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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939300

RESUMO

AIMS: Visceral adipose tissue (AT) promotes inflammation and may be associated with disease progression in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We characterized regional AT distribution in HFpEF patients and controls and analysed associations with co-morbidities and exercise tolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to quantify epicardial, liver, abdominal, and thigh skeletal muscle AT. We assessed New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, 6 min walk distance, and global well-being score. Multivariable linear regression models adjusting for body surface area were used. We studied 55 HFpEF patients (41 women, mean age 67 ± 11 years) and 33 controls (21 women, mean age 57 ± 10 years). Epicardial AT (median [interquartile range] 4.6 [2.0] vs. 3.2 [1.4] mm, P < 0.001), thigh intermuscular fat (11.0 [11.5] vs. 5.0 [2.7] cm2 , P < 0.001) and liver fat fraction (6.4% [6.1] vs. 4.1% [5.5], P = 0.001) were higher in HFpEF patients than controls. Women with HFpEF had higher abdominal and thigh subcutaneous AT than men. Greater thigh intermuscular fat was associated with higher blood pressure (ß [SE] 0.73 [0.17], P < 0.001) and diabetes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.2 [1.0-1.5], P = 0.03). Greater thigh intramuscular fat was associated with both worse NYHA class (ß [SE] 2.7 [1.0], P = 0.01) and shorter 6 min walk distance (ß [SE] -4.1 [1.9], P = 0.03), and greater epicardial AT (ß [SE] -0.2 [0.1], P < 0.001) and liver fat fraction (ß [SE] -0.4 [0.2], P = 0.04) were associated with lower global well-being score. CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients have increased epicardial, liver, and skeletal muscle fat compared with controls out of proportion to their increased body size, and adiposity was associated with worse NYHA class and exercise tolerance in HFpEF. These results provide the basis for further investigation into the effect of interventions to reduce regional AT distribution in relation to HFpEF symptoms and pathophysiology.

2.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(5): 360-370, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intravenous levosimendan on hemodynamics and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) in patients with pulmonary hypertension and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF). BACKGROUND: There are no proven effective treatments for patients with PH-HFpEF. METHODS: Patients with mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥35 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≥20 mm Hg, and LVEF ≥40% underwent 6MWD and hemodynamic measurements at rest, during passive leg raise, and supine cycle exercise at baseline and after an open-label 24-h levosimendan infusion (0.1 µg/kg/min). Hemodynamic responders (those with ≥4 mm Hg reduction of exercise-PCWP) were randomized (double blind) to weekly levosimendan infusion (0.075 to 0.1 ug/kg/min for 24 h) or placebo for 5 additional weeks. The primary end point was exercise-PCWP, and key secondary end points included 6MWD and PCWP measured across all exercise stages. RESULTS: Thirty-seven of 44 patients (84%) met responder criteria and were randomized to levosimendan (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19). Participants were 69 ± 9 years of age, 61% female, and with resting mPAP 41.0 ± 9.3 mm Hg and exercise-PCWP 36.8 ± 11.3 mm Hg. Compared with placebo, levosimendan did not significantly reduce the primary end point of exercise-PCWP at 6 weeks (-1.4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.8 to 4.8; p = 0.65). However, levosimendan reduced PCWP measured across all exercise stages (-3.9 ± 2.0 mm Hg; p = 0.047). Levosimendan treatment resulted in a 29.3 m (95% CI: 2.5 to 56.1; p = 0.033) improvement in 6MWD compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Six weeks of once-weekly levosimendan infusion did not affect exercise-PCWP but did reduce PCWP incorporating data from rest and exercise, in tandem with increased 6MWD. Further study of levosimendan is warranted as a therapeutic option for PH-HFpEF. (Hemodynamic Evaluation of Levosimendan in Patients With PH-HFpEF [HELP]; NCT03541603).

