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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(18): 1858-1869, 2022 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512865

RESUMO

A number of pathologic processes contribute to the elevation in cardiac filling pressures in heart failure (HF), including myocardial dysfunction and primary volume overload. In this review, we discuss the important role of the venous system and the concepts of stressed blood volume and unstressed blood volume. We review how regulation of venous tone modifies the distribution of blood between these 2 functional compartments, the physical distribution of blood between the pulmonary and systemic circulations, and how these relate to the hemodynamic abnormalities observed in HF. Finally, we review recently applied methods for estimating stressed blood volume and how they are being applied to the results of clinical studies to provide new insights into resting and exercise hemodynamics and therapeutics for HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Volume Sanguíneo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos
2.
Circ Res ; 130(9): 1382-1403, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482841

RESUMO

The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common and has adverse prognostic implications in patients with heart failure due to left heart disease (LHD), and thus far, there are no known treatments specifically for PH-LHD, also known as group 2 PH. Diagnostic thresholds for PH-LHD, and clinical classification of PH-LHD phenotypes, continue to evolve and, therefore, present a challenge for basic and translational scientists actively investigating PH-LHD in the preclinical setting. Furthermore, the pathobiology of PH-LHD is not well understood, although pulmonary vascular remodeling is thought to result from (1) increased wall stress due to increased left atrial pressures; (2) hemodynamic congestion-induced decreased shear stress in the pulmonary vascular bed; (3) comorbidity-induced endothelial dysfunction with direct injury to the pulmonary microvasculature; and (4) superimposed pulmonary arterial hypertension risk factors. To ultimately be able to modify disease, either by prevention or treatment, a better understanding of the various drivers of PH-LHD, including endothelial dysfunction, abnormalities in vascular tone, platelet aggregation, inflammation, adipocytokines, and systemic complications (including splanchnic congestion and lymphatic dysfunction) must be further investigated. Here, we review the diagnostic criteria and various hemodynamic phenotypes of PH-LHD, the potential biological mechanisms underlying this disorder, and pressing questions yet to be answered about the pathobiology of PH-LHD.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Hemodinâmica , Humanos
3.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(5): 336-346, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, the authors sought to assess the relationship between AFF and outcomes, the treatment response to sacubitril/valsartan and first-detected AFF in patients with HFpEF enrolled in the PARAGON-HF trial. BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) are common in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and increase the risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: A total of 4,776 patients formed 3 groups: those with AFF according to electrocardiography (ECG) at enrollment (n = 1,552; 33%), those with history of AFF but without AFF on ECG at enrollment (n = 1,005; 21%), and those without history of AFF or AFF on ECG at enrollment (n = 2,219, 46%). We assessed outcomes, treatment response to sacubitril/valsartan in each group, and the risk associated with first-detected AFF in patients without any known AFF. The primary outcome was a composite of total heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: History of AFF and AFF at enrollment were associated with higher risk of the primary outcome (risk ratio [RR]: 1.36 [95% CI: 1.12-1.65] and RR: 1.31 [1.11-1.54], respectively), than no AFF. Neither history of AFF nor AFF at enrollment modified the treatment effect of sacubitril/valsartan. Post randomization AFF occurred in 12% of patients without previous AFF and was associated with 2.8-fold higher risk of the primary outcome, but it was not influenced by sacubitril/valsartan. CONCLUSIONS: History of AFF and AFF on ECG at enrollment were associated with a higher risk of the primary outcome. First-detected AFF was not influenced by sacubitril/valsartan, yet it was associated with increased risk of all subsequent outcomes and may represent a potential target for future HFpEF trials. (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Aminobutiratos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Bifenilo , Humanos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/efeitos adversos
4.
Eur Heart J ; 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467708

