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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(6): 11-12, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study intended to estimate the comorbidities and risk factors among patients with hypertension in India. Further, the current practice of hypertension management was evaluated and the choice of therapy was assessed based on hypertension grade, risk factors, and comorbidities. METHODS: Electronic medical record data (June 2017-June 2019) of Indian adult hypertensive patients (≥140/90 mmHg) who had two blood pressure (BP) readings were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic characteristics, BP readings, comorbidities, medications and co-medications, and laboratory data were collected at baseline. Grids based on hypertension grade (I, II, and III), demographic factors, risk factors, and comorbidities were created and prescribed antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) in each grid were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 100,075 patients, the proportion of patients in 18-40 year, 40-65 year, and >65 year age groups were 11.4%, 65.1%, and 23.4%, respectively. Proportion of men and women was similar (52.0% vs 47.9%). Proportion of patients with BMI <25 Kg/m2 was 8.1%, 25-29.9 Kg/m2 was 11.9%, and >30 Kg/m2 was 8.8%. Mean BP of patients with hypertension was: grade I (145.05/90.73 mmHg), grade II (160.07/95.64 mmHg), and grade III (180.82/102.76 mmHg). Mean low density lipoprotein (113.26 mg/dL), serum creatinine (2.28 mg/dL), mean HbA1c (8.7%) levels were highest among patients with grade III hypertension. Commonly observed comorbidities were type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM: 51.5%), dyslipidemia (36.4%), and chronic kidney disease (CKD: 4.4%). Top concomitant medications included anti-diabetic therapies (34.6%), drugs for dyslipidemia (30.0%), and anti-platelet therapies (6.9%). CONCLUSION: Most prescribed AHD monotherapies were angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and most prescribed combination therapies were ARBs + diuretics and ARBs + CCBs. Telmisartan and amlodipine+telmisartan for patients with comorbid T2DM or dyslipidemia and metoprolol for those with coronary artery disease were the commonly prescribed AHDs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Oral Oncol ; 120: 105403, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The description for T4a oral tongue cancer in the 8th edition AJCC staging can be improved further. In this article we attempted to identify the important radiological (MRI) findings that could possibly be included in the staging eventually. METHODS: We included all oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients who underwent surgery at TMH between Jan 2012 to Dec 2018 and whose MRIs were available for review. The relation of the tumor to the neurovascular bundle (NVB) on MRI was classified as Type I to IV. The association of the type of NVB involvement with DFS and the presence of PNI in the final HPR was analyzed. RESULTS: Two-hundred and fifty-nine patients satisfied the eligibility criteria. The majority of them were men (82.6%), with a median age of 49 Yrs. Sixty-nine percent of patients had either abutment (Type III) or encasement (Type IV) of the NVB. The presence of Abutment/encasement of the NVB was significantly associated with the presence of PNI in the final HPR (p < 0.001). This abutment/encasement was seen in clinically advanced T-stage tumors. However, the presence of abutment/encasement of the NVB influenced the DFS in the univariate analysis only. CONCLUSION: Abutment/encasement of the NVB in patients with carcinoma oral tongue is often seen in advanced-stage tumors and is significantly associated with the presence of PNI in the final HPR. Hence, the relation of the tumor with the NVB should be further assessed to understand its importance and its possible inclusion in the AJCC T-staging.

5.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 19(8): 769-775, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126829