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886137

RESUMO

Volume recruitment from the splanchnic compartment is an important physiological response to stressors such as physical activity and blood loss. In the setting of heart failure (HF), excess fluid redistribution from this compartment leads to increased cardiac filling pressures with limitation in exercise capacity. Recent evidence suggests that blocking neural activity of the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) could have significant benefits in some patients with heart failure (HF) by reducing cardiac filling pressures and improvement in exercise capacity. However, to date the long-term safety of splanchnic nerve modulation (SNM) in the setting of HF is unknown. SNM is currently used in clinical practice to alleviate some forms of chronic abdominal pain. A systematic review of series where permanent SNM was used as a treatment for chronic abdominal pain indicates that permanent SNM is well tolerated, with side-effects limited to transient diarrhea or abdominal colic and transient hypotension. The pathophysiological role of the GSN in volume redistribution, the encouraging findings of acute and chronic pilot SNM studies and the safety profile from permanent SNM for pain provides a strong basis for continued efforts to study this therapeutic target in HF.

4.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12016263, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813847

RESUMO

Given unique pathways contributing to hypertension among people with HIV, we sought to determine whether antihypertensive class was associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among people with HIV. Among veterans with HIV and incident hypertension (2000-2018), we used propensity-score matching to evaluate risk of (1) incident/recurrent CVD or death, (2) incident CVD, and (3) incident heart failure by antihypertensive class. In supplementary analyses, we performed stratified analyses by race and chronic kidney disease status. Among 8041 veterans, 24% were initiated on ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor/ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker) monotherapy, 23% on thiazide/thiazide-like diuretic monotherapy, 13% on ß-blocker monotherapy, and 11% on calcium channel blocker monotherapy. Over a median of 6.5 years, 25% experienced a CVD event. ß-blockers, but not calcium channel blockers or diuretics, were associated with an increased risk of incident CVD compared with ACEs/ARBs (hazard ratio [95% CI], ß-blockers 1.90 [1.24-2.89]; calcium channel blockers 1.02 [0.77-1.34]; diuretics 1.06 [0.86-1.31]); similar hazard ratio were noted for incident/recurrent CVD or death. In veterans without chronic kidney disease, ACE inhibitor/ARBs were associated with a lower risk of incident heart failure compared with all other classes (hazard ratio [95% CI]: ß-blockers, 1.52 [1.11-2.09]; calcium channel blockers 1.48 [1.00-2.19]; diuretics 1.52 [1.07-2.16]). In conclusion, we observed high rates of CVD events in people with HIV with hypertension and a high prevalence of ß-blocker use for initial hypertension management, even among those without indications. Our findings highlight the potential harm associated with ß-blockers and the possible benefit associated with ACE inhibitor/ARBs for hypertension management in people with HIV. Prospective and randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861689

RESUMO

The diagnosis and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) includes several advances, such as broader recognition of extra-pulmonary vascular organ system involvement, validated point-of-care clinical assessment tools, and a focus on early-initiation of multiple pharmacotherapeutics in appropriate patients. Indeed, a principal goal in PAH today is early diagnosis for prompt initiation of treatment to achieve minimal symptom burden, optimize the patient's biochemical, hemodynamic, and functional profile, and limit adverse events. To accomplish this end, clinicians must be familiar with novel risk factors and the revised hemodynamic definition for PAH. Fresh insights into the role of developmental biology (i.e., perinatal health) may also be useful for predicting incident PAH in early adulthood. Emergent or underutilized approaches to PAH management include a novel TGF-ß ligand trap pharmacotherapy, remote pulmonary artery pressure monitoring, next-generation imaging using inert gas-based magnetic resonance and other technologies, right atrial pacing, and pulmonary artery denervation. These and other PAH state-of-the-art advances are summarized here for the wider pulmonary medicine community.

