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1.
Oncol Lett ; 18(6): 6126-6142, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788087

RESUMO

The prognostic value and molecular mechanism of microRNA-100-5p (miR-100-5p) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. To explore the prognostic value and the mechanism of miR-100-5p in HCC, the present study analyzed the results of 18 previous studies and bioinformatic datasets. The clinical significance of miR-100-5p and its targets in HCC were investigated using The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus, as well as relevant literature. In total, 12 online tools were used to predict the target genes of miR-100-5p. Bioinformatics analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were performed, and genomic alterations of the hub genes were evaluated. A meta-analysis with 1,258 samples revealed that miR-100-5p was significantly downregulated in HCC [standard mean difference (SMD), -0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.14 to -0.74; I2, 35.2%]. Lower miR-100-5p expression was associated with poorer clinical characteristics and a poorer prognosis for patients with HCC. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis revealed that the 'regulation of transcription', 'chromatin remodeling complex', 'transcription regulator activity', 'pathways in cancer' and 'heparan sulfate biosynthesis' were the most enriched terms. Furthermore, expression of histone deacetylase (HDAC)2, HDAC3, SHC-transforming protein 1 (SHC1), Ras-related protein Rac1 (RAC1) and E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL (CBL) was negatively correlated with miR-100-5p expression. Among these, upregulated HDAC2 [hazard ratio (HR), 1.910; 95% CI, 1.309-2.787; P=0.0007], HDAC3 (HR, 1.474; 95% CI, 1.012-2.146; P=0.0435), SHC1 (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.043-2.215; P=0.0281) and RAC1 (HR, 1.817; 95% CI, 1.248-2.645; P=0.0022) were associated with shorter survival. Alterations in HDAC2, SHC1, RAC1 and IGF1R were linked with a poorer outcome for HCC, and alternative splicing of SHC and RAC1 were significantly decreased and increased in HCC, respectively. In summary, the downregulation of miR-100-5p may be involved in the progression and prognosis of HCC. The upregulation of HDAC2, HDAC3, SHC1 and RAC1 may indicate a poorer survival rate for patients with HCC. Thus, miR-100-5p and these 4 potential target genes may provide novel therapeutic targets and prognostic predictors for patients with HCC.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5074, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699987

RESUMO

First-row transition metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) during the past years, however, such catalysts typically operate at overpotentials (η) significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Here, we report an iron/nickel terephthalate coordination polymer on nickel form (NiFeCP/NF) as catalyst for OER, in which both coordinated and uncoordinated carboxylates were maintained after electrolysis. NiFeCP/NF exhibits outstanding electro-catalytic OER activity with a low overpotential of 188 mV at 10 mA cm-2 in 1.0 KOH, with a small Tafel slope and excellent stability. The pH-independent OER activity of NiFeCP/NF on the reversible hydrogen electrode scale suggests that a concerted proton-coupled electron transfer (c-PET) process is the rate-determining step (RDS) during water oxidation. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects, proton inventory studies and atom-proton-transfer measurements indicate that the uncoordinated carboxylates are serving as the proton transfer relays, with a similar function as amino acid residues in photosystem II (PSII), accelerating the proton-transfer rate.

3.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e1901301, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763779

RESUMO

Due to their excellent size, designability, and outstanding targeted antibacterial effects, nanoparticles have become a potential option for controlling oral biofilm-related infections. However, the formation of an oral biofilm is a dynamic process, and factors affecting the performance of antibiofilm treatments are complex. As such, when examining the existing literature on the antibiofilm effects of nanoparticles, attention should be paid to the specific mechanisms of action at different stages of oral biofilm formation, as well as relevant influencing factors, in order to achieve an objective and comprehensive evaluation. This review is intended to detail the antibacterial mechanisms of nanoparticles during the four stages of the formation of oral biofilms: 1) acquired film formation; 2) bacterial adhesion; 3) early biofilm development; and 4) biofilm maturation. In addition, factors influencing the antibiofilm properties of nanoparticles are summarized from the aspects of nanoparticles themselves, biofilm models, and host factors. The limitations of current research and possible trends for future research are also discussed. In summary, nanoparticles are a promising antioral biofilm strategy. It is hoped that this review can serve as a reference and inspire ideas for further research on the application of nanoparticles for effectively targeting and treating oral biofilms.

4.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771241

RESUMO

Three previously undescribed compounds, two prenyleudesmanes (1 and 2), and one hexanorlanostane (3), were isolated from the roots of Lonicera macranthoides. Their structures were established based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectral (HR-ESI-MS) data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were determined by X-ray diffraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the absolute configuration of a prenyleudesmane with a trans-decalin system and a hexanorlanostane have been unambiguously confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu Kα radiation. Thecompounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity on the cancer cell lines (HepG2 and HeLa). The compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against two human cancer cell lines.

