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Cureus ; 12(3): e7354, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328366


Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is chronic inflammation of hepatocytes due to immune cells attacking the patient's own hepatocytes, histologically characterized by interface hepatitis. The disease can be serious, and if left untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and eventual liver failure. It occurs more frequently in females. The standard treatment for AIH includes corticosteroids. There are two main treatment regimens, which include either prednisolone alone or prednisone and azathioprine. Although, liver transplantation is certainly the treatment of choice, it has not yet been established on a large scale worldwide. We present here the case of a 22-year-old male, with autoimmune hepatitis and unspecified vasculitis.

Cureus ; 11(10): e5961, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799097


Meningitis caused by Salmonella enteritidis is an uncommon infection, linked with great mortality and neurological problems, which makes prompt diagnosis and treatment very crucial. Patients of bacterial meningitis present with common symptoms such as headache, fever, altered level of consciousness, and neck rigidity. A positive gram stain or culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leads to its diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of a 16-year-old male with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonella typhi meningitis, which was not responsive to initial medical intervention. He was treated with meropenem, imipenem, azithromycin, and metronidazole. Immediate tracheostomy and intubation were performed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), as the patient had developed stridor, shortness of breath, tachypnea, tachycardia, and had severely decreased O2 saturation of 60%. As far as treatment is concerned, third-generation cephalosporins are considered the treatment of choice. In addition, the use of fluoroquinolones and carbapenems, mainly meropenem, has also been described as a therapeutic alternative.

Cureus ; 11(9): e5618, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696011


Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome (LMBBS), a rare autosomal recessive defect, mostly occurs in children born from consanguineous marriages. The major features of this syndrome are cone-rod dystrophy, polydactyly, obesity, learning disabilities, hypogonadism in males, renal anomalies, nystagmus, speech disorders, developmental delay, polyuria/polydipsia, ataxia, and poor coordination/clumsiness. In this report, we present a case of a 19-year-old man with pain and swelling of the left ankle and knee joints because of which he could not walk, with an onset of loose stools since a week. He presented with multiple non-itchy hyperpigmented macules on his face and back, polydactyly in his left foot, central obesity, proteinuria, macrocytic anemia, low intelligence quotient, reduced power in the left lower limb, reduced plantar reflexes, nystagmus, pigmented black lesions in the temporal retina on fundoscopy, a micropenis, absent pubic and axillary hair, and a small scrotum containing testes. The patient was diagnosed with LMBBS.

Cureus ; 11(5): e4617, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312544


BACKGROUND: The prostate gland is a male sexual organ which has a number of diseases associated with it, such as prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatic cancer (PC). BPH is the most common neoplasm, and it causes significant urinary symptoms in adult males. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report of 2014, out of all the cancers, PC had the fifth highest incidence in males throughout Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of elderly men of Karachi regarding prostate diseases (PDs) and their attitude towards screening practices. METHOD: From September to December 2018, a cross-sectional study was performed among 450 men of Karachi older than 50 years of age. Frequencies and percentages were evaluated for categorical variables using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22 (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY). Chi-square test was used to determine if there was any significant difference. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULT:  A total of 350 respondents answered the questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 61 years. Almost half of the population had heard about the prostate but 64% did not know any PDs, whereas 48% were aware of the increased risk of PDs in the elderly. Almost 48% of the respondents believed that age was the main cause of disorders involving the prostate. Even though the knowledge was lacking, people had an overall positive attitude. Most respondents (66%) had the attitude that all adult men must undergo prostate screening. The majority of respondents (85%) had not undergone screening of the prostate as the huge group of participants (86%) had not been advised to do it. Upon statistical testing, having heard about the prostate and undergoing prostate screening in the past (p = 0.008 and 0.024, respectively) was significantly associated with age. Having prior experience with prostate screening was also associated significantly with marital status (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:  Respondents have inadequate knowledge about PC but a good attitude about undergoing prostate examination. It is absolutely crucial to increase information on the risks of PDs, particularly PC, and the benefits of early detection.