6.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864224

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatments of left atrial (LA) myopathy in comorbid atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) across the spectrum of ejection fraction. RECENT FINDINGS: AF and HF are highly comorbid conditions. Left atrial (LA) myopathy, characterized by impairments in LA structure, function, or electrical conduction, plays a fundamental role in the development of both AF and HF with preserved ejection fraction (AF-HFpEF) along with AF and HF with reduced ejection fraction (AF-HFrEF). While the nature of LA myopathy in AF-HFpEF is unique from that of AF-HFrEF, LA myopathy also leads to progression of both of these conditions. There may be a vulnerable cohort of AF-HF patients who have a disproportionate degree of LA myopathy compared with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Further investigations are required to identify therapies to improve LA function in this cohort.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(5): 386-397, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prognostic importance of heart failure (HF) signs and symptoms in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on HF signs and symptoms. BACKGROUND: In patients with HFpEF, worsening of HF symptoms, as a marker of cardiac decompensation, is frequently the reason for hospitalization. In this heterogenous disease entity, the prognostic value of HF signs and symptoms with regard to cardiovascular (CV) outcomes is poorly defined. METHODS: The authors examined the association between baseline HF signs and symptoms (rest dyspnea, exertional dyspnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, fatigue, edema, jugular venous distension, rales, and third heart sound) as well as burden of these HF signs and symptoms (classified as ≤2 and ≥3 HF signs and symptoms) and the primary composite of total HF hospitalizations and CV death, its components, and all-cause death in 4,725 patients enrolled in PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HFpEF) with available signs and symptoms at randomization. Response to sacubitril/valsartan on the basis of the presence of signs and symptoms was evaluated. Effects of sacubitril/valsartan on signs and symptoms over time were assessed using binary repeated-measures logistic regression. RESULTS: Patients with high (≥3) burden of HF signs and symptoms (n = 1,772 [38%]) were more commonly women, had slightly lower left ventricular ejection fractions, higher body mass index, and more advanced New York Heart Association functional class compared with patients with low (≤2) burden (n = 2,953 [62%]) (p < 0.001 for all). Levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.14). Greater burden of signs and symptoms was associated with higher risk for total HF hospitalizations and CV death (rate ratio [RR]: 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30 to 1.74) and all-cause death (RR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.65). Among individual signs and symptoms, orthopnea (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.61) and rales (RR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.10 to 2.10) were most predictive of the primary endpoint. Treatment response to sacubitril/valsartan was not significantly modified by burden of HF signs and symptoms (p for interaction = 0.08), though patients with orthopnea appeared to derive greater benefit from sacubitril/valsartan (RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.90) than those without orthopnea (RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.14; p for interaction = 0.04). Compared with valsartan, sacubitril/valsartan did not significantly decrease overall burden of HF signs and symptoms over time (odds ratio: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.07) but did reduce exertional dyspnea (odds ratio: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: High burden of HF signs and symptoms, particularly the presence of orthopnea and rales, portends a higher risk for adverse CV events in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. Sacubitril/valsartan did not significantly decrease the burden of HF signs and symptoms over time but did reduce exertional dyspnea relative to valsartan. (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).

