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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606713

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D is important for its immunomodulatory role and there is an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the outcome in children hospitalized for severe pneumonia. METHODS: This was a randomised, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in children aged >2-59 months with severe pneumonia attending Dhaka Hospital, icddr,b. Children received age-specific megadose of vitamin D3 (20,000IU: <6 months, 50,000 IU: 6-12 months, 100,000 IU:13-59 months) or placebo on first day and 10,000 IU as maintenance dose for next 4 days or until discharge (if discharged earlier) along with standard therapy. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02185196. FINDINGS: We enrolled 100 children in placebo group and 97 in vitamin D group. On admission, 50 (52%) and 49 (49%) of children in vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively were vitamin D deficient. Among children with a sufficient serum vitamin D level on admission, a lower trend for duration of resolution of severe pneumonia in hours [72(IQR:44-96)vs. 88(IQR:48-132);p = 0.07] and duration of hospital stay in days [4(IQR:3-5)vs.5(IQR:4-7);P = 0.09] was observed in vitamin D group compared to placebo. No beneficial effect was observed in vitamin D deficient group or irrespective of vitamin D status. CONCLUSION: Age-specific mega dose of vitamin D followed by a maintenance dose shown to have no statistical difference between the two intervention groups, however there was a trend of reduction of time to recovery from pneumonia and overall duration of hospital stay in under-five children with a sufficient serum vitamin D level on hospital admission.

2.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 64, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-hospital discharge mortality risk is high among young children in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The available literature suggests that child, caregiver and health care provider gender all play important roles in post-discharge adherence to medical advice, treatment-seeking and recovery for ill children in LMICs, including those with undernutrition. METHODS: A qualitative study was embedded within a larger multi-country multi-disciplinary observational cohort study involving children aged less than 2 years conducted by the Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition (CHAIN) Network. Primary data were collected from family members of 22 purposively selected cohort children. Family members were interviewed several times in their homes over the 6 months following hospital discharge (total n = 78 visits to homes). These in-depth interviews were complemented by semi-structured individual interviews with 6 community representatives, 11 community health workers and 12 facility-based health workers, and three group discussions with a total of 24 community representatives. Data were analysed using NVivo11 software, using both narrative and thematic approaches. RESULTS: We identified gender-related influences at health service/system and household/community levels. These influences interplayed to family members' adherence to medical advice and treatment-seeking after hospital discharge, with potentially important implications for children's recovery. Health service/system level influences included: fewer female medical practitioners in healthcare facilities, which influenced mothers' interest and ability to consult them promptly for their child's illnesses; gender-related challenges for community health workers in supporting mothers with counselling and advice; and male caregivers' being largely absent from the paediatric wards where information sessions to support post-discharge care are offered. Gendered household/community level influences included: women's role as primary caretakers for children and available levels of support; male family members having a dominant role in decision-making related to food and treatment-seeking behaviour; and greater reluctance among parents to invest money and time in the treatment of female children, as compared to male children. CONCLUSIONS: A complex web of gender related influences at health systems/services and household/community levels have important implications for young children's recovery post-discharge. Immediate interventions with potential for positive impact include awareness-raising among all stakeholders - including male family members - on how gender influences child health and recovery, and how to reduce adverse consequences of gender-based discrimination. Specific interventions could include communication interventions in facilities and homes, and changes in routine practices such as who is present in facility interactions. To maximise and sustain the impact of immediate actions and interventions, the structural drivers of women's position in society and gender inequity must also be tackled. This requires interventions to ensure equal equitable opportunities for men and women in all aspects of life, including access to education and income generation activities. Given patriarchal norms locally and globally, men will likely need special targeting and support in achieving these objectives.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in children under five globally. When it is associated with bacteremia, mortality is even higher. However, bacteraemia in diarrheal children has gained little attention in spite of its deleterious impact in under-five mortality. So, we aimed to evaluate associated clinical and laboratory factors for death in under-five children hospitalized with both diarrhea and bacteremia. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we used patients' electronic database of Dhaka Hospital of 'icddr,b', and enrolled all under-five children with diarrhea and bacterial growth in their blood samples on admission between June-2014 and May-2017. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between those who died and who survived with a special attention to bacterial pathogens related to deaths and their sensitivity pattern. RESULTS: In a total of 401 diarrheal children with bacteraemia, 45 (11%) died. Although Salmonella Typhi (34%) was the most predominant isolate followed by Staphylococcus species (16%) and Pseudomonas species (9%), children who died more often had E. coli (OR = 5.69, 95% CI = 2.42-13.39, p = <0.001) and Klebsiella bacteraemia (OR = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.84-11.46, p = 0.001) compared to those who survived. However, none of them was significantly associated with deaths in regression analysis when adjusted with other potential confounders. E. coli was 100% resistant to ampicillin, 41% to gentamicin, and 73% to ceftriaxone and Klebsiella species was 96% resistant to ampicillin, 42% to gentamicin, and 62% to ceftriaxone. Study children who died had significantly higher overall resistance pattern shown in World Health Organization (WHO) recommended one of the first line antibiotics in treating childhood sepsis such as ampicillin (80% vs. 50%, p = 0.001) and in second line antibiotic such as ceftriaxone (49% vs. 22%, p = 0.001) compared to the survivors. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, we found that clinical sepsis (aOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.60-8.96, p = 0.002), hypoxemia (aOR 4.20, 95% CI 1.74-10.12, p = 0.001), and hyperkalaemia (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05-6.91, p = 0.039) were found to be independent predictors of deaths and receipt of sensitive antibiotic (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.99, p = 0.048) was revealed as the independent protective factor for deaths in this population. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results of our data suggest that diarrheal children with bacteremia who died more often had gram negative bacteremia compared to those who survived and these pathogens are highly resistant to WHO recommended first line and second line antibiotics. The results further emphasize the critical importance of early identification of important clinical problems such as clinical sepsis, hypoxemia and hyperkalaemia in diarrheal children and treat them with potential sensitive antibiotic(s) in order to reduce bacteremia related mortality in children with diarrhea, especially in resource limited settings.

