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1.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 96, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460771

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is a deadly disease and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The 5-year overall survival rate of patients with early-stage localized gastric cancer is more than 60%, whereas that of patients with distant metastasis is less than 5%. Surgical resection is the best option for early-stage gastric cancer, while chemotherapy is mainly used in the middle and advanced stages of this disease, despite the frequently reported treatment failure due to chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need for identifying new biomarkers for the early diagnosis and proper management of patients, to achieve the best response to treatment. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in body fluids have attracted widespread attention as biomarkers for early screening, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and responses to drugs due to the high specificity and sensitivity. In the present review, we focus on the clinical potential of lncRNAs as biomarkers in liquid biopsies in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer. We also comprehensively discuss the roles of lncRNAs and their molecular mechanisms in gastric cancer chemoresistance as well as their potential as therapeutic targets for gastric cancer precision medicine.

3.
Am J Perinatol ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a complex chronic lung disease that primarily affects premature or critically ill infants. This pilot study investigated early changes in gut microbiota composition in BPD patients and explored the potential risk factors associated with these changes. STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit with a gestational age of 26 to 32 weeks were prospectively surveyed and eligible for stool collection on days 7 and 28 of postnatal age between February 2016 and June 2017. A 16S rRNA sequencing approach was applied to compare the gut microbiota composition between the BPD group and controls. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictor variables. RESULTS: Eight subjects in the BPD group and 10 subjects in the preterm group were analyzed during the observation period. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were the four dominant bacteria phyla of intestinal microflora. A significantly lower diversity of gut microbiota was observed in the BPD group compared with the preterm group on day 28 (number of observed operational taxonomic units, p = 0.034; abundance-based coverage estimator, p = 0.022; Shannon index, p = 0.028). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that high Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System score (≧19) at 24 hours was statistically significant in predicting the proportion of aerobic with facultative anaerobic bacteria on day 28 (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Infants with BPD are prone to develop gut dysbiosis in early life. A higher severity of illness and treatment intensity may indicate a higher risk of disrupting an anaerobic environment in the gut during the first month of life. KEY POINTS: · BPD patients are prone to develop gut dysbiosis.. · Lower diversity of gut microbiota.. · Higher risk of disrupting anaerobic environment..

4.
Environ Int ; 138: 105608, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155510

RESUMO

Solid fuels used for heating and cooking in rural households cause a large amount of pollutant emissions. Actions are being taken to replace these solid fuels with cleaner energy carriers. However, the pollutant emission amounts from solid fuels over large areas have rarely been evaluated. In this study, we tested eight common heating stoves consuming bituminous coal chunk, anthracite coal chunk, and anthracite coal briquette; three honeycomb briquette stoves; and three traditional cookstoves consuming corn straw and wood in rural Beijing. Emission factors of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were measured as 0.08-13.74 g/kg, 10.80-148.5 g/kg, 0.52-8.44 g/kg, and 0-0.85 g/kg, respectively, for coal heating stoves; 0.35-1.11 g/kg, 16.10-109.43 g/kg, 0.51-0.75 g/kg, and 0-1.98 g/kg, respectively, for honeycomb briquette cookstoves; and 5.90-11.79 g/kg, 28.96-50.23 g/kg, 1.52-2.46 g/kg, and 0-0.05 g/kg, respectively, for traditional biomass cookstoves. Combining emission performance and solid fuel consumption, the estimated annual PM2.5, CO, NOx, and SO2 emission amounts were 26.18 Gg, 394.07 Gg, 14.56 Gg, and 1.53 Gg, respectively. The results present useful information regarding the emission inventory of common solid fuels in rural Beijing on a city-scale. This study provides an example for future intervention projects and environment evaluation in the rural areas of other cities.