9.
BMJ ; 372: n461, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess age differences in risk factors for incident heart failure in the general population. DESIGN: Pooled population based cohort study. SETTING: Framingham Heart Study, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. PARTICIPANTS: 24 675 participants without a history of heart failure stratified by age into young (<55 years; n=11 599), middle aged (55-64 years; n=5587), old (65-74 years; n=5190), and elderly (≥75 years; n=2299) individuals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident heart failure. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 138/11 599 (1%), 293/5587 (5%), 538/5190 (10%), and 412/2299 (18%) of young, middle aged, old, and elderly participants, respectively, developed heart failure. In young participants, 32% (n=44) of heart failure cases were classified as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared with 43% (n=179) in elderly participants. Risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, current smoking history, and previous myocardial infarction conferred greater relative risk in younger compared with older participants (P for interaction <0.05 for all). For example, hypertension was associated with a threefold increase in risk of future heart failure in young participants (hazard ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 2.10 to 4.34; P<0.001) compared with a 1.4-fold risk in elderly participants (1.43, 1.13 to 1.81; P=0.003). The absolute risk for developing heart failure was lower in younger than in older participants with and without risk factors. Importantly, known risk factors explained a greater proportion of overall population attributable risk for heart failure in young participants (75% v 53% in elderly participants), with better model performance (C index 0.79 v 0.64). Similarly, the population attributable risks of obesity (21% v 13%), hypertension (35% v 23%), diabetes (14% v 7%), and current smoking (32% v 1%) were higher in young compared with elderly participants. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a lower incidence and absolute risk of heart failure among younger compared with older people, the stronger association and greater attributable risk of modifiable risk factors among young participants highlight the importance of preventive efforts across the adult life course.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains challenging. We aimed to evaluate the generalizability of the HFA-PEFF (Heart Failure Association Pre-test assessment, Echocardiography & natriuretic peptide, Functional testing, Final etiology) and weighted H2FPEF (Heavy, 2 or more Hypertensive drugs, atrial Fibrillation, Pulmonary hypertension, Elder age > 60, elevated Filling pressures) diagnostic algorithms and associations with HF severity, coronary microvascular dysfunction and proteomic biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diagnostic likelihood of HFpEF was calculated in the prospective, multinational PROMIS-HFpEF (Prevalence of microvascular dysfunction in HFpEF) cohort using current European Society of Cardiology recommendations, HFA-PEFF and H2FPEF algorithms. Associations between the 2 algorithms and left atrial function, Doppler-based coronary flow reserve, 6-minute walk test, quality of life, and proteomic biomarkers were investigated. Of 181 patients with an EF of ≥50%, 129 (71%) and 94 (52%) fulfilled criteria for high likelihood HFpEF as per HFA-PEFF and H2FPEF, and 28% and 46% were classified as intermediate likelihood, requiring additional hemodynamic testing. High likelihood HFpEF patients were older with higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and lower global longitudinal strain and left atrial reservoir strain (P < .001 for all variables). left atrial reservoir strain and global longitudinal strain were inversely associated with both HFA-PEFF and H2FPEF scores (TauB = -0.35 and -0.46 and -0.21 and -0.31; P < .001 for all). There were no associations between scoring and 6-minute walk test, quality of life, and coronary flow reserve. Both scores were associated with biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although the HFA-PEFF and H2FPEF scores were associated with measures of HF severity and biomarkers related to HFpEF, they demonstrated a modest and differential ability to identify HFpEF noninvasively, necessitating additional functional testing to confirm the diagnosis.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709628

RESUMO

AIMS: We sought to compare the generalizability and prognostic implications of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) scores (HFA-PEFF and H2 FPEF score) in Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) and Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (RELAX) trial participants and matched controls from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community (ARIC) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the respective scores, the study participants from the TOPCAT (N = 356), RELAX (N = 216), and ARIC (N = 379) studies were categorized as having a low, intermediate, or high likelihood of HFpEF. Age, sex, and race matched controls free of cardiovascular disease who had unexplained dyspnoea were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. The prognostic value of scores was assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses. The median HFA-PEFF scores in the TOPCAT, RELAX, and ARIC studies were 5.0 [interquartile range (IQR): 5.0-6.0], 4.0 (IQR: 2.0-4.0), and 3.0 (IQR: 2.0-4.0), respectively. The median H2 FPEF scores in the three studies were 5.5 (IQR: 4.0-7.0), 6.0 (IQR: 4.0-7.0), and 3.0 (IQR: 2.0-5.0), respectively. A low HFA-PEFF and H2 FPEF score can rule out HFpEF with high sensitivity (99.5% and 99.6%, respectively) and negative predictive value (95.7% and 98.3%, respectively). A high HFA-PEFF and H2 FPEF score can rule-in HFpEF with good specificity (82.8% and 95.6%, respectively) and positive predictive value (79.9% and 90.4%, respectively). Among TOPCAT participants, the hazard for adverse cardiovascular events per point increase in HFA-PEFF and H2 FPEF score was 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.63) and 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.88-1.15), respectively. A higher H2 FPEF score was associated with lower peak oxygen intake in RELAX trial participants (adjusted P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The HFA-PEFF and the H2 FPEF scores are reliable diagnostic tools for HFpEF. The prognostic utility of HFpEF scores requires further validation in larger rigorously phenotyped populations.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4885, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649383