RESUMO

Background: This is the first detailed Indian electronic medical record (EMR)-based real-world observational study to understand the clinical characteristics, associated comorbidities/risk factors and treatment(s) of CAD patients across India.Methods: EMR data of adult Indians (aged ≥ 18 years) diagnosed with CAD was retrospectively analyzed.Results: The majority of the participants had stable IHD (93%), were men (68.5% in ACS, 59.8% in stable IHD), most common age group was 40-64 years in ACS (56.6%) and stable IHD (51.4%). Both are common in metros (ACS 52%, 62% stable IHD). There is a high frequency of hypertension (38.2% in ACS, 59% in stable IHD) and diabetes mellitus (32.3% in ACS, 57.6% in stable IHD). Most common treatments are antiplatelet drugs and lipid-lowering drugs (96%).Conclusions: In India, stable IHD is the most prevalent form in vast majority of patients. The patients with CAD are mostly males, are mainly located in metros and majority fall between the age group of 40-64. The major comorbidities are hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics for CAD in India may not be similar to what is reported from the west. There is a significant difference in drug usage and adherence to guidelines in India for CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Adulto , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Demografia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Cardiol Ther ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830460

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of telmisartan has been reported in Indian clinical trials; however, real-world data are limited. We aimed to provide real-world evidence regarding the effectiveness of telmisartan as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) in Indian patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: Electronic medical record data of adult patients diagnosed with essential hypertension (≥ 140/90 mmHg) and who were prescribed telmisartan as mono- or add-on therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified according to the number of AHD classes prescribed on initiating telmisartan. Change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) after a month of treatment and the proportion of patients who achieved treatment goals according to the 2018 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension guidelines were evaluated. RESULTS: A majority (90.6%) of the 1304 patients included in the study were on telmisartan monotherapy or telmisartan + 1 AHD. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) change in the telmisartan monotherapy group was SBP (-13.3 [-14.6, -12.0] mmHg) and DBP (-7.2 [-7.9, -6.5] mmHg), and the mean (95% CI) change in the telmisartan + 1 AHD group was SBP (-10.8 [-13.1, -8.5] mmHg) and DBP (-6.5 [-7.7, -5.3] mmHg) (P < 0.001 for all). SBP and DBP goals were achieved by 35.9% and 47.3% of patients on telmisartan monotherapy and by 35.9% and 46.8% of patients on telmisartan + 1 AHD. Among patients with comorbid diabetes, the mean (95% CI) change in the telmisartan monotherapy group was SBP (-13.3 [-15.0, -11.6] mmHg) and DBP (-7.3 [-8.2, -6.5] mmHg), and the mean (95% CI) change in the telmisartan + 1 AHD group was SBP (-13.0 [-16.5, -9.5] mmHg) and DBP (-6.9 [-8.7, -5.1] mmHg) (P < 0.001 for all). SBP and DBP goals were achieved by 31.7% and 39.7% of patients on telmisartan monotherapy and by 31.9% and 41.8% of patients on telmisartan + 1 AHD. CONCLUSION: Telmisartan may be a good candidate for blood pressure control in Indian patients with essential hypertension and comorbidities.

8.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(10): 851-858, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory marker testing in children has been identified as a potential area of overuse. We sought to describe variation in early inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) testing for infection-related hospitalizations across children's hospitals and to determine its association with length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rate, and cost. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of children aged 0 to 17 years with infection-related hospitalizations using the Pediatric Health Information System. After adjusting for patient characteristics, we examined rates of inflammatory marker testing (C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate) during the first 2 days of hospitalization. We used k-means clustering to assign each hospital to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of similarities in adjusted diagnostic testing rates across 12 infectious conditions. Multivariable regression was used to examine the association between hospital testing group and outcomes. RESULTS: We included 55 771 hospitalizations from 48 hospitals. In 7945 (14.3%), there was inflammatory marker testing in the first 2 days of hospitalization. We observed wide variation in inflammatory marker testing rates across hospitals and infections. Group A hospitals tended to perform more tests than group B or C hospitals (37.4% vs 18.0% vs 10.4%; P < .001) and had the longest adjusted LOS (3.2 vs 2.9 vs 2.8 days; P = .01). There was no significant difference in adjusted 30-day readmission rates or costs. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory marker testing varied widely across hospitals. Hospitals with higher inflammatory testing for one infection tend to test more frequently for other infections and have longer LOS, suggesting opportunities for diagnostic stewardship.

