NEAT-HFpEF and INDIE-HFpEF trials to determine the relationships between QOL (assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire) and different domains reflecting HF severity, including maximal aerobic capacity (peak oxygen consumption), submaximal exercise capacity (6-min walk distance), volume of daily activity (accelerometry), physician-estimated functional class, resting echocardiography, and plasma natriuretic peptide levels. A total of 408 unique patients with chronic HFpEF were split into tertiles of QOL scores defined as QOLworst, QOLintermediate , QOLbest . The QOLworst HFpEF group was youngest, with a higher body mass index, greater prevalence of class II obesity and diabetes, and the lowest N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, poorer QOL was associated with worse physical capacity and activity levels, assessed by peak oxygen consumption, 6-min walk distance and actigraphy, but was not associated with NT-proBNP or indices from resting echocardiography. QOL was similarly reduced in patients with and without prior HF hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life in HFpEF is poorest in patients who are young, obese and have diabetes, and is more robustly tied to measures reflecting functional capacity and daily activity levels rather than elevations in NT-proBNP or prior HF hospitalization. These findings have major implications for the understanding of QOL in HFpEF and for the design of future clinical trials targeting symptom improvement in HFpEF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: RELAX, NCT00763867; NEAT-HFpEF, NCT02053493; INDIE-HFpEF, NCT02742129.

7.
Circulation ; 141(12): 1001-1026, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202936

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a major public health problem that is rising in prevalence, is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is considered to be the greatest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine today because of a general lack of effective treatments. To address this challenging syndrome, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group made up of experts in HFpEF and novel research methodologies to discuss research gaps and to prioritize research directions over the next decade. Here, we summarize the discussion of the working group, followed by key recommendations for future research priorities. There was uniform recognition that HFpEF is a highly integrated, multiorgan, systemic disorder requiring a multipronged investigative approach in both humans and animal models to improve understanding of mechanisms and treatment of HFpEF. It was recognized that advances in the understanding of basic mechanisms and the roles of inflammation, macrovascular and microvascular dysfunction, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling are needed and ideally would be obtained from (1) improved animal models, including large animal models, which incorporate the effects of aging and associated comorbid conditions; (2) repositories of deeply phenotyped physiological data and human tissue, made accessible to researchers to enhance collaboration and research advances; and (3) novel research methods that take advantage of computational advances and multiscale modeling for the analysis of complex, high-density data across multiple domains. The working group emphasized the need for interactions among basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiological scientists and across organ systems and cell types, leveraging different areas or research focus, and between research centers. A network of collaborative centers to accelerate basic, translational, and clinical research of pathobiological mechanisms and treatment strategies in HFpEF was discussed as an example of a strategy to advance research progress. This resource would facilitate comprehensive, deep phenotyping of a multicenter HFpEF patient cohort with standardized protocols and a robust biorepository. The research priorities outlined in this document are meant to stimulate scientific advances in HFpEF by providing a road map for future collaborative investigations among a diverse group of scientists across multiple domains.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014279, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067588

RESUMO

Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, including heart failure. Abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) structure/function are associated with heart failure risk. Methods and Results Participants from the population-based CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study year 25 exam (2010-2011, aged 43-55 years, 61% women, 48% black) with computed tomography measured liver fat and comprehensive echocardiography were included. Echocardiography was repeated at year 30 follow-up (aged 47-62 years, N=1827). NAFLD was defined as liver attenuation ≤40 HU after exclusions. LV geometry was classified into normal and abnormal by integrating relative wall thickness and LV mass index. Diastolic function was defined using Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Systolic function was assessed with myocardial strain measured by speckle tracking. NAFLD prevalence was 8.7% (n=159). NAFLD participants had higher LV mass, relative wall thickness, incident LV hypertrophy and abnormal LV geometry versus non-NAFLD (P<0.02). NAFLD participants had impaired LV relaxation (E/A ratio 1.1 versus 1.2), higher LV filling pressures (E/e' ratio 7.9 versus 7.2), worse longitudinal strain (-13.9% versus -15.3%), and lower LV ejection fraction (58.9% versus 60.2%, P<0.01). In multivariable analyses adjusted for heart failure risk factors, NAFLD was independently associated with incident LV hypertrophy (odds ratio: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.4), abnormal LV geometry (odds ratio: 1.9, 1.1-3.3) and greater change in strain (odds ratio: 2.2, 1.1-4.7). Adjustment for body mass index attenuated associations to non-significance. Conclusions NAFLD is associated with subclinical changes over time in LV structure/function and obesity explains much of the association. Presence of obesity in mid-life may identify an important at-risk population in whom to focus preventive heart failure strategies.