4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e17735, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia causes about 0.9 million deaths worldwide each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the standard management of severe pneumonia requires parenteral ampicillin every 6 hours and once-daily parenteral gentamicin for 5 to 7 days. Although this treatment has contributed to the reduction of mortality, it requires nursing interventions every 6 hours for 7 days. Further intervention trials should be conducted to search for alternate antibiotics with better adherence, reduced cost, and reduced hospital stay. Parenteral amoxicillin is an effective alternative to ampicillin, as it has a longer half-life and broader coverage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial is to compare the efficacy of a dose of injectable amoxicillin every 12 hours plus a once-daily dose of injectable gentamicin with a dose of injectable ampicillin every 6 hours plus a once-daily dose of injectable gentamicin in children hospitalized for severe pneumonia. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority trial is being conducted in Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh. A sample size of 308 children with severe pneumonia will give adequate power to this study. Children aged 2 to 59 months are randomized to either intravenous ampicillin or intravenous amoxicillin, plus intravenous gentamicin in both study arms. The monitoring of the patients is carried out according to the WHO protocol for the treatment of severe pneumonia. The primary objective is the rate of treatment failure, defined by the persistence of danger signs of severe pneumonia beyond 48 hours or deterioration within 24 hours of initiation of the therapy. The secondary objectives are (1) improvement in or the resolution of danger signs since enrollment, (2) length of hospital stay, (3) death during hospitalization, and (4) rate of nosocomial infections. RESULTS: Enrollment in the study started on January 1, 2018, and ended on October 31, 2019. Data entry and analysis are in progress. Findings from the study are expected to be disseminated in October 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Our study's findings will improve compliance with the use of antibiotics that require less frequent doses for the treatment of severe pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03369093; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03369093. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/17735.