RESUMO

Impaired left atrial (LA) function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with adverse outcomes. A subgroup of HFpEF may have LA myopathy out of proportion to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction; therefore, we sought to characterize HFpEF patients with disproportionate LA myopathy. In the prospective, multicenter, Prevalence of Microvascular Dysfunction in HFpEF study, we defined disproportionate LA myopathy based on degree of LA reservoir strain abnormality in relation to LV myopathy (LV global longitudinal strain [GLS]) by calculating the residuals from a linear regression of LA reservoir strain and LV GLS. We evaluated associations of disproportionate LA myopathy with hemodynamics and performed a plasma proteomic analysis to identify proteins associated with disproportionate LA myopathy; proteins were validated in an independent sample. Disproportionate LA myopathy correlated with better LV diastolic function but was associated with lower stroke volume reserve after passive leg raise independent of atrial fibrillation (AF). Additionally, disproportionate LA myopathy was associated with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure, higher pulmonary vascular resistance, and lower coronary flow reserve. Of 248 proteins, we identified and validated 5 proteins (involved in cardiomyocyte stretch, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation) that were associated with disproportionate LA myopathy independent of AF. In HFpEF, LA myopathy may exist out of proportion to LV myopathy. Disproportionate LA myopathy is a distinct HFpEF subtype associated with worse hemodynamics and a distinct proteomic signature, independent of AF.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686716

RESUMO

AIMS: A hallmark of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is impaired exercise capacity of varying severity. The main determinant of exercise capacity is cardiac output (CO), however little information is available about the relation between the constituents of CO - heart rate and stroke volume - and exercise capacity in HFpEF. We sought to determine if a heterogeneity in heart rate and stroke volume response to exercise exists in patients with HFpEF and describe possible clinical phenotypes associated with differences in these responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from two prospective trials of HFpEF (n = 108) and a study of healthy participants (n = 42) with invasive haemodynamic measurements during exercise were utilized. Differences in central haemodynamic responses were analysed with regression models. Chronotropic incompetence was present in 39-56% of patients with HFpEF and 3-56% of healthy participants depending on the definition used, but some (n = 47, 44%) had an increase in heart rate similar to that of healthy controls. Patients with HFpEF had a smaller increase in their stroke volume index (SVI) (HFpEF: +4 ± 10 mL/m2 , healthy participants: +24 ± 12 mL/m2 , P < 0.0001), indeed, SVI fell in 28% of patients at peak exercise. Higher body mass index and lower SVI at rest were associated with smaller increases in heart rate during exercise, whereas higher resting heart rate, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker use were associated with a greater increase in SVI in patients with HFpEF. CONCLUSION: The haemodynamic response to exercise was very heterogeneous among patients with HFpEF, with chronotropic incompetence observed in up to 56%, and 28% had impaired increase in SVI. This suggests that haemodynamic exercise testing may be useful to identify which HFpEF patients may benefit from interventions targeting stroke volume and chronotropic response.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(9): 1211-1221, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) with spironolactone is associated with lower risk of heart failure hospitalization (HFH) but increased risk of worsening renal function (WRF). The prognostic implications of spironolactone-associated WRF in HFpEF patients are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between WRF, spironolactone treatment, and clinical outcomes in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: In 1,767 patients randomized to spironolactone or placebo in the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial)-Americas study, we examined the incidence of WRF (doubling of serum creatinine) by treatment assignment. Associations between incident WRF and subsequent risk for the primary study endpoint of cardiovascular (CV) death, HFH, or aborted cardiac arrest and key secondary outcomes, including CV death, HFH, and all-cause mortality according to treatment assignment, were examined in time-updated Cox proportional hazards models with an interaction term. RESULTS: WRF developed in 260 (14.7%) patients with higher rates in those assigned to spironolactone compared to placebo (17.8% vs. 11.6%; odds ratio: 1.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.27 to 2.17; p < 0.001). Regardless of treatment, incident WRF was associated with increased risk for the primary endpoint (hazard ratio: 2.04; 95% confidence interval: 1.52 to 2.72; p < 0.001) after multivariable adjustment. Although there was no statistical interaction between treatment assignment and WRF regarding the primary endpoint (interaction p = 0.11), spironolactone-associated WRF was associated with lower risk of CV death (interaction p = 0.003) and all-cause mortality (interaction p = 0.001) compared with placebo-associated WRF. CONCLUSIONS: Among HFpEF patients enrolled in TOPCAT-Americas, spironolactone increased risk of WRF compared with placebo. Rates of CV death were lower with spironolactone in both patients with and without WRF.