9.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 7(4): 281-293, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of amlodipine has been reported in clinical trials in India. However, real-world data on the effectiveness of amlodipine in India is limited. OBJECTIVE: To provide real-world evidence regarding the effectiveness of amlodipine as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) in Indian patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: Electronic medical record data of adult patients who were diagnosed with essential hypertension (≥ 140/90 mmHg) and were prescribed amlodipine as monotherapy or add-on therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified based on the number of AHD classes prescribed on initiation of amlodipine. Change in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure from baseline was the primary endpoint. Evaluation of proportion of patients who achieved treatment goals as per 2018 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension guidelines was the secondary endpoint. Readings were obtained before initiating amlodipine and after at least a month of therapy with amlodipine. RESULTS: Among the 462 included patients, the majority (90.7%) were on amlodipine monotherapy or amlodipine + 1AHD. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) change in the amlodipine monotherapy group was: SBP (- 12.1 [- 14.9, - 9.3] mmHg) and DBP (- 7.5 [- 8.9, - 6.1] mmHg) and mean (95% CI) change in the amlodipine + 1AHD group was: SBP (- 17.8 [- 21.0, - 14.6] mmHg) and DBP (- 9.5 [- 11.0, - 8.0] mmHg) (P < 0.001 for all). SBP and DBP goals were achieved by 31.4% and 42.9% of patients on amlodipine monotherapy and by 38.9% and 51.8% of patients on amlodipine + 1AHD, respectively. Among patients aged ≤ 45 years, mean (95% CI) change in the amlodipine monotherapy group was: SBP (- 11.7 [- 16.0, - 7.4] mmHg; P < 0.001) and DBP (- 7.2 [- 9.7, - 4.7] mmHg; P < 0.001) and mean (95% CI) change in the amlodipine + 1AHD group was: SBP (- 14.6 [- 21.9, - 7.3] mmHg; P < 0.05) and DBP (- 10.6 [- 14.8, - 6.4] mmHg; P < 0.01). SBP and DBP goals were achieved by 35.4% and 33.8% of patients on amlodipine monotherapy and by 48.0% and 56.0% of patients on amlodipine + 1AHD, respectively. Among patients aged ≥ 65 years, mean (95% CI) change in the amlodipine monotherapy group was: SBP (- 13.9 [- 20.2, - 7.6] mmHg; P < 0.01) and DBP (- 8.5 [- 11.4, - 5.7] mmHg; P < 0.001) and mean (95% CI) change in the amlodipine + 1AHD group was: SBP (- 22.4 [- - 28.8, - 16.0] mmHg; P < 0.001) and DBP (- 10.8 [- 14.0, - 7.6] mmHg; P < 0.001). SBP and DBP goals were achieved by 25.5% and 13.7% of patients on amlodipine monotherapy and by 29.8% and 14.0% of patients on amlodipine + 1AHD. CONCLUSION: Amlodipine prescribed as monotherapy or add-on therapy during routine clinical practice significantly reduced BP in ≤ 45- and ≥ 65-year-old Indian patients with mild to moderate hypertension, emphasizing that amlodipine may be a good candidate for BP control in Indian patients with essential hypertension in these age groups.

10.
Brain Dev ; 42(10): 762-766, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741581

RESUMO

Biotinidase deficiency disorder is a rare inherited metabolic disorder with typical neurological manifestations of hypotonia, developmental delay, rashes, seizures, hearing and vision impairment. We present two cases with different and unusual clinical profiles, whose neuroimaging resembled Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder. Case 1 was initially treated with immunomodulation with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, with partial improvement. However reinvestigation for worsening of symptoms showed more extensive changes on spine magnetic resonance imaging. Raised lactate and alanine levels on repeat cerebrospinal fluid testing resulted in further investigations that revealed a biotinidase deficiency. Case 2 presented mainly with respiratory symptoms: a barium swallow suggested bulbar dysfunction. Neuroimaging of brain and spine was similar to that in case 1 and the child was promptly investigated for and confirmed to have biotinidase deficiency. Both cases responded to biotin supplementation. It is important to be cognisant of atypical neurological presentations of biotinidase deficiency including those that mimic immune mediated neurodemyelination disorders, as biotinidase deficiency is potentially treatable.