5.
Environ Res ; 184: 109301, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120124

RESUMO

Forced-draft biomass stoves improve the pollutant emission performance of biomass combustion. The parameters of supply airflow and its distribution between primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) have a significant effect on the performance of this stove type. In this study, we designed an air supply control system to accurately quantify the airflow rates, and monitored the dynamic emissions of focused pollutant species including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM2.5), and the fuel burning rate. The tested stove had a combustion structure typical of many popular stoves, and wood pellets were the burning fuel. Three total airflow rates (92 L/min, 184 L/min, and 276 L/min) were selected, and six distributions between PA and SA (PA:SA) for each airflow rate were tested, which included 10:0 (full PA), 8:2, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, and 2:8. The results showed that the test duration, burning rate, and pollutant (CO, NOx, and PM2.5) emission performances of different airflows or distributions varied. Overall, when the PA and SA distribution mode was determined, the total airflow rate of 184 L/min was the optimal supply airflow rate. Under the same total airflow rate, the burning and emission performances were better when the primary and secondary airflows were similar, namely from 4:6 to 6:4. This study provided core information about stove air supply and distribution, which is essential to quantitatively determine the stove air supply mode to significantly improve stove performances.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 136, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is still unclear. The objective of the current study was to elucidate the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy in hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, pT1b-c/N0-1/M0 ILC. METHODS: Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database, we identified original 12,334 HR-positive, HER2-negative, pT1b-c/N0-1/M0 ILC patients, who were then divided into adjuvant chemotherapy group and control group. End-points were overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM). Aiming to minimize the selection bias of baseline characteristics, Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method was used. RESULTS: In a total of 12,334 patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative, pT1b-c/N0-1/M0 ILC, 1785 patients (14.5%) were allocated into adjuvant chemotherapy group and 10,549 (85.5%) into control group. Used PSM, the 1785 patients in adjuvant chemotherapy group matched to the 1785 patients in control group. By Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, we observed no beneficial effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on OS in both original samples (P = 0.639) and matched samples (P = 0.962), however, ineffective or even contrary results of adjuvant chemotherapy on BCSM both in original samples (P = 0.001) and in matched samples (P = 0.002). In both original and matched multivariate Cox models, we observed ineffectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy on OS (hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.62-1.09]; P = 0.172 and HR = 0.90, 95%CI [0.65-1.26]; P = 0.553, respectively), unexpectedly promoting effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on BCSM (HR = 2.33, 95%CI [1.47-3.67]; P = 0.001 and HR = 2.41, 95%CI [1.32-4.39]; P = 0.004, respectively). Standard surgery was beneficial to the survival of patients. Lymph node metastasis was detrimental to survival and radiotherapy brought survival benefit in original samples, but two issues had unobvious effect in matched samples. CONCLUSION: In this study, adjuvant chemotherapy did not improve survival for patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative pT1b-c/N0-1/M0 ILC.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 718: 137322, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092515

RESUMO

It is essential to fully understand the physicochemical properties and sources of atmospheric chromophores to evaluate their impacts on environmental quality and global climate. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy is an important method for directly characterizing the occurrences, origins, and chemical behaviors of atmospheric chromophores. However, there is still a lack of adequate information on the sources and chemical structures of EEM-defined chromophores. This situation limits the extensive application of the EEM method in the study of atmospheric chromophores. Under these adverse conditions, this work uses the analysis of EEM data by the parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model and a comprehensive comparison of the types and abundances of different chromophores in different aerosol samples (combustion source samples, secondary organic aerosols, and ambient aerosols) to demonstrate that the EEM method can distinguish among different chromophore types and aerosol sources. Indeed, approximately half of all fluorescent substances can be attributed to specific chemicals and sources. These findings provide an important basis for the study of the sources and chemical processes of atmospheric chromophores by the EEM approach.