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim is to evaluate associations of lung function impairment with risk of incident heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were pooled across eight US population-based cohorts that enrolled participants from 1987 to 2004. Participants with self-reported baseline cardiovascular disease were excluded. Spirometry was used to define obstructive [forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) <0.70] or restrictive (FEV1/FVC ≥0.70, FVC <80%) lung physiology. The incident HF was defined as hospitalization or death caused by HF. In a sub-set, HF events were sub-classified as HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; EF <50%) or preserved EF (HFpEF; EF ≥50%). The Fine-Gray proportional sub-distribution hazards models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, smoking, and cardiovascular risk factors. In models of incident HF sub-types, HFrEF, HFpEF, and non-HF mortality were treated as competing risks. Among 31 677 adults, there were 3344 incident HF events over a median follow-up of 21.0 years. Of 2066 classifiable HF events, 1030 were classified as HFrEF and 1036 as HFpEF. Obstructive [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.27] and restrictive physiology (adjusted HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.27-1.62) were associated with incident HF. Obstructive and restrictive ventilatory defects were associated with HFpEF but not HFrEF. The magnitude of the association between restrictive physiology and HFpEF was similar to associations with hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. CONCLUSION: Lung function impairment was associated with increased risk of incident HF, and particularly incident HFpEF, independent of and to a similar extent as major known cardiovascular risk factors.

6.
Hemodial Int ; 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We lack cardiovascular (CV) markers for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and left atrial (LA) strain has not been studied definitively in this population. We examined associations of LA reservoir, conduit, and booster strain with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among stable patients with ESRD on dialysis. METHODS: One hundred and ninety patients in the Cardiac, Endothelial and Arterial Stiffness in ESRD study underwent echocardiography, including strain imaging. The primary outcome was 2-year composite non-fatal MACE or CV death. We performed Cox proportional hazards regression for LA strain measures, adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS), E/e' and LA volume index. FINDINGS: Mean ± SD LA reservoir strain was 24.1 ± 7.0%, and LA conduit strain 11.9 ± 5.1%. In age-adjusted analyses, lower LA reservoir strain and LA conduit strain were associated with the primary outcome (HR per 1-SD worsening LA strain parameter = 1.57 [95% CI 1.2-2.1], p = 0.003 and 1.68 [95% CI 1.2-2.3], p = 0.002, respectively). After adjusting for comorbidities, LA reservoir strain remained associated with the primary outcome and with deaths alone, and LA conduit strain with the primary outcome and hospitalizations alone (p < 0.05 for all). Associations of LA conduit strain were independent of LV GLS. Associations were stronger in participants with serum albumin <3.6 mg/dl (p for interaction 0.008). DISCUSSION: Left atrial reservoir strain and conduit strain were independently associated with MACE among patients with ESRD. Our study provides unique ascertainment of CV hospitalizations not attributed to missed dialysis, and LA conduit strain was a strong marker for this outcome.

8.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(3): 184-197, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This report describes the baseline clinical profiles and management of DELIVER (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure) trial participants and how these compare with those in other contemporary heart failure with preserved ejection fraction trials. BACKGROUND: The DELIVER trial was designed to evaluate the effects of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on cardiovascular death, heart failure (HF) hospitalization, or urgent HF visits in patients with HF with mildly reduced and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS: Adults with symptomatic HF and LVEF >40%, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus, elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, and evidence of structural heart disease were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or matching placebo. RESULTS: A total of 6,263 patients were randomized (mean age: 72 ± 10 years; 44% women; 45% type 2 diabetes mellitus; 45% with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; and 57% with history of atrial fibrillation or flutter). Most participants had New York Heart Association functional class II symptoms (75%). Baseline mean LVEF was 54.2 ± 8.8% and median NT-proBNP of 1,399 pg/mL (IQR: 962 to 2,210 pg/mL) for patients in atrial fibrillation/flutter compared with 716 pg/mL (IQR: 469 to 1,281 pg/mL) in those who were not. Patients in both hospitalized and ambulatory settings were enrolled, including 10% enrolled in-hospital or within 30 days of a hospitalization for HF. Eighteen percent of participants had HF with improved LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: DELIVER is the largest and broadest clinical trial of this population to date and enrolled high-risk, well-treated patients with HF with mildly reduced and preserved LVEF. (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure [NCT03619213]).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
Heart Fail Clin ; 18(2): 287-300, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341541

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents a prototypical cardiovascular condition in which machine learning may improve targeted therapies and mechanistic understanding of pathogenesis. Machine learning, which involves algorithms that learn from data, has the potential to guide precision medicine approaches for complex clinical syndromes such as HFpEF. It is therefore important to understand the potential utility and common pitfalls of machine learning so that it can be applied and interpreted appropriately. Although machine learning holds considerable promise for HFpEF, it is subject to several potential pitfalls, which are important factors to consider when interpreting machine learning studies.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medicina de Precisão , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
12.
Circulation ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354306