5.
Acta Paediatr ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089512

RESUMO

AIM: This study evaluated the factors associated with hypokalaemia and their outcomes, in severely malnourished children under 5 years of age. METHODS: We focused on 407 severely malnourished children under five who were admitted to the Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, from April 2011 to June 2012. The cases were 139 with hypokalaemia, and the comparisons were 268 without hypokalaemia. RESULTS: Cases were older than the comparisons, with a poor socio-economic status and a higher death rate of 12% vs 7%. They were more likely to present with a history of measles, diarrhoea, lethargy, lower pulse rates, hyponatraemia, metabolic acidosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, higher height or length, severe underweight, severe wasting and leucocytosis on admission. At discharge, cases had lower potassium levels and a higher proportion had persistent hypokalaemia. Cases received longer treatment with ampicillin and micronutrients. After adjusting for confounders, hypokalaemia was independently associated with poor socio-economic status, diarrhoea, lower pulse rates, hypocalcaemia, metabolic acidosis and leucocytosis. CONCLUSION: Identifying simple clinical signs, like diarrhoea and lower pulse rates, and laboratory parameters, such as hypocalcaemia and metabolic acidosis, may enable the early management of hypokalaemia in severely malnourished children under 5 years. This could reduce morbidity and mortality.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of childhood pneumonia aetiology is required to inform prevention and treatment strategies. Lung aspiration is the gold standard specimen for pneumonia diagnostics. We report findings from analyses of lung and pleural aspirates collected in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study. METHODS: The PERCH study enrolled children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with World Health Organization defined severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. Percutaneous trans-thoracic lung (LA) and pleural fluid (PF) aspiration was performed on a sample of pneumonia cases with radiological consolidation and/or pleural fluid in 4 countries. Venous blood and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from all cases. Multiplex quantitative PCR and routine microbiologic culture were applied to clinical specimens. RESULTS: Of 44 LAs performed within 3 days of admission on 622 eligible cases, 13 (30%) had a pathogen identified by either culture (5/44) or by PCR (11/29). A pathogen was identified in 12/14 (86%) PF specimens tested by either culture (9/14) or PCR (9/11). Bacterial pathogens were identified more frequently than viruses. All but one of the cases with a virus identified were co-infected with bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae (9/44 [20%]) and Staphylococcus aureus (7/14 [50%]) were the predominant pathogen identified in LA and PF, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial pathogens predominated in this selected subgroup of PERCH participants drawn from those with radiological consolidation or pleural fluid, with S. pneumoniae and S. aureus the leading pathogens identified.

7.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(8): 1032-1042, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathogen-specific risk of seizure in under-five children hospitalised with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) in rural settings. METHOD: This was a prospective case-control study with follow-up, conducted in a sentinel facility of Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Mirzapur, a rural community of Bangladesh between 2007 and 2010. Children aged 0-59 months who presented with MSD and seizure constituted the cases whereas those who did not have seizure comprised the controls. MSD was defined if the episodes were associated with dehydration or dysentery or required hospitalisation with diarrhoea or dysentery. All enrolled children were followed up at home within 50-90 days of enrolment. A total of 64 cases and 128 randomly selected controls formed the analysable dataset. RESULTS: The result of logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders revealed that shigellosis (Shigella species, OR = 5.34, 95% CI = 2.37-12.04) particularly S. flexneri (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.48-7.57), S. flexneri 6 (OR = 23.24, 95% CI = 2.79-193.85), S. sonnei (OR = 6.90, 95% CI = 2.34-19.85); norovirus (OR = 6.77, 95% CI = 1.69-27.11), fever (OR = 16.75, 95% CI = 1.81-154.70) and loss of consciousness (OR = 35.25, 95% CI = 1.71-726.20) were the independent risk factors for seizure in MSD children. At enrolment, cases had lower WHZ (P = 0.006) compared to their peers, follow-up anthropometrics showed significant improvement in WHZ (P < 0.001) and WAZ (P < 0.05), whereas deterioration in HAZ (P < 0.001) in both cases and controls. CONCLUSION: Childhood MSD episodes particularly due to Shigella and norovirus are often associated with seizure. Prompt identification and appropriate management of children with shigellosis may reduce occurrence and adverse consequences of seizure linked with MSD.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/microbiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Shigella
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 652-658, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458788