11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(8): 66-72, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738844

RESUMO

Background: Real-world data on the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) in India is limited. The present study aims to provide updated evidence regarding the effectiveness of olmesartan as monotherapy or in combination with other AHDs in Indian patients with essential hypertension. Methods: Electronic medical record data of adult patients who were diagnosed with essential hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) and were prescribed olmesartan as mono- or add-on therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified based on the number of AHD classes prescribed on initiation of olmesartan. Change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) from baseline was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoint was evaluation of proportion of patients who achieved treatment goals as per 2018 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension guidelines. Readings were obtained before initiating olmesartan and after at least a month of therapy with olmesartan. Results: Among the 459 included patients, majority were on olmesartan monotherapy or olmesartan+1AHD (91.7%). Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) change in olmesartan monotherapy group was: SBP (-13.4 [-15.7, -11.1] mmHg) and DBP (-8.3 [-9.5, -7.1] mmHg) and mean (95% CI) change in olmesartan+1AHD group was: SBP (-11.7 [-15.1, -8.3] mmHg) and DBP (-6.6 [-8.3, -4.9] mmHg) (P<0.001 for all). SBP and DBP goals were achieved by 40.4% and 50.3% of patients on olmesartan monotherapy and by 36.1% and 46.2% of patients on olmesartan+1AHD. Among patients with comorbid diabetes, mean (95% CI) change in olmesartan monotherapy group was: SBP (-15.5 [-18.6, -12.4] mmHg) and DBP (-8.7 [-10.2, -7.2] mmHg) and mean (95% CI) change in olmesartan+1AHD group was: SBP (-13.5 [-18.3, -8.7] mmHg) and DBP (-7.6 [-9.8, -5.4] mmHg) (P<0.001 for all). SBP and DBP goals were achieved by 38.5% and 49.4% of patients on olmesartan monotherapy and by 31.7% and 42.9% of patients on olmesartan+1AHD. Conclusion: Olmesartan prescribed as mono- or add-on therapy during routine clinical practice significantly reduced blood pressure in Indian patients with essential hypertension as well as in patients with comorbid diabetes.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis , Índia , Olmesartana Medoxomila/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetrazóis/farmacologia
12.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 24(2): 137-142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699779

RESUMO

Introduction: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an uncommon clinical entity. Identification and appropriate treatment of PC remains a challenge. In this study, we explore clinico-radiological features suggestive of PC, the utility of Castleman's histopathological criteria for the diagnosis of PC and discuss the MD-Anderson prognostic stratification system for PC. Methods: Retrospective analysis (case series) of patients who were treated at our tertiary oncology institution between January 2009 and December 2018 with an eventual diagnosis of PC. Results: The study group comprised 15 patients. The most common presentation was related to the musculoskeletal system (n = 9, 60%). In one of the cases, ultrasound features were recorded to be suspicious of PC. The highest histopathological correlation with PC was found with capsular and vascular invasion (n = 12, 80%). The primary tumor was found in inferior parathyroid glands in most cases (n = 12, 80%). The average tumor size was 2.47 cm. Six patients (40%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Three patients (20%) developed recurrence, all having distant metastasis. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 92.31% and disease-free survival (DFS) of 76.61%. Conclusion: The presence of certain features on ultrasonography might suggest PC preoperatively. Among Castleman's criteria, capsular invasion and vascular invasion had a maximum association with PC in our series. At present, there is no evidence to routinely give adjuvant RT to all patients with PC.