RESUMO

Background: In the REDUCE LAP-HF II trial, implantation of an atrial shunt device did not provide, overall, clinical benefit for patients with heart failure and preserved or mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF/HFmrEF). However, pre-specified analyses identified differences in response in subgroups defined by pulmonary artery systolic pressure during submaximal exercise, right atrial (RA) volume, and sex. Shunt implantation reduces left atrial (LA) pressures but increases pulmonary blood flow, which may be poorly tolerated in patients with pulmonary vascular disease (PVD). Based upon these results, we hypothesized that patients with latent PVD, defined as elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during exercise, might be harmed by shunt implantation, and conversely that patients without PVD might benefit. Methods: REDUCE LAP-HF II enrolled 626 patients with HF, EF ≥40%, exercise pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≥25 mmHg, and resting PVR <3.5 WU who were randomized 1:1 to atrial shunt device or sham control. The primary outcome, a hierarchical composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal ischemic stroke, recurrent HF events, and change in health status, was analyzed using the win ratio. Latent PVD was defined as PVR ≥1.74 WU (highest tertile) at peak exercise, measured prior to randomization. Results: Compared to patients without PVD (n=382), those with latent PVD (n=188) were older, had more atrial fibrillation and right heart dysfunction, and were more likely to have elevated LA pressure at rest. Shunt treatment was associated with worse outcomes in patients with PVD (win ratio 0.60, [95% CI 0.42, 0.86]; p=0.005) and signal of clinical benefit in patients without PVD (win ratio 1.31 [95% CI 1.02, 1.68]; p=0.038). Patients with larger RA volumes and men had worse outcomes with the device, and both groups were more likely to have pacemakers, HFmrEF, and increased LA volume. For patients without latent PVD or pacemaker (n=313, 50% of randomized patients), shunt treatment resulted in more robust signal of clinical benefit (win ratio 1.51 [95% CI 1.14, 2.00]; p=0.004). Conclusions: In patients with HFpEF/HFmrEF, the presence of latent PVD uncovered by invasive hemodynamic exercise testing identifies patients who may worsen with atrial shunt therapy, whereas those without latent PVD may benefit.

14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 804788, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265679

RESUMO

Background: Rare pathogenic variants in cardiomyopathy (CM) genes can predispose to cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. We studied the carrier status for such variants in adults without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in whom cardiac MRI (CMR)-derived measures of myocardial fibrosis were obtained in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Objectives: To identify CM-associated pathogenic variants and assess their relative prevalence in participants with extensive myocardial fibrosis by CMR. Methods: MESA whole-genome sequencing data was evaluated to capture variants in CM-associated genes (n = 82). Coding variants with a frequency of <0.1% in gnomAD and 1,000 Genomes Project databases and damaging/deleterious effects based on in-silico scoring tools were assessed by ClinVar database and ACMG curation guidelines for evidence of pathogenicity. Cases were participants with high myocardial fibrosis defined as highest quartile of extracellular volume (ECV) or native T1 time in T1-mapping CMR and controls were the remainder of participants. Results: A total of 1,135 MESA participants had available genetic data and phenotypic measures and were free of clinical CVD at the time of CMR. We identified 6,349 rare variants in CM-associated genes in the overall MESA population, of which six pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were present in the phenotyped subpopulation. The genes harboring P/LP variants in the case group were MYH7, CRYAB, and SCN5A. The prevalence of P/LP rare variants in cases was higher than controls (5 in 420 [1.1%] vs. 1 in 715 [0.1%], p = 0.03). We identified two MYBPC3 Variants of Unknown Significance (VUS)s with borderline pathogenicity in the case group. The left ventricle (LV) volume, mass, ejection fraction (EF), and longitudinal and circumferential strain in participants with the variants were not different compared to the overall cohort. Conclusions: We observed a higher prevalence of rare potentially pathogenic CM associated genetic variants in participants with significant myocardial fibrosis quantified in CMR as compared to controls without significant fibrosis. No cardiac structural or functional differences were found between participants with or without P/LP variants.

