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1.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835391

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused more than 96 million infections and over 2 million deaths worldwide so far. However, there is no approved vaccine available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the disease causative agent. Vaccine is the most effective approach to eradicate a pathogen. The tests of safety and efficacy in animals are pivotal for developing a vaccine and before the vaccine is applied to human populations. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine based on the whole viral particles in human ACE2 transgenic mouse and in non-human primates. Our data showed that the inactivated vaccine successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice and non-human primates, and subsequently provided partial (in low dose) or full (in high dose) protection of challenge in the tested animals. In addition, passive serum transferred from vaccine-immunized mice could also provide full protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. These results warranted positive outcomes in future clinical trials in humans.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009183, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657175

RESUMO

Global Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks and their strong link to microcephaly have raised major public health concerns. ZIKV has been reported to affect the innate immune responses in neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). However, it is unclear how these immune factors affect neurogenesis. In this study, we used Asian-American lineage ZIKV strain PRVABC59 to infect primary human NS/PCs originally derived from fetal brains. We found that ZIKV overactivated key molecules in the innate immune pathways to impair neurogenesis in a cell stage-dependent manner. Inhibiting the overactivated innate immune responses ameliorated ZIKV-induced neurogenesis reduction. This study thus suggests that orchestrating the host innate immune responses in NS/PCs after ZIKV infection could be promising therapeutic approach to attenuate ZIKV-associated neuropathology.

3.
Drug Discov Today ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561465

RESUMO

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the primary treatment for male testosterone deficiency. This therapy raises concerns over the risk of prostate cancer (PC), because testosterone has historically been considered the fuel for PC. We discuss the re-evaluation of the relationship between androgen and PC, and highlight the safety of TRT in the treatment of symptomatic men with testosterone deficiency who have low-risk disease after treatment for localized PC with surgery or radiation. Furthermore, we review the clinical application and potential mechanisms of bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) in the treatment of castration-resistant PC, emphasizing that much remains to be done before BAT can be broadly applied.

4.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533737

RESUMO

Accurate methods for identifying pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) of prostate cancer (PCa) prior to surgery are still lacking. We aimed to investigate the predictive value of peripheral monocyte count (PMC) for LNM of PCa in this study. Two hundred and ninety-eight patients from three centers were divided into a training set (n = 125) and a validation set (n = 173). In the training set, the independent predictors of LNM were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the optimal cutoff value was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The sensitivity and specificity of the optimal cutoff were authenticated in the validation cohort. Finally, a nomogram based on the PMC was constructed for predicting LNM. Multivariate analyses of the training cohort demonstrated that clinical T stage, preoperative Gleason score, and PMC were independent risk factors for LNM. The subsequent ROC analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of PMC for diagnosing LNM was 0.405 × 109 l-1 with a sensitivity of 60.0% and a specificity of 67.8%. In the validation set, the optimal cutoff value showed significantly higher sensitivity than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (0.619 vs 0.238, P < 0.001). The nomogram involving PMC, free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA), clinical T stage, preoperative Gleason score, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) was generated, which showed a robust predictive capacity for predicting LNM before the operation. Our results indicated that PMC as a single agent, or combined with other clinical parameters, showed a robust predictive capacity for LNM in PCa. It can be employed as a complementary factor for the decision of whether to conduct pelvic lymph node dissection.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testicular Germ Cell Tumor (TGCT) is the most common malignant tumor in young men, but there is a lack of prediction model to evaluate prognosis of patients with TGCT. OBJECTIVE: To explore the prognostic factors for Progression-Free Survival (PFS) and construct a nomogram model for patients with early-stage TGCT after radical orchiectomy. METHODS: Patients with TGCT from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were used as the training cohort; univariate and multivariate cox analysis were performed. A nomogram was constructed based on the independent prognostic factors. Patients from the Nanfang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University were used as the cohort to validate the predictive ability using the nomogram model. Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and calibration plots were used to evaluate the nomogram. RESULTS: A total of 110 and 62 patients with TGCT were included in training cohort and validation cohort, respectively. Lymphatic Vascular Invasion (LVI), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage and adjuvant therapy were independent prognostic factors in multivariate regression analyses and were included to establish a nomogram. The C-index in the training cohort for 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 0.768, 0.74 and 0.689, respectively. While the C-index for 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS in the external validation cohort were 0.853, 0.663 and 0.609, respectively. The calibration plots for 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS in the training and validation cohort showed satisfactory consistency between predicted and actual outcomes. The nomogram revealed a better predictive ability for PFS than AJCC staging system. CONCLUSION: The nomogram as a simple and visual tool to predict individual PFS in patients with TGCT could guide clinicians and clinical pharmacists in therapeutic strategy.