8.
Indoor Air ; 30(3): 521-533, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943353

RESUMO

Monitoring improved cookstove adoption and usage in developing countries can help anticipate potential health and environmental benefits that may result from household energy interventions. This study explores stove-usage monitor (SUM)-derived usage data from field studies in China (52 stoves, 1422 monitoring days), Honduras (270 stoves, 630 monitoring days), India (19 stoves, 565 monitoring days), and Uganda (38 stoves, 1007 monitoring days). Traditional stove usage was found to be generally similar among four seemingly disparate countries in terms of cooking habits, with average usage of between 171 and 257 minutes per day for the most-used stoves. In Honduras, where survey-based usage data were also collected, there was only modest agreement between sensor data and self-reported user data. For Indian homes, we combined stove-usage data with a single-zone Monte Carlo box model to estimate kitchen-level PM2.5 and CO concentrations under various scenarios of cleaner cookstove adoption. We defined clean cookstove performance based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) voluntary guidelines. Model results showed that even with 75% displacement of traditional stoves with the cleanest available stove (ISO tier-5), World Health Organization 24 hours PM2.5 standards were exceeded in 96.4% of model runs, underscoring the importance of full displacement.

9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8310-8322, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900775

RESUMO

As a major participant of the construction industry, small contractors have been increasingly involved in green building construction projects in recent years. However, existing literature indicates that little research has been done to investigate the critical success factors for small contractors to conduct green building construction projects. As a result, this study aims to fill up the gap by identifying the most critical success factors of small contractors and comparing them against large contractors. To achieve these goals, a comprehensive literature review and pilot interviews with experienced industry experts were conducted first, followed by a questionnaire survey administered to 30 small contractors from the construction industry of Singapore. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results reported that "laborers with experience in conducting green building construction projects," "incentives/subsidies provided by government," "support of senior management," "return on investment," "commit to changing behavior," "effective communication between stakeholders on goals for sustainable construction," "early contractor involvement," "engaging experts with sound knowledge of green building construction," "cost control," and "competency of project manager" were the top ten critical success factors for small contractors to conduct green building construction projects. Additionally, the comparison results between small and large contractors revealed that eight factors were statistically different assessed by industry practitioners. These factors are "procurement process," "cost control," "commit to changing behavior," "educating clients on benefits in sustainable construction," "laborers with experience in conducting green building construction projects," "hefty levy and tax on unsustainable construction practices," and "public demand for green building construction" and "industrial culture." This study enriches the knowledge by exploring the critical success factors for small contractors to conduct green building construction projects. Furthermore, this study is informative to industry practitioners as well, especially to those small contractors who plan to conduct green building construction projects in the future.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Materiais de Construção/análise , Humanos , Singapura , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
10.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 26(1): 325-349, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868376

RESUMO

Construction process stages are argued to be vulnerable to the prevalence of corrupt practices. However, the validity of this argument has not been empirically explored in the extant literature of construction management. Therefore, this study examines the stages of the construction process susceptibility to corruption and its most prominent forms of corrupt activities (within the respective stages). A total of forty-four project-related professionals were involved in an expert survey to assess such susceptibilities and the criticality of the identified corrupt activities at each stage. A comparative study of expert views from developing regions against experts from developed regions is conducted. Expert scoring results revealed that three stages are most susceptible, namely: project execution, pre-qualification and tender stages. Such results were confirmed by application of the Mann-Whitney U test statistics tool, showing wide disparities in seven out of eleven identical stages. This study is intended to incite polemic discussions and greater empirical, evidence-based research from scholars in both developed and developing countries. This study adds to the extant literature corruption-related works on the construction process through deeper understanding of the dynamic nature of corrupt practices involved in the stages of the construction process in developing countries. Practically, it intends to offer a veritable plethora of information on the critical stages of the construction process for industry practitioners, policymakers and anti-corruption bodies to careen their attention towards the fight against corruption.