15.
Biomarkers ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715578

RESUMO

Purpose: Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger for natriuretic peptide (NP) and nitric oxide pathways; its enhancement a target for heart failure and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated whether plasma cGMP was associated with change in left ventricular mass (LVM) among individuals free of CVD and if this differed by sex.Methods and Results: In 611 men and 612 women aged 45-84 years with plasma cGMP measured at baseline and cardiac MRI performed at baseline and 10 years later, we tested associations of cGMP [log-transformed, per 1 SD increment] with LVM, adjusting for CVD risk factors and N-terminal pro-B-type-NP (NT-proBNP). Participants had mean (SD) age of 63.1(8.5) years and cGMP 4.8(2.6) pmol/mL. Cross-sectionally, higher cGMP was associated with lesser LVM, non-lin- early. In contrast, longitudinally, higher cGMP was associated with increase in LVM [1.70g (0.61, 2.78)] over 10 years. Higher cGMP was associated with greater LVM change in men [2.68g (1.57, 3.79)] but not women [0.24g ((-0.92, 1.39); p-interaction < 0.001].Conclusion: In conclusion, in a community-based cohort, higher cGMP levels were associated with increase in LVM over 10 years independent of CVD risk factors and NT-proBNP in men, perhaps reflecting compensatory changes. Further studies are needed to understand mechanistic roles of cGMP in LV remodelling and associated sex differences.

16.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(2): e007761, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535771

RESUMO

Targeted prevention of heart failure (HF) remains a critical need given the high prevalence of HF morbidity and mortality. Similar to risk-based prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, optimal HF prevention strategies should include quantification of risk in the individual patient. In this review, we discuss incorporation of a quantitative risk-based approach into the existing HF staging landscape and the clinical opportunity that exists to translate available data on risk estimation to help guide personalized decision making. We first summarize the recent development of key HF risk prediction tools that can be applied broadly at a population level to estimate risk of incident HF. Next, we provide an in-depth description of the clinical utility of biomarkers to personalize risk estimation in select patients at the highest risk of developing HF. We also discuss integration of genomics-enhanced approaches (eg, Titin [TTN]) and other risk-enhancing features to reclassify risk with a precision medicine approach to HF prevention. Although sequential testing is very likely to identify low and high-risk individuals with excellent accuracy, whether or not interventions based on these risk models prevent HF in clinical practice requires prompt attention including randomized placebo-controlled trials of candidate therapies in risk-enriched populations. We conclude with a summary of unanswered questions and gaps in evidence that must be addressed to move the field of HF risk assessment forward.

18.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(4): H1658-H1669, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635163

RESUMO

The goal of this work was to investigate the role of t-tubule (TT) remodeling in abnormal Ca2+ cycling in ventricular myocytes of failing dog hearts. Heart failure (HF) was induced using rapid right ventricular pacing. Extensive changes in echocardiographic parameters, including left and right ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, elevated left ventricular filling pressures, and abnormal cardiac mechanics, indicated that severe HF developed. TT loss was extensive when measured as the density of total cell volume, derived from three-dimensional confocal image analysis, and significantly increased the distances in the cell interior to closest cell membrane. Changes in Ca2+ transients indicated increases in heterogeneity of Ca2+ release along the cell length. When critical properties of Ca2+ release variability were plotted as a function of TT organization, there was a complex, nonlinear relationship between impaired calcium release and decreasing TT organization below a certain threshold of TT organization leading to increased sensitivity in Ca2+ release below a TT density threshold of 1.5%. The loss of TTs was also associated with a greater incidence of triggered Ca2+ waves during rapid pacing. Finally, virtually all of these observations were replicated by acute detubulation by formamide treatment, indicating an important role of TT remodeling in impaired Ca2+ cycling. We conclude that TT remodeling itself is a major contributor to abnormal Ca2+ cycling in HF, reducing myocardial performance. The loss of TTs is also responsible for a greater incidence of triggered Ca2+ waves that may play a role in ventricular arrhythmias arising in HF.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Three-dimensional analysis of t-tubule density showed t-tubule disruption throughout the whole myocyte in failing dog ventricle. A double-linear relationship between Ca2+ release and t-tubule density displays a steeper slope at t-tubule densities below a threshold value (∼1.5%) above which there is little effect on Ca2+ release (T-tubule reserve). T-tubule loss increases incidence of triggered Ca2+ waves. Chemically induced t-tubule disruption suggests that t-tubule loss alone is a critical component of abnormal Ca2+ cycling in heart failure.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Pressão Ventricular
19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1482-1493, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595905