9.
Am Heart J ; 222: 183-190, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise intolerance is the main symptom of HFpEF and is associated with a poor quality of life and increased mortality. Currently, there are no approved medications for the treatment of HFpEF. Praliciguat (IW-1973), a novel soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator that may help restore deficient nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling, is being investigated for the treatment of patients with HFpEF. METHODS: CAPACITY HFpEF is a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of praliciguat over 12 weeks in approximately 184 patients with HFpEF. Eligible patients must have evidence supporting clinical HFpEF and at least 2 of the following 4 conditions associated with NO deficiency: diabetes/prediabetes, hypertension, obesity, and age >70 years. The primary efficacy end point is the change from baseline in peak VO2 by cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Secondary end points include the change from baseline in 6-minute walk test distance and the change in ventilatory efficiency on CPET, as well as number of CPET responders. Other exploratory end points include changes in echocardiographic parameters, New York Heart Association functional classification, cardiac events, blood and urine biomarkers pathophysiologically relevant to heart failure, and patient-reported outcomes including Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The CAPACITY HFpEF trial will provide data on short-term safety and efficacy of praliciguat on peak exercise capacity, as well as multiple secondary end points of submaximal functional capacity, patient-reported outcomes, and biomarkers.

10.
Circulation ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078382

RESUMO

Background: In patients with transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM), tafamidis reduces all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations, and slows decline in quality-oflife compared with placebo. In May 2019, tafamidis received expedited approval from the US FDA as a breakthrough drug for a rare disease. However, at $225,000 per year, it is the most expensive cardiovascular drug ever launched in the US, and its long-term cost-effectiveness and budget impact are uncertain. We therefore sought to estimate the cost-effectiveness of tafamidis and its potential effect on US health care spending. Methods: We developed a Markov model of patients with wild-type or variant ATTR-CM and heart failure (mean age 74.5 years) using inputs from the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Cardiomyopathy Clinical Trial (ATTR-ACT), published literature, US Food and Drug Administration review documents, healthcare claims, and national survey data. We compared no disease-specific treatment ("usual care") with tafamidis therapy. The model reproduced 30-month survival, quality-of-life, and cardiovascular hospitalization rates observed in ATTR-ACT; future projections used a parametric survival model in the control arm, with constant hazards reduction in the tafamidis arm. We discounted future costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) by 3% annually, and examined key parameter uncertainty using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The main outcomes were lifetime incremental costeffectiveness ratio (ICER) and annual budget impact, assessed from the US healthcare sector perspective. This study was independent of the ATTR-ACT trial sponsor. Results: Compared with usual care, tafamidis was projected to add 1.29 (95% uncertainty interval, 0.47-1.75) QALYs at an incremental cost of $1,135,000 (872,000-1,377,000), resulting in an ICER of $880,000 (697,000-1,564,000) per QALY gained. Assuming a threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained and current drug price, tafamidis was cost-effective in 0% of 10,000 probabilistic simulations. A 92.6% price reduction from $225,000 to $16,563 would be necessary to make tafamidis cost-effective at $100,000/QALY. Results were sensitive to assumptions related to long-term effectiveness of tafamidis. Treating all eligible patients with ATTR-CM in the US with tafamidis (n = 120,000) was estimated to increase annual healthcare spending by $32.3 billion. Conclusions: Treatment with tafamidis is projected to produce substantial clinical benefit but would greatly exceed conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds at the current US list price. Based on recent US experience with high-cost cardiovascular medications, access to and uptake of this effective therapy may be limited unless there is a large reduction in drug costs.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(1): 253-263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903694

RESUMO

AIMS: While right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis in co-morbid pulmonary hypertension and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF), the mechanisms driving RV dysfunction are unclear. We evaluated the extent and clinical correlates of diffuse RV myocardial fibrosis in PH-HFpEF, as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived extracellular volume (ECV). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled participants with PH-HFpEF (n = 14), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; n = 13), and controls (n = 8). All participants underwent high-resolution cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and case subjects (PH-HFpEF and PAH) additionally underwent right heart catheterization. T1 mapping was performed using high-resolution modified look-locker inversion recovery with a 1 × 1 mm2 in-plane resolution. RV free wall T1 values were quantified, and ECV was calculated. Participants with PH-HFpEF were older and carried higher rates of hypertension and obstructive sleep apnoea than those with PAH. While RV ECV was similar between PH-HFpEF and PAH (33.1 ± 8.0 vs. 34.0 ± 4.5%; P = 0.57), total pulmonary resistance was lower in PH-HFpEF compared with PAH [PH-HFpEF: 5.68 WU (4.70, 7.66 WU) vs. PAH: 8.59 WU (8.14, 12.57 WU); P = 0.01]. RV ECV in PH-HFpEF was associated with worse indices of RV structure (RV end-diastolic volume: r = 0.67, P = 0.01) and RV function (RV free wall strain: r = 0.59, P = 0.03) but was not associated with RV afterload (total pulmonary resistance: r = 0.08, P = 0.79). Conversely, there was a strong correlation between RV ECV and RV afterload in PAH (r = 0.57, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse RV fibrosis, as measured by ECV, is present in PH-HFpEF and is associated with adverse RV structural and functional remodelling but not degree of pulmonary vasculopathy. In PH-HFpEF, diffuse RV fibrosis may occur out of proportion to the degree of RV afterload.