11.
Indoor Air ; 30(2): 294-305, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880849

RESUMO

Biomass combustion for cooking and heating releases particulate matter (PM2.5 ) that contributes to household air pollution. Fuel and stove types affect the chemical composition of household PM, as does infiltration of outdoor PM. Characterization of these impacts can inform future exposure assessments and epidemiologic studies, but is currently limited. In this study, we measured chemical components of PM2.5 (water-soluble organic matter [WSOM], ions, black carbon, elements, organic tracers) in rural Chinese households using traditional biomass stoves, semi-gasifier stoves with pelletized biomass, and/or non-biomass stoves. We distinguished households using one stove type (traditional, semi-gasifier, or LPG/electric) from those using multiple stoves/fuels. WSOM concentrations were higher in households using only semi-gasifier or traditional stoves (31%-33%) than in those with exclusive LPG/electric stove (13%) or mixed stove use (12%-22%). Inorganic ions comprised 14% of PM in exclusive LPG/electric households, compared to 1%-5% of PM in households using biomass. Total PAH content was much higher in households that used traditional stoves (0.8-2.8 mg/g PM) compared to those that did not (0.1-0.3 mg/g PM). Source apportionment revealed that biomass burning comprised 27%-84% of PM2.5 in households using biomass. In all samples, identified outdoor sources (vehicles, dust, coal combustion, secondary aerosol) contributed 10%-20% of household PM2.5 .


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Calefação , Utensílios Domésticos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , População Rural , Fuligem
12.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) is a new mode of surfactant administration without intubation to spontaneously breathing preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility, efficacy and safety of using MIST to give surfactant for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with RDS. METHODS: In total, 53 VLBW infants who were born before 32 gestational weeks with spontaneous breathing, respiratory distress, and requiring surfactant therapy were divided into two groups. The infants in group A (n = 29) were intubated and received surfactant replacement therapy via endotracheal tube, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV). The infants in group B (n = 24) received tracheal instillation of surfactant via a semirigid vascular catheter during spontaneous breathing under nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). After surfactant instillation, the infants in group B were still placed on nCPAP. RESULTS: Our data showed that infants in group B (MIST group) had significantly lower rate (P < 0.05) of composite outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), duration of intermittent positive airway pressure ventilation (IPPV) or MV, drug treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and surgical ligation of PDA than group A. CONCLUSION: MIST is feasible, safe and it may reduce the composite outcome of death or BPD for VLBW infants with RDS requiring surfactant replacement therapy.

13.
J Cancer ; 10(25): 6439-6456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772677

RESUMO

Ethnopharmacology relevance: Jiedu Sangen Decoction (JSD), an empirical prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been reported to inhibit invasion and metastasis of colon cancer in our previous study. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of JSD-triggered inhibition of invasion and metastasis in colon cancer. Methods: In vitro, AKT1 knockdown (si-AKT1) or overexpression (oe-AKT1) cells were successfully constructed both in SW480 and SW620 cell lines. Si-AKT1 and oe-AKT1 cells were then treated with or without JSD. Cell invasion, metastasis potential and expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT)-related and AKT1/GSK-3ß proteins were then observed by wound healing, transwell, and western blot assays. In vivo, liver metastasis model mice were developed by inoculating SW480 cells. After JSD diet intervention, living fluorescence imaging and weight measurements were carried out to investigate JSD induced inhibition effects on liver metastasis of colon cancer. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assays were performed to observe tissue features and detect protein expression. Results: Invasion and metastasis potential, as well as EMT of colon cancer, can be markedly inhibited by JSD treatment or AKT1 knockdown, while enhanced by AKT1 overexpression. JSD-induced inhibition effects were significantly weakened when AKT1 was knocked down, while clearly enhanced when AKT1 was overexpressed. Additionally, JSD could lead to an increase in expression of E-cadherin, and a decrease in expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, p-AKT1, AKT1, p- GSK-3ß, Snail, Slug, and Twist in colon cancer cells. Conclusion: JSD reverses EMT and inhibits invasion and metastasis of colon cancer through the AKT/GSK-3ß signaling pathway.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113338, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610506

RESUMO

Biomass is a dominant solid fuel type worldwide. Traditional biomass combustion leads to severe indoor and ambient environmental problems. Biomass pellet utilization in forced-draft gasifier stoves is regarded as an improved approach to these problems. Previous studies on forced-draft biomass stoves mainly considered average emission amounts and lacked details of the combustion properties and dynamic correlations between emissions and combustion. This study used a dynamic measurement system to test a typical forced-draft gasifier stove consuming wood pellets and maize straw pellets. Real-time fuel burning rate, that partly reflects the combustion performance, and CO, NOx and PM2.5 emission rates, over a whole combustion course, were monitored. In all tests, the burning rate rose to a high and stable level, and then sharply subsided. CO, NOx and PM2.5 emission rates varied across the combustion course. CO (NOx) emissions have a negative (positive) logarithmic linear relationship with burning rate, while no consistent relationship was observed for PM2.5 emission rate. The identified relationships between burning rate and pollutant emission rates suggest the possibility of estimating emission performance of forced-draft biomass pellet stoves based on combustion indicators, or vice versa.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biomassa , Calefação/instrumentação , Utensílios Domésticos , Madeira/química
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17471, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577778

RESUMO

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) spreads rapidly and has been recognized as a public health problem in recent years in China. Unfortunately, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral drug currently for EV71 infection. In this study, we aim to identify biomarker which are associated with for severity of EV71 infection cases using high-throughput RNA sequencing approach.RNA sequencing of samples from severe HFMD (S) patients group (n = 10) and control HFMD (C) patients group (n = 10) were performed and the results were verified by qPCR. mRNA with the highest expression level was selected to be validated in an independent cohort comprising of 45 severe EV71 infected patients and 45 control by qPCR assay.Seventeen significant differentially expressed genes were identified. Scavenger receptor class A, member 3 (SCARA3) was one of the significantly upregulated genes with the highest expression level and was selected for validation. The mean relative expression levels in severe HFMD and control HFMD patients were 10.1-fold and 5.0-fold, respectively, P value <.001.We found that SCARA3 is associated with severity of HFMD, and it may be a potential prognostic marker to predict the HFMD progression in EV71 infected patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/diagnóstico , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(8): 081601, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491207

RESUMO

We investigate the variation of holographic complexity for two nearby target states. Based on Nielsen's geometric approach, we find the variation only depends on the end point of the optimal trajectory, a result which we designate the first law of complexity. As an example, we examine the complexity=action conjecture when the anti-de Sitter vacuum is perturbed by a scalar field excitation, which corresponds to a coherent state. Remarkably, the gravitational contributions completely cancel and the final variation reduces to a boundary term coming entirely from the scalar field action. Hence, the null boundary of Wheeler-DeWitt patch appears to act like the "end of the quantum circuit".

17.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 6131548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379979

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most serious cancers worldwide, and chemotherapy resistance frequently drives cancer progression. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis given its resistance to chemotherapy. In our previous study, we found a remarkable abnormal methylation modification of the PCDHGB7 gene in breast cancer. However, the roles of PCDHGB7 in the progression and treatment of breast cancer are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of PCDHGB7 on the sensitivity of TNBC cells to carboplatin and investigated the underlying mechanism. By knocking down and overexpressing PCDHGB7 in HS578T and BT549 cells, we confirmed that PCDHGB7 increases TNBC cell chemosensitivity to carboplatin. Mechanistically, we found that PCDHGB7 negatively regulates the expression of HSPA9, uplifting its inhibition on P53 translocation and caspase-3 activation. Thus, we demonstrated that PCDHGB7 increases chemosensitivity of TNBC cells to carboplatin by inhibiting HSPA9 via inducing apoptosis. PCDHGB7 and HSPA9 represent potential therapeutic targets for chemosensitivity in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Caderinas/metabolismo , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16778, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been widely recommended as a first-line antiviral agent to treat chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Qingzhong and Viread, formulations of TDF commercialized by Jiangsu Chia-tai Tianqing Pharmaceutical Co Ltd and GlaxoSmithKline, respectively, have both been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration, China. This study analyzed the efficacy and safety of these 2 TDF agents in Chinese patients with CHB. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority phase 3 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02287857), 330 Chinese patients with CHB [hepatitis B envelope antigen-positive (HBeAg) (+): 232] were randomly assigned to receive Qingzhong (group A: 161 patients) or Viread (group B: 169 patients) 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks. Subsequently, all patients were administered Qingzhong 300 mg once daily from week 49 to week 240. The primary end point was the degree of decline of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels at week 48 and the secondary endpoints were viral suppression, normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBeAg loss or seroconversion, and virological breakthrough. RESULTS: Among patients with CHB who were HBeAg (+), the mean HBV DNA titer decreased similarly between the groups at week 48. The percentages of patients who achieved undetectable HBV DNA were similar between the groups (85.11% and 82.35% in groups A and B, respectively) and similar losses of HBeAg and HBeAg seroconversion rates were achieved. Moreover, for patients with CHB who were HBeAg (-), reductions in HBV DNA were similar. Among all patients with CHB, the rates of normalization of ALT and the loss of HBsAg were similar. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between the groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the 48-week administration of Qingzhong showed noninferior efficacy and safety profiles compared to Viread in Chinese patients with CHB.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(15): 9306-9316, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294968