RESUMO

The efficacy of commonly used antibiotics for treating severe cholera has been compromised over time because of the reduced antibiotic susceptibility. This study aimed to describe the rate of detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 from fecal samples and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of V. cholerae O1 serotypes to commonly used antibiotics. During January 2000-December 2018, V. cholerae O1 was detected in fecal samples of 7,472 patients. Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba serotype was predominant, ranging from 60% to 86% during the period 2000-2006 except for 2003 and 2005 when the Ogawa serotype was predominant. Later on, the Ogawa serotype became predominant from 2007 to 2015, fluctuating between 52% and 100%. However, in 2016 and 2017, isolation rates declined to 2% and 1%, respectively, but surged again to 75% in 2018. Nearly 100% of V. cholerae O1 strains were sensitive to tetracycline during 2000-2004. Thereafter, a declining trend of sensitivity was observed to be continued and dropped down to < 6% during 2012-2017 and again increased to 76% in 2018. Susceptibility to azithromycin and ciprofloxacin was nearly 100%, and susceptibility to cotrimoxazole and furazolidone was 01% throughout the study period. We also found the emergence of resistance to erythromycin in 2005 and sensitivity to cotrimoxazole in 2018. Thus, the rapid decline of the sensitivity of V. cholerae O1 to tetracycline and a reversed peak after 6 years need continued monitoring and reporting.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cólera/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Vibrio cholerae O1/fisiologia , Adulto , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Cólera/tratamento farmacológico , Cólera/epidemiologia , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Eritromicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Furazolidona/uso terapêutico , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Vibrio cholerae O1/isolamento & purificação
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, pneumonia has a higher mortality among malnourished children aged <5 years. Evaluating pneumonia etiology among malnourished children may help improve empiric treatment guidelines. METHODS: During April 2015-December 2017, we conducted a case-control study among severe acute malnourished (SAM) children aged <5 years admitted to the Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). We enrolled hospital admitted SAM children with clinical or radiological pneumonia as cases (during April 2015 to March 2017) and hospital admitted SAM children without any respiratory symptom in the past 10 days before admission as controls (during February 2016 to December 2017). We tested nasopharyngeal wash from both case and control for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), influenza viruses, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), rhinovirus and adenovirus by singleplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To identify the independent association of pneumonia with viral pathogens during February 2016 to March 2017, we used multivariable logistic regression for calculating adjusted odds ratios. RESULTS: We enrolled 360 cases and 334 controls. For case and control the median age was 8 months (IQR: 5-13) and 11 months (IQR: 6-18) (p = 0.001) respectively. Weight/age Z-score was -4.3 (SD ±0.7) for cases and -4.1 (SD ±1.1) for controls (p = 0.01). Among cases 68% had both clinical and radiological pneumonia, 1% had clinical pneumonia and 31% had only radiological pneumonia. Respiratory virus detection was high in cases compared to controls [69.9% (251) vs. 44.8% (148), p = 0.0001]. The most frequently detected viruses among cases were rhinoviruses (79, 22.0%) followed by RSV (32, 8.9%), adenovirus (23, 6.4%), HPIV (22, 6.1%), influenza virus (16, 4.5%), and HMPV (16, 4.5%). Among the controls, rhinoviruses (82, 24.8%) were most commonly detected one followed by adenovirus (26,7.9%), HMPV (5, 1.5%), HPIV (4, 1.2%), RSV (3, 0.9%), and influenza virus (2, 0.6%). RSV (OR 13.1; 95% CI: 1.6, 106.1), influenza virus (OR 8.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 78.9), HPIV (3.8; 95% CI: 1.0, 14.8), and HMPV (2.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 5.5) were independently associated with pneumonia while compared between 178 cases and 174 controls. CONCLUSION: Viral etiology of pneumonia in SAM children were mainly attributable to RSV, influenza, HPIV and HMPV. Our study findings may help in planning further studies targeting vaccines or drugs against common respiratory viruses responsible for pneumonia among SAM children.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/patologia , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Bangladesh , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Respirovirus/genética , Respirovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(4): 475-482, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the current measles vaccination status in Bangladesh, explain changing differentials in measles vaccination, and determine contexts that may improve measles vaccination coverage. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of datasets (2004-2014) from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys that followed stratified, multi-stage cluster sampling design conducted both in urban and rural contexts. RESULTS: 5468 children aged 12-23 months were surveyed, of whom 892 (16%) reported non-compliance to measles vaccine. After simultaneous adjusting for covariates in multivariate logistic regression, children who came from a poor socio-economic background, who had mothers with no formal schooling, who were underweight, of higher birth order (≥4), who had adolescent mothers, who had a history of home delivery and who had no exposure to media were observed to be significantly associated with lack of measles vaccination. Measles vaccination coverage among children of adolescent mothers was consistently low. Despite lack of media exposure, measles vaccination status gradually increased from 26% in 2004 to 33% in 2014. Lack of maternal education was no longer associated with measles vaccination status in 2007, 2011 and 2014. Stunted children continued to be associated with lack of measles immunisation in 2014. Children with higher birth order demonstrated 53% excess risk for not being immunised with measles vaccine. Mothers with no exposure to mass media were two times more likely to have children without measles immunisation as indicated by BDHS 2014 data. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will help policy makers formulate strategies for expanding measles vaccination coverage in order to achieve further reduction in disease burden and mortality in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Mães , Vacinação/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Adulto Jovem
13.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 4: 2333794X17696685, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28491923

RESUMO

Children with diarrhea hospitalized for respiratory distress often have fatal outcome in resource-limited settings, although data are lacking on risk factors for death in such children. We sought to evaluate clinical predictors for death in such children. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled under-5 children with diarrhea admitted with severe respiratory distress to the intensive care unit of Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, from September 2014 through September 2015. We compared clinical and laboratory characteristics between study children those who died (n = 29) and those who survived (n = 62). In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the independent predictors for death in children hospitalized for diarrhea and severe respiratory distress were severe sepsis and hypoglycemia (P < .05 for all). Thus, recognition of these simple parameters may help clinicians identify children with diarrhea at risk of deaths in order to initiate prompt management for the better outcome, especially in resource-poor settings.