12.
Heart ; 106(5): 342-349, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous syndrome. We aimed to derive HFpEF phenotype-based groups ('phenogroups') based on clinical and echocardiogram data using machine learning, and to compare clinical characteristics, proteomics and outcomes across the phenogroups. METHODS: We applied model-based clustering to 32 echocardiogram and 11 clinical and laboratory variables collected in stable condition from 320 HFpEF outpatients in the Karolinska-Rennes cohort study (56% female, median 78 years (IQR: 71-83)). Baseline proteomics and the composite end point of all-cause mortality or heart failure (HF) hospitalisation were used in secondary analyses. RESULTS: We identified six phenogroups, for which significant differences in the prevalence of concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), anaemia and kidney disease were observed (p<0.05). Fifteen out of 86 plasma proteins differed between phenogroups (false discovery rate, FDR<0.05), including biomarkers of HF, AF and kidney function. The composite end point was significantly different between phenogroups (log-rank p<0.001), at short-term (100 days), mid-term (18 months) and longer-term follow-up (1000 days). Phenogroup 2 was older, with poorer diastolic and right ventricular function and higher burden of risk factors as AF (85%), hypertension (83%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (30%). In this group a third experienced the primary outcome to 100 days, and two-thirds to 18 months (HR (95% CI) versus phenogroups 1, 3, 4, 5, 6: 1.5 (0.8-2.9); 5.7 (2.6-12.8); 2.9 (1.5-5.6); 2.7 (1.6-4.6); 2.1 (1.2-3.9)). CONCLUSIONS: Using machine learning we identified distinct HFpEF phenogroups with differential characteristics and outcomes, as well as differential levels of inflammatory and cardiovascular proteins.

13.
J Card Fail ; 26(3): 233-242, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a high-risk phenotype. The Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (RELAX) trial enrolled a high proportion of CKD participants, allowing investigation into differences in HFpEF by CKD status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 212 participants, we investigated the associations of CKD with biomarkers, cardiac structure, and exercise capacity, and identified predictors of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over trial follow-up. CKD participants (eGFR ≤60 mL/min/1.73m2) were older, had more comorbidities, and had worse diastolic function. Lower eGFR was associated with higher levels of endothelin-1, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, uric acid, and biomarkers of fibrosis (P < .05 for all). Whereas lower eGFR was associated with worse peak oxygen consumption (VO2) after adjustment for demographics, clinical comorbidities, exercise modality, ejection fraction, and chronotropic index (ß coefficient per 1 SD decrease in eGFR: -0.61, 95% CI: -1.01, -0.22, P = .002), this association was attenuated after further adjustment for hemoglobin (ß coefficient: -0.26, 95% CI: -0.68, 0.16, P = .22). Hemoglobin mediated 35% of the association between eGFR and peak VO2. Sildenafil therapy was independently associated with worsening eGFR over the trial (ß coefficient: -2.79, 95% CI: -5.34, -0.24, P = .03). CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction in HFpEF is characterized by echocardiographic and biomarker profiles indicative of more advanced disease, and reduced hemoglobin is a strong mediator of the association between renal dysfunction and low exercise capacity. Sildenafil therapy was associated with worsening of renal function in RELAX.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(3): 472-485, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919960