15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(2): 1496-1501, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166069

RESUMO

AIMS: The effects of inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-1, as opposed to SGLT2, on cardiovascular structure and function are not well known. We assessed the associations of a missense genetic variant of SGLT1 with cardiac structure and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated associations of a functionally modifying variant of SLC5A1 (rs17683011 [p.Asn51Ser]), the gene that encodes SGLT1, with cardiac structure and function on echocardiography among middle-aged adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Of 1904 participants (55.3 ± 3.5 years, 57% female, 34% Black), 166 (13%) White participants and 18 (3%) Black participants had at least one copy of rs17683011. There were no significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, glucose, or diabetes status by the presence of the rs17683011 variant. In Black participants, the presence of at least one copy of the rs17683011 variant was significantly associated with better GLS compared with those without a copy of the variant after covariate adjustment (-15.8 ± 0.7% vs. -14.0 ± 0.1%, P = 0.02). Although the direction of effect was consistent, the association between the presence of at least one copy of rs17683011 and GLS was not statistically significant in White participants (-15.1 ± 0.2% vs. -14.8 ± 0.1%, P = 0.16). There were no significant associations between rs17683011 and other measures of LV structure, systolic function, or diastolic function. CONCLUSIONS: The rs17683011 variant, a functionally modifying variant of the SGLT1 gene, was associated with higher GLS among middle-age adults. These exploratory findings require further validation and suggest that SGLT1 inhibition may have beneficial effects upon LV systolic function.


Assuntos
Glucose , Coração , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sódio , Adulto Jovem
16.
Lancet ; 399(10330): 1130-1140, 2022 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placement of an interatrial shunt device reduces pulmonary capillary wedge pressure during exercise in patients with heart failure and preserved or mildly reduced ejection fraction. We aimed to investigate whether an interatrial shunt can reduce heart failure events or improve health status in these patients. METHODS: In this randomised, international, blinded, sham-controlled trial performed at 89 health-care centres, we included patients (aged ≥40 years) with symptomatic heart failure, an ejection fraction of at least 40%, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure during exercise of at least 25 mm Hg while exceeding right atrial pressure by at least 5 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either a shunt device or sham procedure. Patients and outcome assessors were masked to randomisation. The primary endpoint was a hierarchical composite of cardiovascular death or non-fatal ischemic stroke at 12 months, rate of total heart failure events up to 24 months, and change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score at 12 months. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted for the heart failure event endpoint. Analysis of the primary endpoint, all other efficacy endpoints, and safety endpoints was conducted in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all patients randomly allocated to receive treatment, excluding those found to be ineligible after randomisation and therefore not treated. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03088033. FINDINGS: Between May 25, 2017, and July 24, 2020, 1072 participants were enrolled, of whom 626 were randomly assigned to either the atrial shunt device (n=314) or sham procedure (n=312). There were no differences between groups in the primary composite endpoint (win ratio 1·0 [95% CI 0·8-1·2]; p=0·85) or in the individual components of the primary endpoint. The prespecified subgroups demonstrating a differential effect of atrial shunt device treatment on heart failure events were pulmonary artery systolic pressure at 20W of exercise (pinteraction=0·002 [>70 mm Hg associated with worse outcomes]), right atrial volume index (pinteraction=0·012 [≥29·7 mL/m2, worse outcomes]), and sex (pinteraction=0·02 [men, worse outcomes]). There were no differences in the composite safety endpoint between the two groups (n=116 [38%] for shunt device vs n=97 [31%] for sham procedure; p=0·11). INTERPRETATION: Placement of an atrial shunt device did not reduce the total rate of heart failure events or improve health status in the overall population of patients with heart failure and ejection fraction of greater than or equal to 40%. FUNDING: Corvia Medical.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Adulto , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Flavinas , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Luciferases , Masculino , Volume Sistólico
18.
Heart ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022210