14.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 3: 2333794X16672528, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790628

RESUMO

To our knowledge, there are no data on the role of overweight and obesity in childhood pneumonia. We sought to determine that impact of overweight and obesity in such children. In this retrospective chart analysis, we enrolled hospitalized children aged 6 to 59 months in the Dhaka Hospital of the icddr,b, Bangladesh (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh), from January 2010 to June 2014. Children with pneumonia having overweight and obesity (body mass index Z score [BMIZ] >2.00) constituted cases (n = 25), and those who had pneumonia without overweight and obesity (BMIZ -2.00 to 2.00) constituted controls (n = 75). Controls were 3-fold of the cases and were randomly selected. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of the cases and the controls were compared. The cases more often had diarrhea and dehydration (36% vs 12%, P = .013), hypoxemia (SpO2 < 90% in room air; 28% vs 7%, P = .009) on admission, and required to change antibiotics (32% vs 11%, P = .023) during hospitalization compared to the controls. However, in logistic regression analysis the cases were independently associated with diarrhea (P < .001) and hypoxemia (P = .024) on admission. Our data suggest that overweight and obesity in children with pneumonia is prone to be associated with hypoxemia on admission, which may guide clinicians in promptly managing pneumonia in order to evade its ramification in such children. However, future research with larger samples is imperative to consolidate or refute our observation.

15.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 3: 2333794X16634267, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27336005

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the factors associated with nosocomial infections (NIs) in under-5 children and in bacterial isolates from their blood, urine, and stool. We reviewed all under-5 hospitalized children with clinically diagnosed NIs in the inpatient ward at Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between January and December 2012. Comparison was made among the children with (cases = 71) and without NI (controls = 142). NI was defined as the development of new infection 48 hours after admission. Bacterial isolates in urine, blood, and stool were found in 11/52 (21%), 9/69 (13%), and 2/16 (12%) respectively. In logistic regression analysis, the children with NI were independently associated with severe acute malnutrition, congenital anomaly, invasive diarrhea, urinary tract infection on admission, and use of intravenous cannula during hospitalization. Thus, identification of these simple clinical parameters may help in preventive measures being taken to reduce the rate of NIs in such children.

16.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0154777, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Streptococcal bacteremia is common in diarrheal children with high morbidity and mortality, no systematic data are available on Streptococcal bacteremia in diarrheal children. We sought to evaluate the factors associated with Streptococcal bacteremia in diarrheal children under five years of age and their outcome. METHODS: We used an unmatched case-control design to investigate the associated factors with Streptococcal bacteremia in all the diarrheal children under five years of age through electronic medical record system of Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. We had simultaneously used a retrospective cohort design to further evaluate the outcome of our study children. All the enrolled children had their blood culture done between January 2010 and December 2012. Comparison was made among the children with (cases = 26) and without Streptococcal bacteremia (controls = 78). Controls were selected randomly from hospitalized diarrheal children under five years of age. RESULTS: Cases had proportionately higher deaths compared to controls, but it was statistically insignificant (15% vs. 10%, p = 0.49). The cases more often presented with severe dehydration, fever, respiratory distress, severe sepsis, and abnormal mental status compared to the controls (for all p<0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, it has been found that Streptococcal bacteremia in diarrheal children under five years of age was independently associated with nutritional edema (OR: 5.86, 95% CI = 1.28-26.80), hypoxemia (OR: 19.39, 95% CI = 2.14-175.91), fever (OR: 4.44, 95% CI = 1.13-17.42), delayed capillary refill time (OR: 7.00, 95% CI = 1.36-35.93), and respiratory distress (OR: 2.69, 95% CI = 1.02-7.12). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results of our analyses suggest that diarrheal children under five years of age presenting with nutritional edema, hypoxemia, fever, delayed capillary refill time, and respiratory distress may be at risk of Streptococcal bacteremia. It underscores the importance of identification of these simple clinical parameters for the prompt recognition and management in order to reduce the morbidity and death of such children especially in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/etiologia , Diarreia/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia
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