RESUMO

AIMS: Left atrial (LA) mechanical function may play a significant role in the development and progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate association of impaired LA function with outcomes in HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Multiple databases were searched for original studies measuring different phases of LA function in HFpEF patients. Comparative LA function between HFpEF patients and healthy controls was assessed by pooling weighted mean differences (WMD). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled to evaluate the prognostic utility of LA function. Twenty-two studies (2 trials, 20 observational) comprising 1974 HFpEF patients and 751 healthy controls were included. HFpEF patients had decreased LA reservoir [WMD = -12.21% (-15.47, -8.95); P < 0.001], LA conduit [WMD = -5.68% (-8.56, -2.79); P < 0.001], and pump [WMD = -11.07% (-14.81, -7.34); P < 0.001] emptying fractions compared with controls. LA reservoir [WMD = -13.38% (-16.07, -10.68); P < 0.001], conduit [WMD = -4.09% (-6.77, -1.42); P = 0.003], and pump [WMD = -3.53% (-4.47, -2.59); P < 0.001] strains were also significantly lower in HFpEF patients. Decreased LA reservoir strain [HR 1.24 (1.02, 1.50); P = 0.03] was significantly associated with risk of composite all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired LA function appears to have diagnostic and prognostic value in HFpEF, but whether indices of LA function truly refine discrimination for diagnosis or prognosis remains to be fully determined. Larger studies are needed to better evaluate associations between LA function and clinical outcomes and the role of LA function as a target for novel HFpEF therapies.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913407

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is a major determinant of disease burden worldwide. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been posited as key predictors of obesity. How a PRS can be translated to the clinical encounter (especially in the context of fitness, activity, and parental history of overweight) remains unclear. Objective: To quantify the relative importance of a PRS, fitness, activity, parental history of overweight, and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in young adulthood on BMI trends over 25 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based prospective cohort study at 4 US centers included white individuals and black individuals with assessments of polygenic risk of obesity, fitness, activity, and BMI in young adulthood (in their 20s) and up to 25 years of follow-up. Data collected between March 1985 and August 2011 were analyzed from April 25, 2019, to September 29, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Body mass index at the initial visit and 25 years later. Results: This study evaluated an obesity PRS from a recently reported study of 1608 white individuals (848 women [52.7%]) and 909 black individuals (548 women [60.3%]) across the United States. At baseline (year 0), mean (SD) overall BMI was 24.2 (4.5), which increased to 29.6 (6.9) at year 25. Among white individuals, the PRS (combined with age, sex, self-reported parental history of overweight, and principal components of ancestry) explained 11.9% (at year 0) and 13.6% (at year 25) of variation in BMI. Although the addition of fitness increased the explanatory capability of the model (24.0% variance at baseline and up to 18.1% variance in BMI at year 25), baseline BMI in young adulthood was the strongest factor, explaining 52.3% of BMI in midlife in combination with age, sex, and self-reported parental history of overweight. Accordingly, models that included baseline BMI (especially BMI surveillance over time) were better in predicting BMI at year 25 compared with the PRS. In fully adjusted models, the effect sizes for fitness and the PRS on BMI were comparable in opposing directions. The added explanatory capacity of the PRS among black individuals was lower than among white individuals. Among white individuals, addition of baseline BMI and surveillance of BMI over time was associated with improved precision of predicted BMI at year 25 (mean error in predicted BMI 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -11.4 to 11.4] to 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -8.5 to 8.5] for baseline BMI and mean error 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -5.3 to 5.3] for BMI surveillance). Conclusions and Relevance: Cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood and a PRS are modestly associated with midlife BMI, although future BMI is associated with BMI in young adulthood. Fitness has a comparable association with future BMI as does the PRS. Caution should be exercised in the widespread use of polygenic risk for obesity prevention in adults, and close clinical surveillance and fitness may have prime roles in limiting the adverse consequences of elevated BMI on health.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(2): e013966, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928156

RESUMO

Background Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger regulated through natriuretic peptide and nitric oxide pathways. Stimulation of cGMP signaling is a potential therapeutic strategy for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We hypothesized that plasma cGMP levels would be associated with lower risk for incident HFpEF, any HF, ASCVD, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results We conducted a case-cohort analysis nested in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study. Plasma cGMP was measured in 875 participants at visit 4 (1996-1998), with oversampling of incident HFpEF cases. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess associations of cGMP with incident HFpEF, HF, ASCVD (CHD+stroke), and CHD. The mean (SD) age was 62.4 (5.6) years and median (interquartile interval) cGMP was 3.4 pmol/mL (2.4-4.6). During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, there were 283 incident cases of HFpEF, 329 any HF, 151 ASCVD, and 125 CHD. In models adjusted for CVD risk factors, the hazard ratios (95% CI) associated with the highest cGMP tertile compared with lowest for HFpEF, HF, ASCVD, and CHD were 1.88 (1.17-3.02), 2.18 (1.18-4.06), 2.84 (1.44-5.60), and 2.43 (1.19-5.00), respectively. In models further adjusted for N-terminal-proB-type natriuretic peptide, associations were attenuated for HFpEF and HF but remained statistically significant for ASCVD (2.56 [1.26-5.20]) and CHD (2.25 [1.07-4.71]). Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, higher cGMP levels were associated with incident CVD in a community-based cohort. The associations of cGMP with HF or HFpEF may be explained by N-terminal-proB-type natriuretic peptide, but not for ASCVD and CHD.

