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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(2): 498-507, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to analyze the clinical features and laboratory profiles and risk factors associated with critical illness of children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Iranian pediatric patients were recruited through a collaborative research network between March and May 2020. Demographics, clinical, laboratory, and radiological results were obtained from patient files. RESULTS: Of 166 patients, 102 (61%) and 64 (39%) were males and females, respectively. Ninety-six (57.8%) and 70 (42.2%), had moderate and severe conditions, respectively. Thirty (18%) of patients died. The common symptoms were fever (73%), cough (54%), and shortness of breath, headache decrease in neutrophil and platelet counts; increase values in lactate dehydrogenase, decrease in the blood pH and HCO3 were significantly associated with the disease severity. 54% and 56% of patients showed abnormal radiographic appearance in Chest X-ray and in chest computed tomography scan, respectively. Sixty-one (36.7%) of patients were referred to intensive care unit (ICU). The coexistence of comorbidity was the main factor associated with ICU admission, shock, arrhythmia, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury, and death. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a higher than previously recognized rate of COVID-19 mortality in Iranian pediatric patients. Epidemiological factors, such as the relatively high case fatality rate in the country and the presence of underlying diseases were the main factors for the high death rate.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Laboratórios , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Iran J Microbiol ; 13(3): 312-318, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human parechoviruses (HPeV) and Human enteroviruses (EV) frequently cause a sepsis-like illness in young infants (younger than three months). Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the frequency of HPeV and EV among the young infants with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis in Ahvaz city, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The blood specimens were collected from 100 (younger than 90 days hospitalized infants) including 54 (56.25%) males and 46 (43.75%) females with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis-like disease. The RNA was extracted and tested for detection of VP1 region of HPeV and 5 UTR (Untranslated Region) of EV by RT-PCR. The sequences of positive of HPeV were further analyzed to determine HPeV genotyping. RESULTS: 5/100 (5%) of patients including 2/46 (2%) females and 3/54 (3%) males tested positive for HPeV (P=0.85). The analysis of 5 positive VP1 region of HPeV revealed the genotype 1. The analysis of sequencing and phylogenetic tree revealed that the isolated HPeVs were genotype 1. While 38/100 (38%) specimens including 16 (16%) females and 22 (22%) males were tested positive for EV (P=0.68). CONCLUSION: The frequency of HPeV genotype 1 was 5% among the young infants with sepsis. While frequency of EV was 38% among the young infants with sepsis. This study showed HPeV genotype 1 and EV are dominant in this region.

3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(2): e23637, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder caused by defects in the gp91phox subunit that leads to life-threatening infections. We aimed to identify CYBB gene mutations and study clinical phenotypes in Iranian patients with probable X-CGD. METHODS: We studied four unrelated Iranian patients with probable X-CGD and their families recruited in several years. We isolated genomic DNA from whole blood and performed Sanger sequencing in the CYBB gene's coding and flanking regions. We also performed pathogenicity predictions using in silico tools. RESULTS: We detected four different mutations, including a novel insertion mutation in exon 5 (p.Ile117AsnfsX6), in the patient. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed the pathogenic effect of this mutation. We predicted protein modeling and demonstrated lost functional domains. The patient with the insertion mutation presented pneumonia and acute sinusitis during his life. We also detected three other known nonsense mutations (p.Arg157Ter, p.Arg226Ter, and p.Trp424Ter) in the CYBB gene. The patient with p.Arg157Ter developed lymphadenitis and pneumonia. Moreover, the patient with inflammatory bowel disease showed p.Arg226Ter and the patient with tuberculosis presented p.Trp424Ter. We detected different clinical features in the patients compared to other Iranian patients with the same mutations. CONCLUSION: Our results expand the genetic database of patients with X-CGD from Iran and make it much easier and faster to identify patients with X-CGD. Our results also help to detect carriers and enable prenatal diagnosis in high-risk families as a cost-effective strategy.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/etiologia , Mutação , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , Pré-Escolar , Éxons , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Linhagem , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/genética
4.
Iran J Microbiol ; 10(4): 258-265, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483379

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Human enteroviruses (EV) are the most common causes of neonatal sepsis-like disease. The frequencies of EV including coxsackievirus A, coxsackievirus B and Echovirus serotypes have been studied in young infants (younger than three months) with sepsis. So far, the role of enteroviruses among neonates with sepsis was not determined in Ahvaz, Iran. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the frequency of EV among hospitalized young infants with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: Blood specimens from 128 neonates (younger than 90 days), including 56 (43.75%) girls and 72 (56.25%) boys, were collected from hospitalized neonates with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis-like symptoms. All blood samples were negative for bacterial culture. RNA was extracted from all sera and tested for detection of 5'UTR (Untranslated Region) of the EV by RT-PCR. To determine specific strains of EV, positive 5'UTR samples were further tested for detection of the VP1 region of EV by RT-PCR. Results: Overall, 50/128 (39.06%) specimens, including 24 (48%) girls and 26 (52%) boys, were positive for EV. 21/50 (42%) specimens were positive for the VP1 region. Randomly, 8 positive VP1 were selected and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data showed 7/21 (33.33%) samples were positive for Echovirus 30 and 1/21 (4.76%) samples were positive for CVA9. Conclusion: The results of this survey indicate high prevalence of 39.06% of EV among young neonates with sepsis. A high prevalence of 33.3% Echoviruses 30 and a low rate of 4.76% coxsackievirus A9 infection has been observed in neonatal patients with viral sepsis. This outbreak is probably one of the first Enterovirus outbreaks to be reported in Ahvaz, Iran. The results of this survey will help to minimize unneeded use of antimicrobial drugs and reduce unnecessary hospitalization.

5.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 67(1): 18-23, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157660

RESUMO

  Background: Acute respiratory infection result in high mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are several viral factors that originate respiratory diseases among them Enteroviruses(EVs) and Human Rhinoviruses(HRVs) can be mentioned. HRVs and EVs belong to Picornaviridae family and they have been recently classified under Enteroviruses. The pattern of respiratory infections generating organisms varies according to geographical locations. Therefore, it seems necessary to organize an appropriate plan to manage common viral diseases exclusively about Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses. PATIENT AND METHODS: A total of 100 samples were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) who were hospitalized in Ahvaz city hospitals during December 2012 to November 2013 (one year longitude). Semi-Nested PCR was done on samples for detection of HRVs and EVs using region gene of VP4/VP2. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses performed with MEGA version 5 software find out the sequence homology among the detected HRV and EV serotype. RESULTS: The results of this study revealed that from of 100 cases of ARIs 19 patients (19%) were HRV positive and 3 (3%) patients positive for EVs. Most positive cases of HRVs were observed in the autumn season while 3 positive cases of EVs were equally found in spring, summer and autumn. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the HRV strains were HRV-A9, HRV-A49, HRV-B14 and EV strains were Echo3 and 9. CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed that high prevalence of 19% HRVs, HRV-A9, HRV-A49, HRV-B14 serotypes and low frequency of 3% Echo Viruses, Echo3 and Echo 9 serotypes have been detected in patients with ARI.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Infecções Respiratórias , Rhinovirus , Infecções por Echovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Echovirus/patologia , Infecções por Echovirus/virologia , Enterovirus Humano B/classificação , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Rhinovirus/classificação , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Sorogrupo
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 727, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. METHODS: In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. RESULTS: The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846). The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 µg/ml (95%) and 4 µg/ml (96%); 1 µg/ml (95%) and 8 µg/ml (95%); 0.5 µg/ml (99%) and 19 µg/ml (98%); and 4 µg/ml (95%) and 64 µg/ml (95%), respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 µg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the susceptibility patterns of Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates) in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/patogenicidade , Caspofungina , Estudos Transversais , Equinocandinas/farmacologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Triazóis/farmacologia , Voriconazol/farmacologia
7.
Iran J Microbiol ; 9(5): 277-283, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296272

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Shigella infections are one of the major causes of diarrhea worldwide, and especially in developing countries. Antimicrobial resistance has complicated the empirical treatment. The aim of this study was to define the clinical and antibiotic resistance patterns of Shigella gastroenteritis cases. Materials and Methods: Stool samples of patients with diarrhea and fever diagnosed with shigellosis were collected, from June 2013 to May 2014 at Abuzar Hospital, Iran. All samples were cultured for Shigella spp on selective and differential media. Shigella isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial resistance. Results: Among 193 Shigella isolates, S. flexneri (64.8%) was the predominant species followed by S. sonnei (32.6%). The most frequent antibiotic resistance observed, was towards co-trimoxazole (89%), ampicillin (77%) and ceftriaxone (51%) and the lowest resistance were seen in ciprofloxacin (1.5%), azithromycin (7%). Conclusion: Due to the high resistance to ceftriaxone, this drug is not recommended as an empirical therapy for shigellosis. However, azithromycin should be used as the first-line treatment for paediatric patients, suffering from shigellosis and ciprofloxacin can be used as an alternative.

8.
Iran J Microbiol ; 9(6): 363-371, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487735

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Colonization of Candida species is common in pediatric patients admitted to hematology-oncology wards. The aim of this study was to identify colonized Candida species and their susceptibility patterns in hematologic pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from mouth, nose, urine and stool of the patients admitted to five university hospitals and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolates were identified by API 20 C AUX system and their susceptibility patterns were evaluated by CLSI M27-A3 and S4. Results: From 650 patients, 320 (49.2%) were colonized with 387 Candida species. Candida albicans was the most prevalent isolated species, followed by Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida famata, Candida kefyr and Candida kuresi. The epidemiological cut off value (ECV) for all Candida species to amphotericin B was ≤0.25 µg except C. krusei (4 µg). The resistance rate to fluconazole in this study in C. albicans was 4.9% with ECV 8 µg/ml, followed by C. tropicalis 8.8% with ECV 0.5 µg/ml. Voriconazole and posaconazole were effective antifungal agents for all Candida isolates. The ECV of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei for itraconazole were 0.5, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 µg, respectively. The resistant and intermediate rates of Candida species to caspofungin in this study were 2.9%, 5.9%, 18.8%, 47.9%, 0.0% and 16.7% in C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis respectively. Conclusion: C. albicans was the most prevalent species in pediatric colonized patients. New azole agents like voriconazole and posaconazole are effective against non-albicans Candida species. Increase in intermediate species is alarming to future emerging resistant species.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(49): e5610, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930588

RESUMO

Several viruses are responsible for aseptic meningitis; however, in the region of Southwest Iran, the role played by each virus is still not very well known. The aim of this study is to determine the relative frequencies of mumps virus, herpes viruses, and enteroviruses, as well as coinfections among them, in patients with aseptic meningitis.In this cross-sectional study, samples of cerebrospinal fluid were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 from patients under 14 years, who were hospitalized in Abuzar Children's Hospital in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran (the only children's hospital in Khuzestan province and Southwest Iran).All 66 cerebrospinal fluid samples and corresponding clinical data were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis by specialists, and with the patients' consent. The DNA and RNA were extracted from these samples and subjected to polymerase chain reaction as well as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of mumps virus, herpes viruses, and enteroviruses. Nine of the samples (3 mumps-positive and 6 enterovirus-positive) were sequenced. The mumps virus sequences were investigated for possible mutations in the SH and partial HN regions.Up to 39 patients (59.09%) were found to be positive for enteroviruses, 3 (4.5%) for mumps virus, and 1 (1.5%) for herpes viruses (specifically, the varicella-zoster virus). Two patients (3.03%) had a mumps virus and enterovirus coinfection. Among the 3 detected mumps virus samples, 1 belonged to genotype B, while the others belonged to genotype N. Six sequenced enteroviruses indicated the highest similarity with Echovirus 30. An amino acid substitution at position 51 (N→T) was detected in the HN region of genotype N mumps virus samples, in comparison to the reference strain.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Meningite Asséptica/epidemiologia , Meningite Viral/epidemiologia , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meningite Asséptica/diagnóstico , Meningite Viral/diagnóstico , Meningite Viral/virologia , Caxumba/diagnóstico , Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/análise , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo
10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 79(5): 276-80, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26874680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The group A streptococcus (GAS) M protein, encoded by the emm gene, acts as a major virulence factor. Emm-typing is the GAS gold standard molecular typing and is based on the DNA sequence of the nucleotides of the emm gene. The aim of the present study was to isolate GAS from patients and to detect the emm types of the isolates using emm typing. METHODS: A total of 1000 throat samples were collected from patients with pharyngitis referred to Aboozar Children's Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. We performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on all isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Additionally, amplification of the emm gene was performed using polymerase chain reaction using the standard primers and described protocol. RESULTS: From all throat samples screened, 25 isolates (2.5%) were identified as GAS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that all the GAS isolates were susceptible to penicillin and erythromycin, but 44% showed resistance to vancomycin. Based on polymerase chain reaction for the emm gene, the obtained emm types were: emm-3, observed in 20 isolates (80%); emm-1 observed in four isolates (16%); and emm-75 observed in one isolate (4%). CONCLUSION: The result of the present study showed that penicillin and erythromycin are still the most effective antibiotics against the organism. The emm typing revealed that emm type-3 was detected in most of the isolates from patients with purulent pharyngitis. On the basis of the findings of this study, we may conclude that emm typing provides new insights on the genetic diversity of the M proteins, and is of demonstrable value for molecular studies of GAS.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/classificação , Proteínas de Transporte/classificação , Faringite/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus pyogenes/química , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 10(1): DC13-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26894066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Escherichia coli O157: H7 are recognized as important aetiological agents of diarrhea in children, particularly in developed countries. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the rates of detection of E. coli O157: H7strains among children in Ahvaz, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2010 to December 2010, 137 diarrheal stool samples of children were collected. E.coli was identified by standard microbiological techniques. O157 or O157:H7 subtypes discerned by serological tests. RESULTS: Of the 137 E. coli isolates, enteropathogens were found in 53 (38.7%) of the patients as follow: Shigella spp. (75.5%), EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli) (16.9%), Campylobacter spp. (3.8%) and Salmonella spp. (3.8%). None of the isolated E. coli was O157:H7 serotype. CONCLUSION: This shows that non-O157:H7 E. coli are the major cause of paediatric infections in this region of Iran.

12.
Iran J Microbiol ; 7(2): 67-71, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26622966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is increasing around the world. It involves healthy people and causes a variety of diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted from September 2010-June 2011 on children less than 14 years of Ahvaz, southwest Iran. The participants were selected with two staged cluster sampling. A sterile cotton nasal swab was used to collect the samples from the 864 participants. MRSA isolates were identifed by catalase and coagulase tests and 1 µg oxacillin disk method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on all the MRSA colonies to detect the mecA gene. Data was put in SPSS 16 software and descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used for analysis. RESULTS: Out of 864 children, 471 (54.51%) were male and 393 (45.49%) were female. 235 children (27.1%) had Staphylococcus aureus and 11 (1.3%) of all children diagnosed with MRSA. PCR showed that 7 colonies (0.8%) had the mecA gene. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that MRSA exists in healthy children of Ahvaz. Although the prevalence of CA-MRSA is lower than many other regions, it still needs close attention to prevent its transmission. Further studies are needed to identify the risk factors of CA-MRSA.

13.
Jundishapur J Microbiol ; 7(8): e11014, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25485046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute multisystem vascular syndrome of unknown etiology that is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children of developed counties. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of KD in children residing in the southwest of Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of all children with KD who had been admitted to the main children's hospital of Ahvaz, southwest Iran, from March 2000 to March 2010. Data regarding clinical and epidemiological characteristics, management, and the outcome of disease for each patient were obtained. The patients were divided into cardiac and non-cardiac groups based on echocardiographic results. RESULTS: In total, 104 patients with KD (66 boys and 38 girls) were enrolled in this study. The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 33.6 ± 24.2 months. Most (87.2%) cases were from urban areas. The disease occurred more frequently during winter and spring. Furthermore, 61.5% of the children had the criteria of classic KD, and 38.5% were labeled as incomplete KD. The mean ± SD of the duration of hospital stay was 6.9 ± 2.4 days. The mean time between illness and admission to the hospital was 6.47 ± 2.6 days. The most common sign was fever, followed by conjunctivitis and oral changes. In total, 20% of the patients had cardiac abnormalities. There was no significant statistical difference between the cardiac and non-cardiac groups according to age, sex, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and cessation of fever. The duration of hospital stay and the time between onset of illness and diagnosis were longer in the cardiac group. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin. Only one patient continued to have cardiac abnormalities after 6 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Kawasaki disease is not rare in southwest of Iran. The age, gender distribution and clinical findings are similar to that of other reports. Patients with cardiac abnormalities had delayed treatment and prolonged hospital stays.

14.
Indian J Pediatr ; 81(7): 639-43, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24522944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine adenovirus serotypes among children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in Khoozestan province, Iran during years 2010-2011. METHODS: One hundred sixty three nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children between 1 and 15 y who were hospitalized for the acute respiratory infection. The viral DNA was extracted from the nasopharyngeal swabs and adenoviruses were detected by Nested PCR. Positive PCR samples were sequenced in order to confirm the adenovirus serotypes. RESULTS: Out of 163 samples, 30 (18.4 %) were positive for adenoviruses by nested PCR. Twenty two PCR products were sequenced and recognized as Ad5 and Ad2 serotypes including 19 (86.3 %) Ad5 and 3 (13.7 %) Ad2. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that adenoviruses with Ad5 predominance are important cause of respiratory tract infection in children.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/classificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sorotipagem
15.
Iran J Microbiol ; 6(4): 225-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25802704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shigellosis is an acute gastroenteritis that is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in children with diarrhea in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution of Shigella serogroups and serotypes and their antibacterial drug resistance profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fecal samples of all children suffering from shigellosis who had been admitted to Abuzar Children's Hospital in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran, from September 2008 to August 2010 were examined. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was performed according to the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup and being identified in 87 isolates (49.8%). The most common S. flexneri serotypes were type 2 (57.5%) and type 1 (21.8%). High rates of resistance were observed to trimethoprime-sulfamethpxazole (85%) and ampicillin (87.5%). CONCLUSION: S. flexneri and its serotypes was the most frequently isolated Shigella species from southwest of Iran, Ahvaz. Identification of predominant S. flexneri serotypes in developing countries can help in prioritizing strategies such as development of effective vaccines.

16.
J Nephropathol ; 2(2): 122-8, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24475438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candiduria presents as an increasingly common nosocomial infection, which may involves urinary tract. Spectrum of disease is varying from asymptomatic candiduria to clinical sepsis. Disease is most commonly caused by Candida albicans. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of candiduria in children attending Abuzar Pediatrics Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 402 patients attending to the Abuzar Pediatrics Hospital, Ahvaz. 10µl of each urine sample was cultured on CHROMagar Candida plates and incubated at 37°C. Ketoconazole, amphotericine B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, miconazole and nystatin disks were used for determination of susceptibility. RESULTS: In the present study, 402 patients with the age range <1-14 years were sampled (59.2% males and 40.8% females). Prevalence of Candida among enrolled patients was found to be 5.2% (71.4% males and 28.6% females). In our study C. albicans was identified in 19 cases as the most common yeast followed by nine C. glabrata and one C. krusei. Urine cultures were yielded more than 10000 CFU/ml in 14.3% of the cases followed by 600-10000 CFU/ml (28.5%) and 100-600 CFU/ml (57.2%). Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed that only one isolate of C. glabrata and seven isolates of C. albicans were resistant to nystatin and ketoconazole, respectively.  However, all tested isolates were resistance to fluconazole. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic candiduria is relatively more prevalent among children in Ahvaz and the most common agent is C. albicans. In addition, isolated Candida species were sensitive to use antifungals, with exception to fluconazole.

17.
Iran J Parasitol ; 8(3): 389-95, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24454431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important human enteric parasites throughout the world. Clinical symptoms of this parasite vary from asymptomatic infection to chronic diarrhea. Still it is not clear, whether different types of pathogenesis are due to different strains of organism or to variable host factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible correlation of clinical symptoms with assemblages among symptomatic and asymptomatic cases collected from southwest of Iran. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 100 symptomatic and asymptomatic cases, which were positive for G. duodenalis. The samples were subjected to semi-nested PCR and RFLP for gdh gene. RESULTS: Among symptomatic patients, 54% had mixed genotypes AII and BIII, 28% and 18% of samples indicated assemblages BIII and AII, respectively. In contrast, among asymptomatic cases, 64%, 26% and 10%samples had mixed genotypes, BIII and AII assemblages, respectively. Statistical analysis using Chi- Square test showed that there was no significant correlation between assemblage and clinical symptoms in current study. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of mixed infection in both groups may affect this conclusion, therefore further study in more details are necessary to clarify these finding. Additionally, it is important to carry out investigations regarding human host factors as well.

18.
Pediatr Int ; 54(1): 127-30, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22115119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shigella spp. are important causative agents of acute diarrhea and dysentery. Neurological signs are among the most common extraintestinal manifestation of shigellosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of neurological signs in children with shigellosis in southwestern Iran. METHODS: In a retrospective study, the medical records of all children suffering from shigellosis who had been admitted to Abuzar Children's Hospital in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran, from March 2006 to March 2009 were reviewed. The epidemiological characteristics, clinical findings, and laboratory data of the patients with shigellosis were analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.0 software. RESULTS: During the study period, 154 children suffering from shigellosis were admitted. Of the patients studied, 85 (55.2%) were male and 69 (44.8%) female. The majority of patients were in the age group of 1-4 years. A total of 129 children (83.3%) had fever; dysentery was the presenting complaint of 43 (27.9%) of the patients. Shigella sonnei was isolated from 77 cases (50%), Shigella flexneri from 59 (38.2%), Shigella boydii from 11 (7.1%), and Shigella dysenteriae from seven (4.5%). Neurological manifestations were observed in 106 (68.8%) of the children. There were no statistically significant associations between the presences of neurological manifestations and sex, age, leukocytosis, bandemia, electrolyte imbalance or species of Shigella. The associations between neurological manifestations and the presence of fever and dysentery were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Shigella sonnei was the most common species of Shigella in southwestern Iran. Neurological manifestations were common in the children with shigellosis. Fever and dysentery were significant risk factors for the development of neurological signs.


Assuntos
Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/complicações , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Indian J Pediatr ; 78(9): 1079-84, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21660402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcome of children having severe pneumonia, with and without zinc supplementation by a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. METHODS: In this study, 128 children (3-60 months old) admitted to the hospital with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into 2 groups (64 in each) that received either zinc sulfate (2 mg/kg/d, maximum 20 mg in 2 divided doses, for 5 days) or a placebo, along with the standard antimicrobial therapy. Primary outcome measurements included the time taken for clinical symptoms of severe pneumonia such as fever and respiratory distress symptoms to resolve, and the secondary outcome included the duration of hospital stay. RESULTS: The time taken for all the symptoms to resolve in the zinc-supplemented group was significantly lesser then that in the placebo group (42.26 [6.66] vs. 47.52 [7.15] h respectively, p < 0.001). The zinc-treated group had a significantly shorter duration of fever (23.29 [6.67] vs. 26.6 [6.26] h, p = 0.024), respiratory distress (32.87 [7.85] vs. 37.37 [4.43] h, p = 0.001), required a shorter hospital stay (126.74 [12.8] vs. 137.74 [11.52] h, p < 0.001) than did the controls. The zinc supplement was well tolerated by the children. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that adjuvant treatment with zinc accelerates recovery from severe pneumonia in young children and significantly reduces the duration of hospital stay. Further studies are required to develop appropriate recommendations for the use of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia in other populations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Zinco/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 74(2): 306-7, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16474088

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by various strains of Leishmania donovani, Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania chagasi with different geographical distribution. The aim of this study was to identify the strains of Leishmania that can cause VL in southern Iran. DNA of Leishmania were extracted from the slides of bone marrow aspirates (#42) and spleen punctures (#22), which were positive for leishman body from the patients who were referred to the hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Differences in Leishmania strains were determined by size difference of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification as visualized on agarose gel. PCR results and smears had 100% correlation. The dominant strain of Leishmania was L. infantum (63 out of the 64 cases), but one case of L. tropica was also detected. VL mostly involves children below 2 years of age in Iran, therefore infection with L. infantum was expected, but this study is the first report of VL that is caused by L. tropica in Iran.


Assuntos
Leishmania tropica/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Animais , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Primers do DNA , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmania tropica/classificação , Leishmania tropica/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/etiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
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