6.
Cell Res ; 31(2): 126-140, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420426

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents a global public health challenge. The viral pathogen responsible, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), binds to the host receptor ACE2 through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. Although the role of ACE2 as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is clear, studies have shown that ACE2 expression is extremely low in various human tissues, especially in the respiratory tract. Thus, other host receptors and/or co-receptors that promote the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells of the respiratory system may exist. In this study, we found that the tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL) specifically interacts with the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV-2 S. Using both a SARS-CoV-2 virus pseudotype and authentic SARS-CoV-2, we found that overexpression of AXL in HEK293T cells promotes SARS-CoV-2 entry as efficiently as overexpression of ACE2, while knocking out AXL significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection in H1299 pulmonary cells and in human primary lung epithelial cells. Soluble human recombinant AXL blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells expressing high levels of AXL. The AXL expression level is well correlated with SARS-CoV-2 S level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells from COVID-19 patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that AXL is a novel candidate receptor for SARS-CoV-2 which may play an important role in promoting viral infection of the human respiratory system and indicate that it is a potential target for future clinical intervention strategies.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/análise , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/análise , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/análise , Internalização do Vírus
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124920, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412472

RESUMO

Cobalt-mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) has been widely used to remove the refractory organic pollutants from contaminated waters. However, the residual cobalt usually at a trace level inevitably brings about secondary pollution to be disposed of. In this study we found that the presence of phosphate could trigger a more efficient catalytic activation of PMS at trace Co2+ dosages (0.17-1.7 µM). Fast degradation of atrazine (ATZ) was observed in the Co2+/PMS/phosphate system, with the pseudo first-order kinetic rate constant as high as 5.4 and 15.4 times that in Co2+/PMS and phosphate/PMS systems respectively under otherwise similar conditions. The presence of phosphate promoted the production of sulfate radical (SO4·-), accompanying the enhanced formation of by-product 1O2 simultaneously. Using a competition reaction kinetics approach, the contribution of SO4·- to ATZ oxidation was determined as 96.5%, suggesting that SO4·- was the main reactive species responsible for ATZ removal. Such favorable effect was partially ascribed to the specific ligand structure of six coordination structure between phosphate and cobalt, which facilitated electron transfer in the CoIII/CoII reduction. In addition, it was dependent upon the aqueous phosphate levels, and low level (< 0.5 mM) was insufficient to drive the CoIII/CoII cycle, whereas the higher level (> 15 mM) showed negative effect since the excessive phosphate could quench SO4·- and·OH. This study is believed to advance the fundamental understanding of the ligand effect on the cobalt-mediated sulfate radicals-based advanced oxidation process.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 595, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500409

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged from obscurity in 2013 to spread from Asia to the South Pacific and the Americas, where millions of people were infected, accompanied by severe disease including microcephaly following congenital infections. Phylogenetic studies have shown that ZIKV evolved in Africa and later spread to Asia, and that the Asian lineage is responsible for the recent epidemics in the South Pacific and Americas. However, the reasons for the sudden emergence of ZIKV remain enigmatic. Here we report evolutionary analyses that revealed four mutations, which occurred just before ZIKV introduction to the Americas, represent direct reversions of previous mutations that accompanied earlier spread from Africa to Asia and early circulation there. Our experimental infections of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, human cells, and mice using ZIKV strains with and without these mutations demonstrate that the original mutations reduced fitness for urban, human-amplifed transmission, while the reversions restored fitness, increasing epidemic risk. These findings include characterization of three transmission-adaptive ZIKV mutations, and demonstration that these and one identified previously restored fitness for epidemic transmission soon before introduction into the Americas. The initial mutations may have followed founder effects and/or drift when the virus was introduced decades ago into Asia.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Evolução Molecular , Aptidão Genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/genética , Aedes/virologia , África/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Queratinócitos , Camundongos , Mutação , Filogenia , Cultura Primária de Células , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123766, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254778