17.
Circulation ; 141(5): 338-351, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unlike heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there is no approved treatment for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the predominant phenotype in women. Therefore, there is a greater heart failure therapeutic deficit in women compared with men. METHODS: In a prespecified subgroup analysis, we examined outcomes according to sex in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction), which compared sacubitril-valsartan and valsartan in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The primary outcome was a composite of first and recurrent hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes. We also report secondary efficacy and safety outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 2479 women (51.7%) and 2317 men (48.3%) were randomized. Women were older and had more obesity, less coronary disease, and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels than men. For the primary outcome, the rate ratio for sacubitril-valsartan versus valsartan was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59-0.90) in women and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.84-1.25) in men (P interaction = 0.017). The benefit from sacubitril-valsartan was attributable to reduction in heart failure hospitalization. The improvement in New York Heart Association class and renal function with sacubitril-valsartan was similar in women and men, whereas the improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire clinical summary score was less in women than in men. The difference in adverse events between sacubitril-valsartan and valsartan was similar in women and men. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with valsartan, sacubitril-valsartan seemed to reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization more in women than in men. Whereas the possible sex-related modification of the effect of treatment has several potential explanations, the present study does not provide a definite mechanistic basis for this finding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01920711.

18.
J Card Fail ; 26(2): 101-107, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and obesity display a number of pathophysiologic features that may render them more or less vulnerable to negative effects of decongestion on renal function, including greater right ventricular remodeling, plasma volume expansion and pericardial restraint. We aimed to contrast the renal response to decongestion in obese compared to nonobese patients with HFpEF METHODS AND RESULTS: National Institutes of Health heart failure network studies that enrolled patients with acute decompensated HFpEF (EF ≥ 50%) were included (DOSE, CARRESS, ROSE, and ATHENA). Obese HFpEF was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Compared to nonobese HFpEF (n = 118), patients with obese HFpEF (n = 214) were an average of 9 years younger (71 vs 80 years,< 0.001), were more likely to have diabetes (64% vs 31%, P< 0.001) but had less atrial fibrillation (56% vs 75%, P< 0.001). Renal dysfunction (glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73m2) was present in 82% of patients, and there was no difference at baseline between obese and nonobese patients. Despite similar weight loss through decongestive therapies, obese patients with HFpEF demonstrated greater rise in creatinine (Cr) and decline in glomerular filtration rate, with a 2-fold higher incidence of mild worsening renal function (rise in Cr ≥ 0.3 mg/dL) (28 vs 14%, P = 0.008) and a substantially greater increase in severe worsening of renal function (rise in Cr > 0.5 mg/dL) (9 vs 0%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being nearly a decade younger, obese patients with HFpEF experience greater deterioration in renal function during decongestion than do nonobese patients with HFpEF. Further study to elucidate the complex relationships between volume distribution, cardiorenal hemodynamics and adiposity in HFpEF is needed.

20.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 102-110, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of high awake blood pressure (BP), high asleep BP, and nondipping BP, determined by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and geometry. METHODS: Black and white participants (n = 687) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study underwent 24-h ABPM and echocardiography at the Year 30 Exam in 2015-2016. The prevalence and prevalence ratios of LVH were calculated for high awake SBP (≥130 mmHg), high asleep SBP (≥110 mmHg), the cross-classification of high awake and asleep SBP, and nondipping SBP (percentage decline in awake-to-asleep SBP < 10%). Odds ratios for abnormal left ventricular geometry associated with these phenotypes were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 46.0 and 49.1% of study participants had high awake and asleep SBP, respectively, and 31.1% had nondipping SBP. After adjustment for demographics and clinical characteristics, high awake SBP was associated with a prevalence ratio for LVH of 2.79 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.63-4.79]. High asleep SBP was also associated with a prevalence ratio for LVH of 2.19 (95% CI 1.25-3.83). There was no evidence of an association between nondipping SBP and LVH (prevalence ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.44-1.12). High awake SBP with or without high asleep SBP was associated with a higher odds ratio of concentric remodeling and hypertrophy. CONCLUSION: Awake and asleep SBP, but not the decline in awake-to-asleep SBP, were associated with increased prevalence of cardiac end-organ damage.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA