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1.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 2022 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264405

RESUMO

The fragility index (FI) was proposed as a simplified way to communicate robustness of statistically significant results and their susceptibility to a change of a handful number of events. While this index is intuitive, it is not anchored by a cut-off or a guide for interpretation. We identified cardiovascular trials published in six high impact journals from 2007 to 2021 (500 or more participants and a dichotomous statistically significant primary outcome). We estimated area under curve (AUC) to determine FI value that best predicts whether the treatment effect was precise, defined as adequately powered for a plausible relative risk reduction (RRR) of 25% or 30% or having a CI that is sufficiently narrow to exclude a risk reduction that is too small (close to the null, <0.05). The median FI of 201 included cardiovascular trials was 13 (range 1-172). FI exceeded the number of patients lost to follow-up in 46/201 (22.89%) trials. FI values of 19 and 22 predicted that trials would be precise (powered for RRR of 30% and 25%; respectively, combined with CI that excluded risk reduction <0.05). AUC for meeting these precision criteria was 0.90 (0.86-0.94). In conclusion, FI values that range 19-22 may meet various definitions of precision and can be used as a rule of thumb to suggest that a treatment effect is likely precise and less susceptible to random error. The number of patients lost to follow-up should be presented alongside FI to better illustrate fragility.

2.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(2): 1557-1567, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537888

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients have several unmet needs. The needs and quality of life of MBC women living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are understudied. Facilitating the interaction of various caregivers is beneficial in addressing the needs. Internet-based resources play an important role in reaching out to these patients. We aimed to bring the various stakeholders into a joint network force, create a web-based portal, understand the needs of MBC patients, and assess the utilization of web-based resources for women from Kenya. METHODS: A network of various stakeholders considered crucial in the care of Kenyan women with MBC was created. We conducted educational camps and assessed their needs, quality of life (QoL), and knowledge. We assessed the impact of utilizing web-based resources by MBC patients from here. RESULTS: We formed a network involving partners and launched the first dedicated website for MBC from Kenya. The website has received 13,944 visits and 310,379 hits in 2 years. One hundred fourteen women living with MBC were interviewed, and our findings show that psychological needs (63%), physical support needs (60%), and health care system needs (55%) are leading areas of needs that increase with rural residence (p = 0.001), less education (p = 0.003), and aggressive treatments (p = 0.008). Quality of life (QoL) confirmed better scores with urban residence (p = 0.002), internet access (p = 0.010), and stable disease (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Creating a network of caregivers provides opportunities for cohesive efforts in understanding the psychosocial and medical needs of patients with MBC. Internet-based resources are an effective way of reaching out to them. Kenyan patients show extremely good uptake of internet-based resources.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia
3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 68, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated risk factor heterogeneity by molecular subtypes in indigenous African populations where prevalence of traditional breast cancer (BC) risk factors, genetic background, and environmental exposures show marked differences compared to European ancestry populations. METHODS: We conducted a case-only analysis of 838 pathologically confirmed BC cases recruited from 5 groups of public, faith-based, and private institutions across Kenya between March 2012 to May 2015. Centralized pathology review and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for key markers (ER, PR, HER2, EGFR, CK5-6, and Ki67) was performed to define subtypes. Risk factor data was collected at time of diagnosis through a questionnaire. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression models were used to determine associations between BC risk factors and tumor molecular subtypes, adjusted for clinical characteristics and risk factors. RESULTS: The median age at menarche and first pregnancy were 14 and 21 years, median number of children was 3, and breastfeeding duration was 62 months per child. Distribution of molecular subtypes for luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and triple negative (TN) breast cancers was 34.8%, 35.8%, 10.7%, and 18.6%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, compared to patients with ER-positive tumors, ER-negative patients were more likely to have higher parity (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = (1.11, 3.72), p = 0.021, comparing ≥ 5 to ≤ 2 children). Compared to patients with luminal A tumors, luminal B patients were more likely to have lower parity (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.87, p = 0.018, comparing ≥ 5 to ≤ 2 children); HER2-enriched patients were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.81, p = 0.013) or older age at menopause (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.997, p = 0.049). Body mass index (BMI), either overall or by menopausal status, did not vary significantly by ER status. Overall, cumulative or average breastfeeding duration did not vary significantly across subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: In Kenya, we found associations between parity-related risk factors and ER status consistent with observations in European ancestry populations, but differing associations with BMI and breastfeeding. Inclusion of diverse populations in cancer etiology studies is needed to develop population and subtype-specific risk prediction/prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fenômenos Reprodutivos Fisiológicos , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(3): 810-815, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether C-reactive protein and liver function tests can serve as severity markers for dengue fever. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-16 in Karachi and comprised patients with dengue fever visiting a tertiary care hospital. World Health Organisation classifications 1997 and 2009 were used to categorise patients according to clinical signs and symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristics curve was used to determine discriminative ability and optimum cut-off value of biochemical markers. Comparisons were done through one-way analysis of variance using SPSS 17. RESULTS: Of the 218 patients, 133(61%) were males and 85(39%) were females. The overall mean age was 35.07±15.96 years. Levels of C-reactive protein and total bilirubin were significantly higher for dengue haemorrhagic fever compared to dengue fever; dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue fever; dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue haemorrhagic fever; and dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue fever / dengue haemorrhagic fever (p<0.05 each). Levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher for dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue fever; dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue haemorrhagic fever; and dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue fever / dengue haemorrhagic fever (p<0.05 each). Levels of C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatise in patients with severe dengue were significantly higher compared to non-severe dengue. CONCLUSIONS: C-reactive protein and liver function tests were found to be effective biochemical markers in assessing dengue fever severity.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Dengue , Adulto , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino
5.
Transl Oncol ; 14(7): 101086, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients of various ethnic groups often have discrete clinical presentations and outcomes. Women of African descent have a disproportionately higher chance of developing TNBCs. The aim of the current study was to establish the transcriptome of TNBCs from Kenyan (KE) women of Bantu origin and compare it to those TNBCs of African-Americans (AA) and Caucasians (CA) for identifying KE TNBC-specific molecular determinants of cancer progression and potential biomarkers of clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pathology-confirmed TNBC tissues from Kenyan women of Bantu origin (n = 15) and age and stage range matched AA (n = 19) and CA (n = 23) TNBCs of patients from Alabama were included in this study. RNA was isolated from paraffin-embedded tissues, and expression was analyzed by RNA sequencing. RESULTS: At clinical presentation, young KE TNBC patients have tumors of higher stages. Differential expression analysis identified 160 up-regulated and 178 down-regulated genes in KE TNBCs compared to AA and CA TNBCs. Validation analyses of the TCGA breast cancer data identified 45 KE TNBC-specific genes that are involved in the apoptosis (ACTC1, ERCC6 and CD14), cell proliferation (UHRF2, KDM4C, UHMK1, KCNH5, KRT18, CSF1R and S100A13), and Wnt signaling (BCL9L) pathways. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified biomarkers that are specific for KE TNBC patients of Bantu origin. Further study with a larger sample size of matched tumors could confirm our findings. If biologically confirmed, these molecular determinants could have clinical and biological implications and serve as targets for development of personalized therapeutics for KE TNBC patients.

6.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 20(3): 471-489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566085

RESUMO

Several studies have been carried out regarding the awareness and usage of cannabis around the world, especially in developed countries. Pakistan ranks amongst the top nations in regards to cannabis consumption. However, the amount of literature shedding light on people's perception, knowledge and practices are scarce. Therefore, the authors sought to establish a baseline study to ignite the discussion on the possibility of cannabis' induction in the medical field in Pakistan, and additionally provide a foundation for further research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of understanding and consumption practices in Karachi with respondents from different socio-economic backgrounds, age groups and gender regarding cannabis use and assessing the awareness of the general population. The null hypothesis is that the usage of cannabis does not have a significant correlation with age, gender, or socio-economic status of a population. We conducted a cross-sectional study in November 2018 using convenience sampling and interviewed 518 individuals for their gender, age, and socio-economic status, to determine their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cannabis usage. The participants were questioned about their knowledge and its source. Attitudes were judged using three and five-point Likert scales while questions regarding practices centered upon the past and current usage of cannabis. One-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used as the primary statistical tests. Out of the 518 people who responded, more than half of the respondents were males (n = 340, 65.6%). The majority was familiar with the use of cannabis (n = 514, 99.2%), and the different ways in which it is consumed (n = 435, 84%). About one-third of the participants happened to consume cannabis (n = 168, 32.4%), and a quarter mentioned recreational use/curiosity as the principal reason (n = 134, 25.9%). Majority of the respondents agreed upon the harmful effects of consuming cannabis (n = 364, 70.3%), while when compared to other inimical drugs, half of them believed it to be less harmful (n = 259, 50%). Besides, an overwhelming majority stated, that if they were to consume cannabis, they would not consider taking permission from their parents/guardians (n = 441, 85.2%). Concerning legality, three-fifths of the participants chose cannabis to remain illegal in Pakistan (n = 307, 59.3%) and, for not consuming/quitting cannabis, the primary reason chosen was its harmful consequences (n = 210, 40.5%). Our study revealed that knowledge about usage of cannabis still requires a great deal of attention. Only individuals from higher socio-economic backgrounds have a positive attitude towards cannabis usage and are aware of it. There is an urgent need for awareness programs that especially reach out to the lower socio-economic status population, who otherwise do not have access to essential information resources. We also found that males were more likely to be consumers and to have more knowledge about cannabis, therefore, it is equally important to educate females about this topic so that an informed discussion about cannabis use and its medical benefits can be generated in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Paquistão , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Am Heart J ; 230: 71-81, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941789

RESUMO

Cardiovascular randomized controlled trials (RCTs) typically set composite end points as the primary outcome to enhance statistical power. However, influence of individual component end points on overall composite outcomes remains understudied. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for RCTs published in 6 high-impact journals (The Lancet, the New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Circulation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology and the European Heart Journal) from 2011 to 2017. Two-armed, parallel-design cardiovascular RCTs which reported composite outcomes were included. All-cause or cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke were deemed "hard" end points, whereas hospitalization, angina, and revascularization were identified as "soft" end points. Type of outcome (primary or secondary), event rates in treatment and control groups for the composite outcome and of its components according to predefined criteria. RESULTS: Of the 45.8% (316/689) cardiovascular RCTs which used a composite outcome, 79.4% set the composite as the primary outcome. Death was the most common component (89.8%) followed by myocardial infarction (66.1%). About 80% of the trials reported complete data for each component. One hundred forty-seven trials (46.5%) incorporated a "soft" end point as part of their composite. Death contributed the least to the estimate of effects (R2 change = 0.005) of the composite, whereas revascularization contributed the most (R2 change = 0.423). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular RCTs frequently use composite end points, which include "soft" end points, as components in nearly 50% of studies. Higher event rates in composite end points may create a misleading interpretation of treatment impact due to large contributions from end points with less clinical significance.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Angina Pectoris/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1394-1411, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955943

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe follow-up care for breast and colorectal cancer survivors in countries with varying levels of resources and highlight challenges regarding posttreatment survivorship care. METHODS: We surveyed one key stakeholder from each of 27 countries with expertise in survivorship care on questions including the components/structure of follow-up care, delivery of treatment summaries and survivorship care plans, and involvement of primary care in survivorship. Descriptive analyses were performed to characterize results across countries and variations between the WHO income categories (low, middle, high). We also performed a qualitative content analysis of narratives related to survivorship care challenges to identify major themes. RESULTS: Seven low- or /lower-middle-income countries (LIC/LMIC), seven upper-middle-income countries (UMIC), and 13 high-income countries (HICs) were included in this study. Results indicate that 44.4% of countries with a National Cancer Control Plan currently address survivorship care. Additional findings indicate that HICs use guidelines more often than those in LICs/LMICs and UMICs. There was great variation among countries regardless of income level. Common challenges include issues with workforce, communication and care coordination, distance/transportation issues, psychosocial support, and lack of focus on follow-up care. CONCLUSION: This information can guide researchers, providers, and policy makers in efforts to improve the quality of survivorship care on a national and global basis. As the number of cancer survivors increases globally, countries will need to prioritize their long-term needs. Future efforts should focus on efforts to bridge oncology and primary care, building international partnerships, and implementation of guidelines.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes , Sobrevivência
11.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(12): e005755, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efficacy of an intervention is commonly evaluated using P values, in addition to effect size measures such as absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, and numbers needed to treat. However, these measures are not always intuitive to clinicians. The fragility index (FI) is a more intuitive number that can facilitate interpretation but can only be used with binary outcomes. FI is the minimum number of patients who must be moved from the nonevent group to the event group to turn a significant result nonsignificant. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed the robustness of cardiovascular randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which report a positive (statistically significant) primary outcome by using the FI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched Medline from 2007 to 2017 to identify cardiovascular RCTs published in 6 high impact journals (The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Circulation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology and European Heart Journal). Only RCTs with sample sizes >500 and a 2-by-2 factorial design or dichotomous primary outcomes were selected. FI was calculated using a defined approach. Among the cohort of 123 RCTs that met inclusion criteria, median FI was 13 (interquartile range, 5-26). In 28 trials (22.8%), FI ranged between 1 and 4. In 37 trials (30.1%), number of patients lost to follow-up was higher than the FI. Pharmaceutical interventions had higher FI compared with other interventions, FI=19 (7-52; P=0.002). Median FI varied according to subspecialty (electrophysiology=2; heart failure=11; interventional cardiology=8; P=0.020) and multiregional RCTs had higher FI=22 (12-53.25; P=0.023). FI did not differ based on risk of bias indicators, funding, or publication year. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variations in FI were observed among cardiovascular trials, suggesting the need for careful interpretation of results, particularly when number of patients lost to follow-up exceeds FI.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Modelos Estatísticos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Amostra , Viés , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Cureus ; 11(8): e5540, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687313

RESUMO

Background The amount of literature shedding light upon eating disorders in developing countries, such as Pakistan, is scarce. This is partially because talking about such matters is considered taboo in the general population. Night Eating Syndrome's (NES) link with depression and obesity has been established; however, presently, no study has been conducted which solely focuses on NES's correlation with self-esteem. Therefore, to bridge this knowledge gap, we conducted this study to assess the prevalence of NES in Karachi and its association with self-esteem. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in August 2018 using convenience sampling in 395 individuals, out of which 197 belonged to the age group 18-24 and 198 to 25-30. The participants were interviewed for their gender, body mass index (BMI), and their level of education. The participants were asked to complete a structured, standardized questionnaire assessment, which comprised of questions from the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE). The eating habits of the participants and the level of self-esteem were assessed using four- and five-point Likert scales. Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests were used as the primary statistical tests. Results Out of the 395 respondents, more than half of the respondents were females (n = 235/395, 59.5%). About one-fourth (n = 92/395, 23.3%) of the participants had a BMI of greater than 25.0 kg/m2. More than one-third of the underweight (n = 20/55, 36.4%) and overweight population (n = 33/92, 35.9%) had low self-esteem, while more than one-fourth (n = 25/92, 27.2%) of the overweight participants fulfilled the criteria of NES. The final outcomes showed that 14.4% of the participants had NES, and 4.6% of the participants had low self-esteem. Conclusion Our results pointed out to a significant relationship between NES and self-esteem. Furthermore, NES and self-esteem also had a significant association with age, gender, and BMI. Additionally, awareness regarding eating and mental disorders should be done in countries like Pakistan, where talking in regard to such matters is considered taboo. Given the various factors that further strengthen the positive relationship between NES and low self-esteem, these factors can be the targets on which the treatment can be focused.

