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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 594-600, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380899

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that vagus nerve stimulation can improve patients' locomotor function. The stimulation of the auricular vagus nerve, which is the only superficial branch of the vagus nerve, may have similar effects to vagus nerve stimulation. However, the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were established by modified Longa ligation. Twenty-four hours later, 7-day auricular vagus nerve stimulation was performed. The results showed that auricular vagus nerve stimulation promoted the secretion of acetylcholine, inhibited the secretion of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced connexin 43 phosphorylation in the ischemic penumbra and motor cortex, promoting locomotor function recovery in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. These findings suggested that auricular vagus nerve stimulation promotes the recovery of locomotor function in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by altering the secretion of acetylcholine and inflammatory factors and the phosphorylation of connexin 43. This study was approved by the Animal Use and Management Committee of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine on November 8, 2019 (approval No. PZSHUTCM191108014).

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(7): 1545-1555, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916440

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used for functional restoration after stroke. However, its role in post-stroke rehabilitation and the associated regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied EA to the Zusanli (ST36) and Quchi (LI11) acupoints in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. We found that EA effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor tyrosine kinase B, synapsin-1, postsynaptic dense protein 95, and microtubule-associated protein 2 in the ischemic penumbra of rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. Moreover, EA greatly reduced the expression of myelin-related inhibitors Nogo-A and NgR in the ischemic penumbra. Tyrosine kinase B inhibitor ANA-12 weakened the therapeutic effects of EA. These findings suggest that EA can improve neurological function after middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, possibly through regulating the activity of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase B signal pathway. All procedures and experiments were approved by the Animal Research Committee of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China (approval No. PZSHUTCM200110002) on January 10, 2020.

3.
Integr Med Res ; 10(4): 100778, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608432

RESUMO

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 180 million infections and 3.9 million deaths. To date, emerging clinical evidence has shown the synergetic benefits of Chinese herbal injections in treating this contagious respiratory disease. This review aims to summarize and analyze the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal injections in the therapy of COVID-19. Methods: The literature from 3 electronic databases, PubMed, CNKI, and Web of Science, were searched using the search terms "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "traditional Chinese medicine", "herb", "herbal", and "injection". Then the identified articles were comprehensively evaluated. Results: Limited data demonstrated that Chinese herbal injections could significantly improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients, especially in combination with conventional treatment strategies. The benefits of which were mainly associated with the relief of symptoms, prevention of secondary infection, regulation of inflammation and immune function. There was also evidence showing the inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Nevertheless, available real-world data suggested the increased risk of adverse event. Furthermore, the defects of existing researches and the insights for discovering novel antiviral drugs were prospectively discussed. Conclusion: Evidence-based advances revealed that Chinese herbal injections such as XueBiJing injection and ShenMai injection, exerted potent effects against COVID-19. Further laboratory researches and clinical evaluation are needed to gather scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety.

4.
Neurosurgery ; 89(6): 978-986, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. However, CTS-related changes of brain structural covariance and structural covariance networks (SCNs) patterns have not been clearly studied. OBJECTIVE: To explore CTS-related brain changes from perspectives of structural connectivity and SCNs. METHODS: Brain structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from 27 CTS patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs). Structural covariance and SCNs were constructed based on gray matter volume. The global network properties including clustering coefficient (Cp), characteristic path length (Lp), small-worldness index, global efficiency (Eglob), and local efficiency (Eloc) and regional network properties including degree, betweenness centrality (BC), and Eloc of a given node were calculated with graph theoretical analysis. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, the strength of structural connectivity between the dorsal anterior insula and medial prefrontal thalamus decreased (P < .001) in CTS patients. There was no intergroup difference of area under the curve for Cp, Lp¸ Eglob, and Eloc (all P > .05). The real-world SCN of CTS patients showed a small-world topology ranging from 2% to 32%. CTS patients showed lower nodal degrees of the dorsal anterior insula and medial prefrontal thalamus, and higher Eloc of a given node and BC in the lateral occipital cortex (P < .001) and the dorsolateral middle temporal gyrus (P < .001) than HCs, respectively. CONCLUSION: CTS had a profound impact on brain structures from perspectives of structural connectivity and SCNs.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(16): 20495-20510, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432648

RESUMO

The anti-apoptotic and pro-survival effects of exercise training were evaluated on the early aged hypertensive rat cerebral cortex. The brain tissues were analysed from ten sedentary male Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats (WKY), ten sedentary spontaneously 12 month early aged hypertensive rats (SHR), and ten hypertensive rats undergoing treadmill exercise training (60 min/day, 5 days/week) for 12 weeks (SHR-EX). TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, the expression levels of endonuclease G (EndoG) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) (caspase-independent apoptotic pathway), Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptor 1, Fas-associated death domain, active caspase-8 and active caspase-3 (Fas-mediated apoptotic pathways) as well as t-Bid, Bax, Bak, Bad, cytochrome c, active caspase 9 and active caspase-3 (mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways) were reduced in SHR-EX compared with SHR. Pro-survival Bcl2, Bcl-xL, p-Bad, 14-3-3, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, pPI3K/PI3K, and pAKT/AKT were significantly increased in SHR-EX compared to those in SHR. Exercise training suppressed neural EndoG/AIF-related caspase-independent, Fas/FasL-mediated caspase-dependent, mitochondria-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways as well as enhanced Bcl-2 family-related and IGF-1-related pro-survival pathways in the early aged hypertensive cerebral cortex. These findings indicated new therapeutic effects of exercise training on preventing early aged hypertension-induced neural apoptosis in cerebral cortex.

6.
Brain Res ; 1767: 147558, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116054

RESUMO

Functional and structural brain alterations have been noted in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common entrapment peripheral neuropathy. Previous studies were mainly focused on somatosensory cortices. However, the changes of white matter diffusion properties in nonsensorimotor cortices remain uninvestigated. We utilized a modified tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) pipeline to explore CTS-related white matter plasticity, omitting the skeletonization step and registering diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to a study-specific, high resolution T1 template by an optimized registration method. The modified TBSS was demonstrated to be more sensitive to detect changes in white matter integrity than the standard TBSS approach. In this study, 25 moderate/severe CTS patients and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were evaluated with DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated for group comparison. And the relationship between diffusion parameters and clinical assessments was also analyzed. Comparing with the healthy controls, CTS patients showed significantly increased FA and decreased RD in areas of multisensory integration and motor control involving the central opercular cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) of the dominant hemisphere. Moreover, altered diffusion parameters in the central opercular cortex of the dominant hemisphere were significantly correlated with Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) scores. It is considered to be a form of maladaptive neuroplastic response to CTS-associated afference and motor control deficits. Such insight may be helpful in developing new strategies for the treatment of CTS.

7.
Brain Res Bull ; 173: 108-115, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely applied to explore abnormal functional connectivity (FC) in patients with post-facial paralysis synkinesis (PFPS). However, most studies considered steady spatial-temporal signal interactions between distinct brain regions during the period of scanning. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to investigate abnormal dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in PFPS patients. METHODS: We enrolled 31 PFPS patients and 19 healthy controls. All participants underwent rs-fMRI. Sliding windows approach was applied to construct dFC matrices. Next, these matrices were clustered into distinct states using the k-means clustering algorithm. RESULTS: We found that it was not the dFC patterns, but rather the temporal properties including the mean dwell time (MDT) and occurrence frequencies, that showed a significant difference between PFPS patients and healthy controls. Two randomly clustered dFC states were recognized for both groups. Among them, State 1 showed significantly lower connectivity compared to State 2 in patients group. Compared to healthy controls, the duration spent by the PFPS patients in the state with lower connectivity significantly increased and is positively correlated with the better facial function. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, aberrant dFC is a fundamental feature of brain dysfunction in PFPS patients, which is associated with the facial nerve function. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the abnormal brain reorganization mechanisms in PFPS patients.

8.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(12): 2528-2533, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907044

RESUMO

Facial synkinesis is a troublesome sequelae of facial nerve malfunction. It is difficult to recover from synkinesis, despite improved surgical techniques for isolating the peripheral facial nerve branches. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether long-term dysfunction of motor control can lead to irreversible plasticity-induced structural brain changes. This case-control study thus investigated the structural brain alterations associated with facial synkinesis. The study was conducted at Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China. Twenty patients with facial synkinesis (2 male and 18 female, aged 33.35 ± 6.97 years) and 19 healthy volunteers (2 male and 17 female, aged 33.21 ± 6.75 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and voxel-based and surface-based morphometry techniques were used to analyze data. There was no significant difference in brain volume between patients with facial synkinesis and healthy volunteers. Patients with facial synkinesis exhibited a significantly reduced cortical thickness in the contralateral superior and inferior temporal gyri and a reduced sulcal depth of the ipsilateral precuneus compared with healthy volunteers. In addition, sulcal depth of the ipsilateral precuneus was negatively correlated with the severity of depression. These findings suggest that there is a structural remodeling of gray matter in patients with facial synkinesis after facial nerve malfunction. This study was approved by the Ethics Review Committee of the Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China (approval No. 2017-365-T267) on September 13, 2017, and was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR1800014630) on January 25, 2018.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 634347, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777942

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of death. Reperfusion is a critical stage after thrombolysis or thrombectomy, accompanied by oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and defects in synapse structure. The process is closely related to the dephosphorylation of actin-binding proteins (e.g., cofilin-1) by specific phosphatases. Although studies of the molecular mechanisms of the actin cytoskeleton have been ongoing for decades, limited studies have directly investigated reperfusion-induced reorganization of actin-binding protein, and little is known about the gene expression of actin-binding proteins. The exact mechanism is still uncertain. The motor cortex is very important to save nerve function; therefore, we chose the penumbra to study the relationship between cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and actin-binding protein. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion, we confirmed reperfusion and motor function deficit by cerebral blood flow and gait analysis. PCR was used to screen the high expression mRNAs in penumbra of the motor cortex. The high expression of cofilin in this region was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). The change in cofilin-1 expression appears at the same time as gait imbalance, especially maximum variation and left front swing. It is suggested that cofilin-1 may partially affect motor cortex function. This result provides a potential mechanism for understanding cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

10.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(7): 1229-1234, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318399

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that transcranial pulse current stimulation (tPCS) can increase cerebral neural plasticity and improve patients' locomotor function. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, rat models of stroke established by occlusion of the right cerebral middle artery were subjected to tPCS, 20 minutes per day for 7 successive days. tPCS significantly reduced the Bederson score, increased the foot print area of the affected limbs, and reduced the standing time of affected limbs of rats with stroke compared with that before intervention. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot assay revealed that tPCS significantly increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein-2 and growth-associated protein-43 around the ischemic penumbra. This finding suggests that tPCS can improve the locomotor function of rats with stroke by regulating the expression of microtubule-associated protein-2 and growth-associated protein-43 around the ischemic penumbra. These findings may provide a new method for the clinical treatment of poststroke motor dysfunction and a theoretical basis for clinical application of tPCS. The study was approved by the Animal Use and Management Committee of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China (approval No. PZSHUTCM190315003) on February 22, 2019.

11.
Trials ; 21(1): 910, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine have suggested that electroacupuncture (EA) could improve post-stroke cognitive impairment, based on the clinical evidence. This study protocol is aimed at showing the effectiveness of theta and gamma EA for post-stroke patients on working memory (WM) and electrophysiology. METHODS: After assessing their eligibility, 66 patients with stroke will be enrolled from two Chinese medicine hospitals and randomly divided into theta frequency EA group, gamma frequency EA group, and sham-EA group according to the ratio of 1:1:1. All patients will receive 20 sessions of EA procedures for 4 weeks. Patients in three groups will receive EA at two same acupoints in the head: Baihui (GV20) and Shenting (GV24). The frequency of the three groups of EA is set as follows: 6 Hz (theta-EA group), 40 Hz (gamma-EA group), and no current through the electrodes (sham EA). Patients and assessors will be blinded throughout the entire study. The primary outcome is the performance accuracy of 1-back task which is a frequently used measure of WM in cognitive neuroscience research contexts. Secondary outcome measures will include the response time of 1-back task, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, Trail Making Test, Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment Scale, modified Barthel Index, and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals during 1-back tasks. A blinding index will be assessed. Data will be statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, at 5% of significance level. DISCUSSION: We expect this double-center, randomized, patient- and assessor-blinded, sham-controlled, parallel, clinical trial to explore the effectiveness of theta and gamma EA therapy, compared with sham EA, for post-stroke WM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000031995 . Registered on 17 April 2020.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Eletrofisiologia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Pain Physician ; 22(3): E215-E224, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% to 80% of patients with brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) developed neuropathic pain. It is an intolerable neuropathic pain, which brings heavy burden to family and society. In addition to motor and sensory deficits, neuropathic pain can be another serious sequela that equally influences the patient. The development of a microsurgical technique has promoted the treatment and rehabilitation of brachial plexus injury, but pain relief after BPA is still a difficult problem. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to semi-quantify changes in the behavior, spinal cord and cerebral metabolism in a neuropathic pain model following BPA injury in rats. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled animal study. SETTING: Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai, China. METHODS: A total of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200 to 220 g, were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n = 10) and control group (n = 5). In the experimental group, neuropathic pain induced by BPA was established by directly avulsing the C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 roots on the right side from the spinal cord. Rats in the control group only received open-close surgery. The autotomic behavior of biting their own digits was recorded and scored at 2 months after the surgery. Small animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images after injection of a 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) tracer were acquired to evaluate glucose metabolism in pain-related brain regions before and after the surgery, respectively. Semi-quantitative values of cortical to cerebellum standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios were calculated. Then, the animals were euthanized and the cervical segments of the spinal cord were removed for detection of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the astrocytes by immunohistochemical assay. RESULTS: Nine of the 10 rats (90%) in the experimental group showed autotomic behavior at 2 months after the surgery. Slight autotomic behavior was noted only in one of 5 rats (20%) from the control group. The autotomic score in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (5.4 ± 1.0 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, P < 0.05). The experimental group showed significantly higher SUV ratio in both the right and left thalamus, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical assay demonstrated that GFAP positive astrocytes in the dorsal horn at the injured side significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05). LIMITATIONS: There are differences between small animals and human beings, and the structure and function of the human brain is more complex than in rodents. Therefore, extrapolation of the present conclusion should be cautious. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reported a unique model of neuropathic pain following total BPA in rodents, which was demonstrated by a higher rate and score of autotomic behavior. More astrocytes were found activated in the spinal cord at the corresponding level of C5 and C6 spinal cord. In the small animal PET/CT imaging, significantly higher standardized glucose metabolic activity was found in both the right and left thalamus in the experimental group. The present study semi-quantified the neuropathic pain behavior in rats and explored the plastic changes in the spinal and brain metabolism. KEY WORDS: Brachial plexus avulsion, small animal PET/CT, glucose metabolism, neuropathic pain, astrocyte, 18F-FDG.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Plexo Braquial/lesões , Encéfalo/patologia , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Neuralgia/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/patologia
13.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 7235808, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049055

RESUMO

Objective: Facial synkinesis is a severe sequelae of facial nerve malfunction. Once the synkinesis is established, it is extremely difficult for patients to recover. Given that the restoration of motor or sensory function after peripheral nerve injury was closely related with cortical plasticity, we investigated cortical plasticity in facial synkinesis patients by the frequency-specific data which remains largely uncharacterized. Materials and Methods: Resting-state fMRI was conducted in 20 facial synkinesis patients and 19 healthy controls, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in five different frequency bands (slow-6: 0-0.01 Hz; slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; slow-3: 0.073-0.167 Hz; and slow-2: 0.167-0.25 Hz) was calculated, respectively. And the relationship between ALFF and clinical outcomes was also analyzed. Results: Comparing with the healthy controls, facial synkinesis patients showed significantly different ALFF values, mainly in the sensorimotor areas. Furthermore, increased ALFF of the ipsilateral insula in the slow-6 band was significantly related with better facial nerve function. Conclusion: Increased ALFF values in the ipsilateral insula might reflect an abnormal state of hypercompensation in motor control of facial synkinesis patients. It provided valuable spatial information about the functionally aberrant regions, which implied the possible involvement of motor control system in facial synkinesis.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Sincinesia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Face/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
14.
J Neurosurg ; 132(4): 1295-1303, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Refractory deafferentation pain has been evidenced to be related to central nervous system neuroplasticity. In this study, the authors sought to explore the underlying glucose metabolic changes in the brain after brachial plexus avulsion, particularly metabolic connectivity. METHODS: Rats with unilateral deafferentation following brachial plexus avulsion, a pain model of deafferentation pain, were scanned by small-animal 2-deoxy-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT to explore the changes of metabolic connectivity among different brain regions. Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) of the intact forepaw were also measured for evaluating pain sensitization. Brain metabolic connectivity and TWL were compared from baseline to 1 week after brachial plexus avulsion. RESULTS: Alterations of metabolic connectivity occurred not only within the unilateral hemisphere contralateral to the injured forelimb, but also in the other hemisphere and even in the connections between bilateral hemispheres. Metabolic connectivity significantly decreased between sensorimotor-related areas within the left hemisphere (contralateral to the injured forelimb) (p < 0.05), as well as between areas across bilateral hemispheres (p < 0.05). Connectivity between areas within the right hemisphere (ipsilateral to the injured forelimb) significantly increased (p = 0.034). TWL and MWT of the left (intact) forepaw after surgery were significantly lower than those at baseline (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that unilateral brachial plexus avulsion facilitates pain sensitization in the opposite limb. A specific pattern of brain metabolic changes occurred in this procedure. Metabolic connectivity reorganized not only in the sensorimotor area corresponding to the affected forelimb, but also in extensive areas involving the bilateral hemispheres. These findings may broaden our understanding of central nervous system changes, as well as provide new information and a potential intervention target for nosogenesis of deafferentation pain.

15.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(6): 1004-1012, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762012

RESUMO

When watching someone performs an action, mirror neurons are activated in a way that is very similar to the activation that occurs when actually performing that action. Previous single-sample case studies indicate that hand-action observation training may lead to activation and remodeling of mirror neuron systems, which include important language centers, and may improve language function in aphasia patients. In this randomized-block-design experiment, we recruited 24 aphasia patients from, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, China. The patients were divided into three groups where they underwent hand-action observation and repetition, dynamic-object observation and repetition, or conventional speech therapy. Training took place 5 days per week, 35 minutes per day, for 2 weeks. We assessed language function via picture naming tests for objects and actions and the Western Aphasia Battery. Among the participants, one patient, his wife and four healthy student volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to analyze changes in brain activation during hand-action observation and dynamic-object observation. Results demonstrated that, compared with dynamic-object observation, hand-action observation led to greater performance with respect to the aphasia quotient and affiliated naming sub-tests and a greater Western Aphasia Battery test score. The overall effect was similar to that of conventional aphasia training, yet hand-action observation had advantages compared with conventional training in terms of vocabulary extraction and spontaneous speech. Thus, hand-action observation appears to more strongly activate the mirror neuron system compared with dynamic-object observation. The activated areas included Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the supramarginal gyrus. These results suggest that hand-action observation combined with repetition might better improve language function in aphasia patients compared with dynamic-object observation combined with repetition. The therapeutic mechanism of this intervention may be associated with activation of additional mirror neuron systems, and may have implications for the possible repair and remodeling of damaged nerve networks. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Nanjing Medical University, China (approval number: 2011-SRFA-086) on March 11, 2011. This trial has been registered in the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN84827527).

16.
Brain Res ; 1712: 132-138, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738025

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate cerebral metabolic changes in a neuropathic pain model following deafferentation. A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were included for modeling of right brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) through the posterior approach. As nerve injury would cause central sensitization and facilitate pain sensitivity in other parts of the body, thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) of the intact forepaw was assessed to investigate the level of pain perception following BPA-induced neuropathic pain. [Fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was applied to the brain before and after brachial plexus avulsion to explore metabolic changes in neuropathic pain following deafferentation. The TWL of the left (intact) forepaw was significantly lower after BPA than that of baseline (p < 0.001). Using TWL as a covariate, standardized uptake values (SUVs) of 18F-FDG significantly increased in the ipsilateral dorsolateral thalamus and contralateral anterodorsal hippocampus after BPA. Conversely, SUVs in multiple brain regions decreased, including the contralateral somatosensory cortex, ipsilateral cingulate cortex, and ipsilateral temporal association cortex. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that the SUVs of the contralateral anterodorsal hippocampus and ipsilateral dorsolateral thalamus were negatively related to the TWL of the intact forepaw, whereas the SUVs in the contralateral somatosensory cortex and ipsilateral cingulate cortex were positively related to it (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that upregulation of metabolism in the anterodorsal hippocampus and dorsolateral thalamus and downregulation metabolism in the contralateral somatosensory cortex and ipsilateral cingulate cortex could be a unique pattern of metabolic changes for neuropathic pain following brachial plexus avulsion.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Medição da Dor/métodos , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/veterinária , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Córtex Somatossensorial/metabolismo
17.
Brain Res ; 1690: 61-73, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654733

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) is an alternative therapy for peripheral nerve injury (PNI). The treatment relies on post-therapeutic effect rather than real-time effect. We utilized fMRI to clarify the resting-state alteration caused by sustained effect of EA on peripheral nerve repairing model. Twenty-four rats were divided equally into three groups: normal group, model group and intervention group. Rats of the model and intervention group underwent sciatic nerve transection and direct anastomosis. EA intervention at ST-36 and GB-30 was conducted continuously for 4 months on the intervention group. Behavioral assessments and fMRI were performed 1 month and 4 months after surgery. Intervention group showed significant improvement on the gait parameters max contact mean intensity (MCMI) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) than model group. EA-related sustained effects of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) could be described as a remolding pattern of somatosensory area and sensorimotor integration regions which presented higher ALFF in the contralateral hemisphere and lower in the ipsilateral hemisphere than model group. Interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) analysis showed a significantly lower FC after EA therapy between the largest significantly different clusters in bilateral somatosensory cortices than the model group 4 months after surgery(p < 0.05). And the model group presented significantly higher FC than the normal group at both two time-points (p < 0.01). The sustained effect of EA on peripheral nerve repairing rats appeared to induce both regional and extensive neuroplasticity in bilateral hemispheres. We proposed that such EA-related effect was a reverse of maladaptive plasticity caused by PNI.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroacupuntura , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Condução Nervosa , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Limiar da Dor , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Descanso , Nervo Isquiático/fisiopatologia
18.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 14(10): 1292-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26556080

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of moderate intensity of aerobic exercise on elderly people with mild Alzheimer's disease, we recruited fifty volunteers aged 50 years to 80 years with cognitive impairment. They were randomized into two groups: aerobic group (n=25) or control group (n=25). The aerobic group was treated with cycling training at 70% of maximal intensity for 40 min/d, 3 d/wk for 3 months. The control group was only treated with heath education. Both groups were received cognitive evaluation, laboratory examination before and after 3 months. The results showed that the Minimum Mental State Examination score, Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease score and the plasma Apo-a1 level was significantly increased (P<0.05), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition score, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire score was significantly decreased.(P<0.05) in aerobic group before and after 3 months in aerobic group. For the control group, there was no significant difference in scores of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease, Apo-a1 (P>0.05), while Minimum Mental State Examination scores decreased significantly after 3 months (P<0.05). In conclusion, moderate intensity of aerobic exercise can improve cognitive function in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Cognição , Terapia por Exercício , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Nanomedicine ; 11(4): 855-66, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25725489

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The amphiphilic graft copolymer poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-g-dextran (Dex-PLGA) was successfully synthesized to fabricate micelles for the delivery of paclitaxel with low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The sizes of paclitaxel-loaded Dex-PLGA (Dex-PLGA/PTX) micelles were kept below 100nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. This novel PTX nano-formulation was found to exhibit slightly stronger in vitro cytotoxicity against SKOV-3, OVCAR-8 and MCF-7 cells with Taxol®. However, it could overcome the drug resistance of multi-drug resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/Adr cells). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Dex-PLGA/PTX after a single dose was more than 200mg PTX/kg, which were 8-fold higher than that of Paclitaxel Injection. The in vivo antitumor activity results indicated that Dex-PLGA/PTX micelles treatments effectively suppressed the tumor growth and highly reduced the toxicity against animals than Taxol® and could eliminate the SKOV-3 tumor by highly increasing the drug dose. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: Chemotherapy for cancer has always been hampered the toxic side effect of the drugs. Nanotechnology has helped to produce various drug delivery systems to minimize these side effects. In this article, the authors designed dextran-based micelles loaded with paclitaxel. They showed effective anti-tumor activity in both in vitro and in vivo experiments with significant lower systemic toxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Dextranos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Micelas , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Ácido Poliglicólico/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Dextranos/química , Feminino , Ácido Láctico/química , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Paclitaxel/química , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico
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