RESUMO

AIMS: The CANVAS Program identified the effect of canagliflozin on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) differed according to whether participants were using diuretics at study commencement. We sought to further evaluate this finding related to baseline differences, treatment effects, safety, and risk factor changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CANVAS Program enrolled 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomized to canagliflozin or placebo and followed for a mean of 188 weeks. The primary outcome was major cardiovascular events, a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes included multiple cardiovascular, renal, and safety events. In this post hoc subgroup analysis, participants were categorized according to baseline use of any diuretic. The effect on outcomes was compared using Cox proportional hazards models, while risk factor changes were compared using mixed-effect models. At baseline, 4490 (44.3%) participants were using a diuretic. Compared with those not using a diuretic, participants using a diuretic were more likely to be older (mean age ± standard deviation, 64.3 ± 8.0 vs. 62.5 ± 8.3), be female (38.9% vs. 33.4%), and have heart failure (19.6% vs. 10.3%) (all Pdifference  < 0.0001). The effect of canagliflozin on major cardiovascular events was greater for those using diuretic at baseline than for those who were not [adjusted hazard ratio 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.54-0.78) vs. adjusted hazard ratio 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.93-1.36), Pheterogeneity  < 0.0001]. Changes in most risk factors, including blood pressure, body weight, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, were similar between groups (all Pdifference  > 0.11), although the effect of canagliflozin on haemoglobin A1c reduction was slightly weaker in participants using compared with not using diuretics at baseline (-0.52% vs. -0.64%, Pheterogeneity  = 0.0007). Overall serious adverse events and key safety outcomes, including adverse renal events, were also similar (all Pheterogeneity  > 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Participants on baseline diuretics derived a greater benefit for major cardiovascular events from canagliflozin, which was not fully explained by differences in participant characteristics nor risk factor changes.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609066

RESUMO

AIMS: The relationship between serum potassium concentration and outcomes in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is not well-established. The aim of this study was to explore the association between serum potassium and clinical outcomes in the PARAGON-HF trial in which 4822 patients with HFpEF were randomised to treatment with sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. METHODS AND RESULTS: The relationship between serum potassium concentrations and the primary study composite outcome of total (first and recurrent) heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death was analysed. Hypo-, normo-, and hyperkalaemia were defined as serum potassium <4 mmol/L, 4-5 mmol/L and >5 mmol/L, respectively. Both screening and time-updated potassium (categorical and continuous spline-transformed) were studied. Patient mean age was 73 years and 52% were women. Patients with higher baseline potassium more often had an ischaemic aetiology and diabetes and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment. Compared with normokalaemia, both time-updated (but not screening) hypo- and hyperkalaemia were associated with a higher risk of the primary outcome [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for hypokalaemia 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-1.85; P < 0.001, and for hyperkalaemia HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.44; P = 0.025]. Hypokalaemia had a stronger association with a higher risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death than hyperkalaemia. The association of hypokalaemia with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death was most marked in participants with impaired kidney function (interaction P < 0.05). Serum potassium did not significantly differ between sacubitril/valsartan and valsartan throughout the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Both hypo- and hyperkalaemia were associated with heart failure hospitalisation but only hypokalaemia was associated with mortality, especially in the context of renal impairment. Hypokalaemia was as strongly associated with death from non-cardiovascular causes as with cardiovascular death. Collectively, these findings suggest that potassium disturbances are a more of a marker of HFpEF severity rather than a direct cause of death.

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