RESUMO

It is estimated that half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Yet this form of HF remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Differentiating HFpEF from other causes of dyspnoea may require advanced diagnostic methods, such as exercise echocardiography, invasive haemodynamics and investigations for 'HFpEF mimickers'. While the classification of HF has relied heavily on cut-points in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), recent evidence points towards a gradual shift in underlying mechanisms, phenotypes and response to therapies as LVEF increases. For example, among patients with HF, the proportion of hospitalisations and deaths due to cardiac causes decreases as LVEF increases. Medication classes that are efficacious in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have been less so at higher LVEF ranges, decreasing the risk of HF hospitalisation but not cardiovascular or all-cause death in HFpEF. These observations reflect the burden of non-cardiac comorbidities as LVEF increases and highlight the complex pathophysiological mechanisms, both cardiac and non-cardiac, underpinning HFpEF. Treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduces the risk of composite cardiovascular events, driven by a reduction in HF hospitalisations; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers and angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitors result in smaller reductions in HF hospitalisations among patients with HFpEF. Comprehensive management of HFpEF includes exercise as well as treatment of risk factors and comorbidities. Classification based on phenotypes may facilitate a more targeted approach to treatment than LVEF categorisation, which sets arbitrary cut-points when LVEF is a continuum. This narrative review summarises the pathophysiology, diagnosis, classification and management of patients with HFpEF.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 24(4): 681-684, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060248

RESUMO

AIMS: Little information is available on sex differences in coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We investigated sex-specific proteomic profiles associated with CMD in patients with HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the prospective multinational PROMIS-HFpEF study (Prevalence of Microvascular Dysfunction in HFpEF; n = 182; 54.6% women), we compared clinical and biomarker correlates of CMD (defined as coronary flow reserve [CFR] <2.5) between men and women with HFpEF. We used lasso penalized regression to analyse 242 biomarkers from high-throughput proximity extension assays, adjusting for age, body mass index, creatinine, smoking and study site. The prevalence of CMD was similarly high in men and women with HFpEF (77% vs. 70%; p = 0.27). Proteomic correlates of CFR differed by sex, with 10 versus 16 non-overlapping biomarkers independently associated with CFR in men versus women, respectively. In men, proteomic correlates of CFR included chemokine ligand 20, brain natriuretic peptide, proteinase 3, transglutaminase 2, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14. Among women, the strongest proteomic correlates with CFR were insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1, phage shock protein D, CUB domain-containing protein 1, prostasin, decorin, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3, ligand growth differentiation factor 15, spondin-1, delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor and tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B. Pathway analyses suggested that CMD was related to the inflammation-mediated chemokine and cytokine signalling pathway among men with HFpEF, and the P13-kinase and transforming growth factor-beta signalling pathway among women with HFpEF. CONCLUSION: While the prevalence of CMD among men and women with HFpEF is similar, the drivers of microvascular dysfunction may differ by sex. The current inflammatory paradigm of CMD in HFpEF potentially predominates in men, while derangement in ventricular remodelling and fibrosis may play a more important role in women.

20.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(4): 562-571, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499590

RESUMO

Rationale: The effect of insulin resistance on left ventricular function is well documented; however, less is known regarding its effect on the right ventricle (RV). Objectives: To evaluate the association between insulin resistance and RV function by echocardiography in a cohort of adults without baseline cardiovascular disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Linear regression was used to examine the association between overall insulin resistance measured by the mean triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (TG:HDL) and change in TG:HDL over time for each participant with echocardiographic RV function. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of RV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Results: Among 3,032 participants, higher mean TG:HDL was associated with lower (worse) absolute RV longitudinal strain (ß, -0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.64 to -0.13; P < 0.01), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (ß, -0.05; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.04; P < 0.001), and higher odds of abnormal RV strain (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.47; P < 0.01) and abnormal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.51; P < 0.001). TG:HDL was also associated with lower ratio of tricuspid early to late ventricular filling velocities (E/A) (ß, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.01; P < 0.01), higher ratio of early diastolic tricuspid inflow to tricuspid lateral annular velocity (E/e') (ß, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.23; P < 0.001), and higher odds of graded RV diastolic dysfunction (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.39; P < 0.05). These associations remained following multivariable adjustment. Conclusions: Insulin resistance was associated with decreased RV systolic and diastolic function after adjusting for alternative causes of RV dysfunction, suggesting that insulin-resistant individuals are at risk for early RV dysfunction, even in the absence of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Adulto , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Função Ventricular Direita
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