RESUMO

We evaluated whether an energy package comprising a low-polluting semigasifier cookstove with chimney, water heater, and pelletized biomass fuel would improve air pollution in China. We measured the stove use, 48-h air pollution exposures (PM2.5, black carbon), and kitchen concentrations (PM2.5, black carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides) for 205 women, along with ambient PM2.5. Over half (n = 125) were offered the energy package after baseline assessment, forming "treated" and "untreated" groups, and we repeated the measurements up to 3 occasions over 18-months. Kitchen carbon monoxide did not change, and nitrogen oxides increased in summer but decreased in winter for both groups. Summer geometric mean exposures and kitchen concentrations of PM2.5 and black carbon decreased by 24-67% in women who received the energy package, but greater reductions (48-70%) were observed in untreated homes, likely due to increased use of gas stoves. After adjusting for differences in outdoor PM2.5, receiving the energy package was associated with decreased winter exposures to PM2.5 (-46%; 95% CI: -70, -2) and black carbon (-55%; -74, -25) and the summer increases were smaller (PM2.5: 8%; -22, 51 and black carbon: 37%; -12, 113). However, PM2.5 exposures remained 1.5-3 times higher than those of health-based international air pollution targets.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , China , Culinária , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado
20.
Chemosphere ; 233: 852-861, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340411

RESUMO

A common strategy to improve indoor air quality in households burning coal and biomass is the introduction of advanced combustion solid fuel stoves, which can use existing fuels yet emit fewer pollutants. Chemical composition of PM is affected by numerous combustion parameters, but is often not considered in energy transitions, despite varying toxicity among chemical components. We analyzed PM2.5 emissions from combustion of solid fuels (coal, wood, and straw; whole and pelletized) in a variety of stoves (cookstoves and heating stoves; traditional and semi-gasifier, including forced versus natural draft and fixed versus reciprocating grate). To assess the effects of fuel and stove type on PM2.5 composition, we measured elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC, water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g. SO42-, Cl-, K+), and organic molecular markers. PM2.5 emissions from traditional stoves were mostly carbonaceous: 76-90% organic matter (OM), 5-6% EC, and less than 2% inorganic ions. In contrast, semi-gasifier stoves emitted more inorganic PM2.5: on average, ions comprised 65%, 9% was OM, and 4% was EC. Within the semi-gasifier cookstoves, forced-draft cookstove emissions had lower OM (1-3%) and higher ion concentrations (84-88%) than the natural-draft cookstove (5-14% OM, 30-83% ions). Levoglucosan was detected in PM2.5 from combustion of wood in the traditional cookstove and biomass pellets in the natural-draft semi-gasifier cookstove, but not from wood pellets in the forced-draft semi-gasifier cookstove. Across a range of different fuels and stoves, stove type influenced emitted PM composition more than fuel type, underscoring the impact of combustion conditions on PM chemical composition.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Carbono/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Material Particulado/análise , Biomassa , Culinária , Glucose/análise , Utensílios Domésticos , Produtos Domésticos , Madeira/química
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