13.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 7(4): 271-279, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of gliclazide has been reported in clinical trials in India. However, real-world data on the effectiveness of gliclazide in India is unavailable. OBJECTIVE: To provide real-world evidence regarding the effectiveness of gliclazide or gliclazide + metformin fixed-dose combination or separate medications, used either as monotherapy or as the latest add-on to other antihyperglycemic agents in reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Electronic medical record data of adult patients who were diagnosed with T2DM who were newly initiated on or had been prescribed gliclazide or gliclazide + metformin combination for < 30 days as monotherapy or as add-on therapy to other antihyperglycemic agents, and had HbA1c ≥ 6.5% were retrospectively analyzed. Mean change in HbA1c from baseline was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were assessment of dosages and formulations of gliclazide or gliclazide + metformin prescribed in the HbA1c spectrum and antihyperglycemic agents to which gliclazide or gliclazide + metformin was added as an adjunct. Readings were obtained before initiating gliclazide or gliclazide + metformin and after at least 90 days of treatment with gliclazide or gliclazide + metformin. RESULTS: Included patients (n = 498) were categorized into gliclazide only (n = 66), gliclazide + metformin only (n = 179), gliclazide add-on (n = 169), and gliclazide + metformin add-on (n = 84) groups. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) change in HbA1c among patients with baseline HbA1c > 7% was - 0.8% (- 1.26, - 0.34) in gliclazide only group; - 1.6% (- 1.89, - 1.31; p < 0.001) in gliclazide + metformin group; - 1.2% (- 1.50, - 0.90; p < 0.001) in add-on gliclazide group; and - 1.4% (- 1.75, - 1.05; p < 0.001) in add-on gliclazide + metformin group. Gliclazide once daily was the most prescribed regimen in the gliclazide only group (72.7%), with 60 mg being the most prescribed modified-release dose (62.5%). Gliclazide + metformin twice daily was the most prescribed regimen in the gliclazide + metformin group (69.3%) with 80 mg + 500 mg being the most prescribed immediate-release dose (62.9%). Gliclazide and gliclazide + metformin were most added as an adjunct to existing prescriptions of biguanides (83.4%) or insulin (64.3%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Gliclazide or gliclazide + metformin prescribed as mono- or add-on therapy during routine clinical practice effectively reduced HbA1c in Indian patients with T2DM, thus validating the use of gliclazide and gliclazide + metformin for managing T2DM in India.

15.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(12): 3469-3477, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swallowing after total laryngectomy (TL) is altered and the swallowing related issues are largely underreported. It is important to identify factors that may negatively influence swallowing after TL in order to rehabilitate these patients appropriately. METHODS: The study included patients who underwent TL from June 2015 to November 2017 for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal malignancy. Sequential swallowing assessment was done in these patients over time. The assessments were done using the FOIS scale and the PSS-HN normalcy of diet scores and analysed to assess the presence of swallowing related issues, factors influencing swallowing and its recovery over time. RESULTS: Sixty-seven who underwent total laryngectomy (TL) were included in the study. Swallowing assessments were done once in 3 months. Overall there was an improvement in swallowing over time. Both the FOIS (Median score of 3.82 in first to 5.77 in the fifth visit) and the PSS-HN scores (median score of 33.63 at first visit to 63.66 at fifth visit) improved over time. Patients undergoing TL after treatment failure with chemoradiotherapy (p value < 0.001) and those with advanced stage disease (p-value < 0.001) did poorly in terms of swallowing. At the last follow up only 8 patients were dependent on feeding tube; the rest of the patients were able to take food orally. CONCLUSION: Following total laryngectomy swallowing gradually improves in the first 18 months after surgery. It is essential to identify factors influencing swallowing negatively so that these patients can get appropriate attention to improve swallowing.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Laringe , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Laringectomia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Indian J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402603