RESUMO

Fenton-like oxidation for multicomponent wastewater treatment suffers from a low efficiency due to non-selective nature of produced reactive species. In this study, a multifunctional dual-layer ultrafiltration membrane (Seq-ICM) was synthesized for multiple pollutants decontamination. Characterizations of the membranes indicate that Seq-ICM comprises a skin layer for ultrafiltration, and a porous support layer loaded with ∼50% MIL-53(Fe) for catalysis. With bovine serum albumin coexisting, Seq-ICM can remove 75.7% bisphenol S (BPS), which is much higher than that of a simultaneous interception-catalysis membrane (44.2 %). For multicomponent wastewater treatment, Seq-ICM system can save ∼59%-67% oxidant dosage as well compared with catalysis alone membrane system to achieve 50% BPS removal. Furthermore, the decontamination mechanisms were investigated to explain the advantages of Seq-ICM. Sequential interception and oxidation process by Seq-ICM leads to the interception of macromolecular substances first, following by catalytic oxidation of low-molecular-weight organics. This process prevents macromolecular substances from competing for active species with low-molecular-weight organics, thereby enhancing selectivity and oxidation efficiency. Meanwhile, Seq-ICM shows satisfactory BPS removal efficiency for treatment of 2865 L/m2 synthetic solution, as well as in real wastewater matrix. We believe the proposed technology based on a composite membrane is promising for the removal of multicomponent substances from wastewater.

10.
Water Res ; 188: 116484, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045637

RESUMO

Ozonation is a well-recognized process in advanced treatment of municipal secondary effluent for water reclamation. However, the transformation of dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) during ozonation of real effluents, particularly at molecular level, has been scarcely reported. In this study, we performed ozonation treatments on real secondary effluents from two municipal wastewater treatment plants, and used Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and various spectroscopic techniques to probe the transformation of dEfOM at four ozone dosage levels (0.28, 0.61, 0.89, and 1.21 mg O3/mg DOC). Most of the precursors were unsaturated and reduced compounds (positive double bond equivalent minus oxygen per carbon ((DBE-O)/C) and negative nominal oxidation state of carbon (NOSC)), whereas the products were mainly the saturated and oxidized ones (negative (DBE-O)/C and positive NOSC). As the ozone dosage increased, the relative abundance of O8-19 species gradually increased in the ozonated samples, whereas an opposite trend was observed for O5-7S1 species. Further, we employed 18 types of reactions to represent the ozonation process, and found that the oxygenation reaction (+3O) possessed the largest number of possible precursor-product pairs, and CHON compounds possessed the highest reactivity. Besides the dominant oxygenation reactions, decyclopropyl (-C3H4) was relatively common reaction for CHON compounds, while it was oxidative desulfonation (-SH2) for CHOS ones. In addition, the transformation of precursors to products accompanied with the drop of (DBE-O)/C, and the increase of NOSC and the O/C ratio. The precursors with aromaticity and fluorescence were mainly correlated with the compounds featuring higher (DBE-O)/C and lower NOSC values. This study is believed to help better understand and improve the application of ozonation process in advanced treatment of real wastewater.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Espectrometria de Massas , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(5): 399-408, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354947

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze vascular damage-related risk factors for ED in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and develop a nomogram for the prediction of the factors. METHODS: A total of 181 patients with type 2 DM were included for sexual function assessment, and the clinical data on vascular damage were retrieved from the patients system. After preprocessing, the data were described by the number and percentage of different types of cases and subjected to statistical analysis with the R software. The Lasso regression model was used to optimize feature selection. On the premise of the sample size required for logistic regression analysis according to the number of events per variable, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed on the selected variables and a nomogram was developed for diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction (DIED). Then, the performance of the nomogram was evaluated with respect to its calibration, discrimination and clinical utility using Harrell's concordance index (C-index), the calibration plot and decision curve analysis, as well as bootstrapping for internal validation. RESULTS: ED was diagnosed in 90 (49.7%) of the 181 patients. The risk factors subjected to logistic regression analysis included the duration of DM (OR = 4.440, 95% CI: 1.594-13.105; OR = 7.667, 95% CI: 1.444-48.733), status of carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) (OR = 3.767, 95% CI: 1.194-12.691), diabetic retinopathy (DR) (OR = 5.382, 95% CI: 1.373-28.301), diabetic kidney disease (DKD) (OR = 4.959, 95% CI: 1.156-27.728), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR = 8.210, 95% CI: 2.027-43.507), red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (OR = 2.418, 95% CI: 1.021-5.826), and plasma fibrinogen (Fbg) (OR = 4.649, 95% CI: 2.001-11.339). The C-index of the DIED model was 0.911 (95% CI: 0.869-0.954). The curve representing the performance of the nomogram fit in well with that representing a perfect prediction by the calibration plot. Decision curve analysis indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful for predicting DIED in the type 2 DM patients at the possibility threshold of 6% to 93%. CONCLUSIONS: A nomogram was preliminarily developed for predicting the risk of DIED in type 2 DM patients with respect to the seven independent influencing factors, including the duration of DM, status of c-IMT, DR, DKD, LDL-C, RDW, and Fbg.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Disfunção Erétil , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , LDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Retinopatia Diabética , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Índices de Eritrócitos , Fibrinogênio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Nomogramas , Fatores de Risco
12.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(3): 271-275, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346969

RESUMO

Varicocele is one of the common causes of infertility in adult males. Surgical intervention can improve the semen quality of some of the patients and significantly increase the pregnancy rate, but fails to benefit them all. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to identify the patients who can significantly benefit from surgical interventions to maximize the effectiveness of surgery and avoid medical waste. This article summarizes the recent progress in surgical indications and strategies for varicocele in adult males, and provides some reference for the management of the disease.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Varicocele , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/cirurgia , Masculino , Microcirurgia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Análise do Sêmen , Varicocele/cirurgia
13.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(3): 200-204, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346956

RESUMO

In December, 2019, several cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) were reported in Wuhan, Hubei. Since then, more and more NCP cases, confirmed or suspected, have been found in China and other parts of the world, and the virus is now showing a tendency towards a wider spread. During the NCP epidemic, all medical workers are confronted with special challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases and required of even more accurate therapeutic protocols as well as stricter observation of the principles for the prevention and control of NCP. Therefore, the Andrology Branch of Chinese Medical Association convened relevant experts to summarize the special points for andrologic clinicians to attend to in the diagnosis and treatment of male diseases during the NCP epidemic.


Assuntos
Andrologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/terapia , Pandemias
14.
JCI Insight ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232299

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal human cancer in part because GBM stem cells are resistant to therapy and recurrence is inevitable. Previously, we demonstrated Zika virus (ZIKV) targets GBM stem cells and prevents death of mice with gliomas. Here, we evaluated the immunological basis of ZIKV-mediated protection against GBM. Introduction of ZIKV into the brain tumor increases recruitment of CD8+ T and myeloid cells to the tumor microenvironment. CD8+ T cells are required for ZIKV-dependent tumor clearance, as survival benefits are lost with CD8+ T cell depletion. Moreover, while anti-PD1 antibody therapy alone moderately improves tumor survival, when co-administered with ZIKV, survival increases. ZIKV-mediated tumor clearance also results in durable protection against syngeneic tumor re-challenge, which also depends on CD8+ T cells. To address safety concerns, we generated an immune-sensitized ZIKV strain, which is effective alone or in combination with immunotherapy. Thus, oncolytic ZIKV treatment can be leveraged by immunotherapies, which may prompt combination treatment paradigms for adult GBM patients.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2606-2618, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241728

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is causing huge impact on health, life, and global economy, which is characterized by rapid spreading of SARS-CoV-2, high number of confirmed cases and a fatality/case rate worldwide reported by WHO. The most effective intervention measure will be to develop safe and effective vaccines to protect the population from the disease and limit the spread of the virus. An inactivated, whole virus vaccine candidate of SARS-CoV-2 has been developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products and Wuhan Institute of Virology. The low toxicity, immunogenicity, and immune persistence were investigated in preclinical studies using seven different species of animals. The results showed that the vaccine candidate was well tolerated and stimulated high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Low or no toxicity in three species of animals was also demonstrated in preclinical study of the vaccine candidate. Biochemical analysis of structural proteins and purity analysis were performed. The inactivated, whole virion vaccine was characterized with safe double-inactivation, no use of DNases and high purity. Dosages, boosting times, adjuvants, and immunization schedules were shown to be important for stimulating a strong humoral immune response in animals tested. Preliminary observation in ongoing phase I and II clinical trials of the vaccine candidate in Wuzhi County, Henan Province, showed that the vaccine is well tolerant. The results were characterized by very low proportion and low degree of side effects, high levels of neutralizing antibodies, and seroconversion. These results consistent with the results obtained from preclinical data on the safety.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5752, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188207

RESUMO

Efficacious interventions are urgently needed for the treatment of COVID-19. Here, we report a monoclonal antibody (mAb), MW05, with SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity by disrupting the interaction of receptor binding domain (RBD) with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Crosslinking of Fc with FcγRIIB mediates antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) activity by MW05. This activity is eliminated by introducing the LALA mutation to the Fc region (MW05/LALA). Potent prophylactic and therapeutic effects against SARS-CoV-2 are observed in rhesus monkeys. A single dose of MW05/LALA blocks infection of SARS-CoV-2 in prophylactic treatment and clears SARS-CoV-2 in three days in a therapeutic treatment setting. These results pave the way for the development of MW05/LALA as an antiviral strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Receptores de IgG/genética , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Células Vero , Ligação Viral
17.
Water Res ; 189: 116599, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166920

RESUMO

Adsorption is a viable technology to remove trace heavy metals from wastewater, but regeneration of adsorbents in an economic and environmentally friendly manner often represents a limiting factor of its application. Compared with traditional strong acid desorption, developing a chemical-free method is of great significance to both economic and the environmental welfare. Herein, we synthesized a novel thermoresponsive absorbent, A-MIL-121, which could effectively remove trace Cu(II) (> 95 %) from a high-salinity ([Na+]/[Cu2+] = 20000) water at normal temperature. At elevated temperature, A-MIL-121 could quickly and efficiently desorb Cu(II), with over 90% desorption rate at 80°C within 3 h. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed that two types of -COOH groups existed in the material. One was in free form and acted as the sites for Cu(II) adsorption; the other was in dimer connected by two H-bonds, which cleaved at elevated temperature. As a result, massive exchangeable protons were released to the solution, which caused the desorption of Cu(II). Similar temperature dependent adsorption-desorption behavior was also found to other heavy metals, such as Cd2+, Pb2+, Ni2+. No significant capacity loss was observed after 10 successive adsorption-desorption cycles. Finally, Column experiments using a real copper electroplating wastewater showed that a total of ~ 1650 mL of clean water was generated before breakthrough (Cu2+ < 0.5 mg/L), while less than 45 mL of 80°C water was used for regeneration. This study indicates the potential of A-MIL-121 as a novel green adsorbent to address trace heavy metals in wastewater.

18.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-20, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143466

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of IL-18 137 G > C, 607 C > A gene polymorphism in Uyghur population with chronic periodontitis (CP) and combine the results with the meta-analysis. METHODS: In a case-control study, 200 cases with CP and 100 healthy controls were recruited; IL-18 137 G > C, 607 C > A genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In the meta-analysis, we used electronic databases, including CNKI, Wan Fang, PubMed, EMBASE databases etc.to obtain relevant research published through June 2020. Studies were considered eligible if odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were provided or calculated from the given data. The size of the combined effect was calculated using STATA 15.0. RESULTS: Our study revealed significant association between CP and IL-18 137 G > C (P = .045, OR = 1.67), 607 C > A (P = .045, OR = 1.67). The overall meta-analysis revealed significant associations between IL-18 137 G > C polymorphism and CP risk in Allele, dominant, co-dominant and recessive genetic models. The subgroup analysis also showed a significant association between the IL-18 137 G > C and risk for periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis in the Asian (GC+ CC VS. GG: P = .047, OR = 1.64,95%CI = 1.01-2.68). CONCLUSIONS: IL-18 137 G > C, 607 C > A could be associated with susceptibility to periodontitis in Uyghur population. Further case-control of candidate genes studies targeting larger sample sizes and different ethnic groups are needed to arrive more accurate conclusions.

19.
Opt Express ; 28(18): 25716-25722, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906856

RESUMO

Microfluidic chips have gradually become a focus of scientific research. However, the fabrication of key functional components in microfluidic chips is always limited by the existing processing methods. The microfluidic chip is difficult to be three-dimensional (3D) and integrated. In response to the key problems of 3D integrated microfluidic chip fabrication, this paper presents a hybrid method for fabricating a microfluidic chip integrated 3D microchannels and metal microstructures by femtosecond laser wet etch technology and liquid metal injection. The integrated microfluidic chip fabricated by this method is expected to be applied to the core reaction unit of integrated PCR devices.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4207, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826924

RESUMO

The rapid spread of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 greatly threatens global public health but no prophylactic vaccine is available. Here, we report the generation of a replication-incompetent recombinant serotype 5 adenovirus, Ad5-S-nb2, carrying a codon-optimized gene encoding Spike protein (S). In mice and rhesus macaques, intramuscular injection with Ad5-S-nb2 elicits systemic S-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Intranasal inoculation elicits both systemic and pulmonary antibody responses but weaker CMI response. At 30 days after a single vaccination with Ad5-S-nb2 either intramuscularly or intranasally, macaques are protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. A subsequent challenge reveals that macaques vaccinated with a 10-fold lower vaccine dosage (1 × 1010 viral particles) are also protected, demonstrating the effectiveness of Ad5-S-nb2 and the possibility of offering more vaccine dosages within a shorter timeframe. Thus, Ad5-S-nb2 is a promising candidate vaccine and warrants further clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
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