13.
Trials ; 20(1): 630, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744527

RESUMO

Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard in assessing treatment regimens, and since abstracts may be the only part of a paper that a physician reads, accurate reporting of data in abstracts is essential. The CONSORT checklist for abstracts was designed to standardize data reporting; however, for papers submitted to anesthesiology journals, the level of adherence to the CONSORT checklist for abstracts is unknown. Therefore, we commend Janackovic and Puljak for their efforts in determining the adherence of reports of trials in the highest-impact anesthesiology journals between 2014 and 2016. The results of their study are extremely important; however, we believe that that study had some methodological limitations, which we discuss in this manuscript.


Assuntos
Indexação e Redação de Resumos , Anestesiologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Lista de Checagem , Humanos
15.
J Glob Oncol ; 5: 1-11, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of Kenyan women with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed and treated at Aga Khan University Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya from 2012 to 2018. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed charts of Kenyan women with metastatic breast cancer and analyzed sociodemographic data, breast cancer risk factors, and tumor characteristics associated with stage at diagnosis, receptor status (ie, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]), and site of metastasis using χ2, analysis of variance, two-sample t tests, and logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 125 cases with complete medical records were included in the analysis. Forty women (32%) had metastases at diagnosis. Of the others, those diagnosed in stage III developed metastases sooner than those diagnosed in stage II (P < .001). Fifty-eight percent of patients had metastases to bone, 14% to brain, 57% to lungs, and 50% to liver. Seventy-four percent of patients presented with more than one metastatic site. Metastases to bone were associated with greater age at diagnosis (P = .02) and higher parity (P = .04), and metastases to the brain were associated with early menopause (P = .04), lower parity (P = .04), and lack of breastfeeding (P = .01). Patients whose tumors were triple negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2 negative) were more likely to develop brain metastases (P = .01), and those whose tumors were HER2 positive were more likely to develop liver metastases (P = .04). CONCLUSION: Although our data on patterns of metastases and pathologic subtypes are similar to those in published literature, some unique findings concerning hormonal risk factors of women with metastatic breast cancer and specific metastatic sites need additional exploration in larger patient populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
16.
Infez Med ; 27(2): 117-127, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205033

RESUMO

The Nipah virus was discovered twenty years ago, and there is considerable information available regarding the specificities surrounding this virus such as transmission, pathogenesis and genome. Belonging to the Henipavirus genus, this virus can cause fever, encephalitis and respiratory disorders. The first cases were reported in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998, when affected individuals presented with severe febrile encephalitis. Since then, much has been identified about this virus. These single-stranded RNA viruses gain entry into target cells via a process known as macropinocytosis. The viral genome is released into the cell cytoplasm via a cascade of processes that involves conformational changes in G and F proteins which allow for attachment of the viral membrane to the cell membrane. In addition to this, the natural reservoirs of this virus have been identified to be fruit bats from the genus Pteropus. Five of the 14 species of bats in Malaysia have been identified as carriers, and this virus affects horses, cats, dogs, pigs and humans. Various mechanisms of transmission have been proposed such as contamination of date palm saps by bat feces and saliva, nosocomial and human-to-human transmissions. Physical contact was identified as the strongest risk factor for developing an infection in the 2004 Faridpur outbreak. Geographically, the virus seems to favor the Indian sub-continent, Indonesia, Southeast Asia, Pakistan, southern China, northern Australia and the Philippines, as demonstrated by the multiple outbreaks in 2001, 2004, 2007, 2012 in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan as well as the initial outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore. Multiple routes of the viremic spread in the human body have been identified such as the central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory system, while virus levels in the body remain low, detection in the cerebrospinal fluid is comparatively high. The virus follows an incubation period of 4 days to 2 weeks which is followed by the development of symptoms. The primary clinical signs include fever, headache, vomiting and dizziness, while the characteristic symptoms consist of segmental myoclonus, tachycardia, areflexia, hypotonia, abnormal pupillary reflexes and hypertension. The serum neutralization test (SNT) is the gold standard of diagnosis followed by ELISA if SNT cannot be carried out. On the other hand, treatment is supportive since there a lack of effective pharmacological therapy and only one equine vaccine is currently licensed for use. Prevention of outbreaks seems to be a more viable approach until specific therapeutic strategies are devised.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Vírus Nipah , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/terapia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças , Cães , Infecções por Henipavirus/terapia , Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Cavalos , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/genética , Vírus Nipah/isolamento & purificação , Pinocitose , Suínos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/veterinária , Internalização do Vírus
17.
Cureus ; 11(4): e4467, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249745