RESUMO

Background: Promoting awareness of tobacco and cancer in the community needs multipronged efforts. We performed a study to evaluate whether we could raise awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco, oral and esophageal cancer among school students by providing them health education. Moreover, we also compared the awareness level in students of age group 12 to ≤14 years with the age group >14 to 18 years. Methods: We conducted an awareness program in the schools of Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra state. Students aged 12-18 years participated in this study. We provided health education to school students using a standard presentation; the presentation was rich in illustrations depicting the harmful effects of tobacco as well as oral and esophageal cancer's signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures. After the health talk, a questionnaire was circulated. The questions were focused on tobacco, signs, and symptoms of the diseases along with early detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer. Results: A total of 1354 students participated in the program. Totally, 567 (41.9%) students were from 6th to 8th grade (Group A, age group 12 to ≤14) and 787 (58.1%) students were from 9th to 12th standards (Group B, age group >14 to 18). Overall scores were high, ranging from 69% to 98%. Group A scored in the range of 69% to 95%, and Group B scored in the range 72%-98% The difference between the two groups was found to be statistically significant (P-value ≤0.05). Conclusion: A standardized health education program helped to raise awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco and cancer amongst school children. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether educating school children has an impact on community understanding of the disease.

19.
J Oral Maxillofac Pathol ; 23(2): 301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516242

RESUMO

Background: Micronucleus (MN) is a biomarker for cytotoxicity, which is formed during cell division. Increased MN scoring has been successfully used to recognize population groups at risk for cancers of oral cavity, cervix, urinary bladder and esophagus. Incorporating MN score along with cytological smear testing gives a better and cost-effective screening for high-risk patients. Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of using MN score assessed from Papanicolaou (PAP) smears, as a biomarker for chromosomal damage in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Materials and Methods: Oral smears of 25 female HIV/AIDS patients, without habits such as chewing or smoking tobacco, and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) at ART center, were recruited for the study. After careful oral examination and oral rinsing with normal saline, smears were prepared on slides by scraping the buccal mucosa with a wooden spatula. All the slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with PAP stain, and 1000 cells were counted per patient. Based on Tolbert et al.'s criteria, MNs were identified, and quantitative scoring of MN was done on the basis of morphological assay. Results: Mean ± standard deviation values of frequency of MNs in HIV-infected females were 73.40 ± 19.70 and in normal females were 38.08 ± 8.56. Conclusion: MN scoring on the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa can be used as a biomarker in screening procedures for HIV patients.

20.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overuse of laboratory testing contributes substantially to health care waste, downstream resource use, and patient harm. Understanding patterns of variation in hospital-level testing across common inpatient diagnoses could identify outliers and inform waste-reduction efforts. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of pediatric inpatients at 41 children's hospitals using administrative data from 2010 to 2016. Initial electrolyte testing was defined as testing occurring within the first 2 days of an encounter, and repeat testing was defined as subsequent testing within an encounter in which initial testing occurred. To examine if testing rates correlated across diagnoses at the hospital level, we compared risk-adjusted rates for gastroenteritis with a weighted average of risk-adjusted rates in other diagnosis cohorts. For each diagnosis, linear regression was performed to compare initial and subsequent testing. RESULTS: In 497 719 patient encounters, wide variation was observed across hospitals in adjusted, initial, and repeat testing rates. Hospital-specific rates of testing in gastroenteritis were moderately to strongly correlated with the weighted average of testing in other conditions (initial: r = 0.63; repeat r = 0.83). Within diagnoses, higher hospital-level initial testing rates were associated with significantly increased rates of subsequent testing for all diagnoses except gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS: Among children's hospitals, rates of initial and repeat electrolyte testing vary widely across 8 common inpatient diagnoses. For most diagnoses, hospital-level rates of initial testing were associated with rates of subsequent testing. Consistent rates of testing across multiple diagnoses suggest that hospital-level factors, such as institutional culture, may influence decisions for electrolyte testing.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrólitos/análise , Laboratórios Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laboratórios Hospitalares/economia , Masculino , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/economia
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