RESUMO

We describe a three-year-old male child who presented to the pediatrics out-patient department with a history of decrease in appetite, generalized weakness, on and off loose motions for one year, inability to walk and sit for eight months with a loss of neck holding for 14 days. On examination, the patient had a classic frog-shaped leg posture. X-rays of chest, skull, pelvis and long bones were performed which showed osteopenic bones, frontal bossing and multiple microfractures, which were classic for osteogenesis Imperfecta but the child did not have other salient features such as blue sclera, otosclerosis, and respiratory difficulty. The patient also had urinary complaints due to which ultrasound of kidney ureters and bladder (KUB) was performed, which showed bilateral renal calculi and grade 2 renal parenchymal changes. This case report illustrates the evaluation of the child with osteogenesis imperfecta, as well as the unique association of renal osteodystrophy and gastroenteritis with it.

19.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(5): e005260, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the busy world of cardiovascular medicine, abstracts may be the only part of a publication that clinicians read. Therefore, it is critical for abstracts to accurately reflect article content. The extended CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement for Abstracts was developed to ensure high abstract quality. However, it is unknown how often adherence to CONSORT guidelines occurs among cardiovascular journals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched MEDLINE for randomized controlled trials published in 3 major cardiovascular journals ( Circulation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, and European Heart Journal) from 2011 to 2017. Post hoc, interim, and cost-effective analyses of randomized controlled trials were excluded. Two independent investigators extracted the data using a prespecified data collection form and a third investigator adjudicated the data. The primary outcome was frequency of subcategory adherence to CONSORT guidelines. A total of 478 abstracts were included in the analysis. Approximately half of the abstracts (53%; 255/478; 95% CI, 49%-57%) identified the article as randomized in the title. All abstracts detailed the interventions for both study groups (100%) and 81% (95% CI, 78%-85%) reported trial registration. Methodological quality reporting was relatively low: 9% (45/478; 95% CI, 6%-12%) described participant eligibility criteria with settings for data collection, 43% (204/478; 95% CI, 39%-47%) reported details of blinding, and <1% (4/478; 95% CI, 0%-2%) reported allocation concealment. Approximately 60% (301/478; 95% CI, 59%-67%) of the included abstracts provided primary outcome results while 55% (262/478; 95% CI, 51%-60%) reported harms or adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of nonadherence to CONSORT guidelines among leading cardiovascular journals. Efforts by editors, authors, and reviewers should be made to increase adherence and promote transparent and unbiased presentation of study results.


Assuntos
Indexação e Redação de Resumos/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Guias como Assunto/normas , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Redação/normas , Autoria/normas , Bibliometria , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Lista de Checagem/normas , Estudos Transversais , Políticas Editoriais , Humanos , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/normas , Controle de Qualidade
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