5.
Arch Med Res ; 50(6): 368-376, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate whether the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms were associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: Using a hospital-based case-control study including 100 SSc patients and 100 healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR region were genotyped by the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (i MLDR) method. Haplotypes were also constructed after linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis. RESULTS: Eight SNPs (rs731236 (TaqI), rs2228570 (FokI), rs7975232 (ApaI), rs1544410 (BsmI), rs11574010 (Cdx2), rs739837 (BglI), rs757343 (Tru9I) and rs11168267) were included. There were significant differences between SSc patients and healthy individuals in ApaI and BglI genotype (both adjusted p = 0.008). Through the genotyping, significantly association of SSc were found for: dominant model of ApaI and BglI (both OR (95% CI) = 1.80 (1.03,3.16), p = 0.040). Furthermore, the elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) had a higher percentage of BglI GT genotype frequency (p = 0.034) and dominant model of ApaI (p = 0.016) in SSc. There was high linkage disequilibrium was detected in BglI and ApaI polymorphisms (r2 = 1.0, D' = 1.0), Tru9I and rs11168267 (r2 = 0.926, D' = 0.969), respectively. No significant difference were found in these four haplotypes (all p >0.05). The correlation between VD levels and VDR gene polymorphisms was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary study indicates the ApaI and BglI genotype may possibly have a role in the pathogenesis of SSc patients. Dominant model of ApaI and BglI GT genotype frequency may be associated with the increased risk of ESR.

6.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 12(10): 1539-1547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637188

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the effect of Obtusifolin on retinal pigment epithelial cell growth under hypoxia. METHODS: In vitro chemical hypoxia model of ARPE-19 cells was established using cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Cell viability was tested by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied to detect proteins and mRNAs respectively. Flow cytometry was used to examine the cell cycle. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was tested by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Under the chemical hypoxia model established by CoCl2, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mRNA and protein levels was up-regulated. Cell viability was increased and the proportion of S phase was higher. Obtusifolin could reduce cell viability under hypoxic conditions and arrest cells in G1 phase. Obtusifolin reduced the expression of Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the hypoxic environment and increased the expression of p53 and p21. The levels of VEGF, VEGFR2 and eNOS proteins and mRNA were significantly increased under hypoxia while Obtusifolin inhibited the increasing. CONCLUSION: Obtusifolin can inhibit cell growth under hypoxic conditions and down-regulate HIF-1/VEGF/eNOS secretions in ARPE-19 cells.

7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(33): 4835-4849, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543677

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is the common pathological basis of all chronic liver diseases, and is the necessary stage for the progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis. As one of pathogenic factors, inflammation plays a predominant role in liver fibrosis via communication and interaction between inflammatory cells, cytokines, and the related signaling pathways. Damaged hepatocytes induce an increase in pro-inflammatory factors, thereby inducing the development of inflammation. In addition, it has been reported that inflammatory response related signaling pathway is the main signal transduction pathway for the development of liver fibrosis. The crosstalk regulatory network leads to hepatic stellate cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine production, which in turn initiate the fibrotic response. Compared with the past, the research on the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis has been greatly developed. However, the liver fibrosis mechanism is complex and many pathways involved need to be further studied. This review mainly focuses on the crosstalk regulatory network among inflammatory cells, cytokines, and the related signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. Moreover, we also summarize the recent studies on the mechanisms underlying liver fibrosis and clinical efforts on the targeted therapies against the fibrotic response.

8.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(10): 1832-1840, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464381

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the associations between female menstrual or reproductive factors and the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc) in China. METHODS: In this hospital-based case-control study, for each subject, data on reproductive and menstrual factors such as number of births, abortions, and age at menarche were obtained by structured questionnaire. Risk estimates, measured by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), were obtained by unconditional logistics regression. Furthermore, meta-analysis was performed and pooled OR with 95% CI for the number of pregnancies and abortions were calculated. RESULTS: There were 166 SSc and 392 female controls seen during the study period. The results showed women with late menarche age (≥17 years) were less likely than those with earlier age at menarche to develop SSc (OR 0.347, 95% CI 0.174-0.693) and compared with women without abortion, women with abortion (1 time) were at reduced risk of developing SSc (P = .036). After adjusting for potential confounders such as occupation and body mass index (BMI), late age at menarche (≥17 years) was associated with a decreased risk of SSc (OR 0.187, 95% CI 0.068-0.513), but abortions were not significantly related to SSc. The meta-analysis revealed there was no association between SSc and abortions or number of pregnancies. No significant publication bias was observed (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Late age at menarche was associated with a reduced risk of SSc but abortion may not be an independent risk factor for SSc. Further investigations are required to verify our findings.

9.
Lab Chip ; 19(18): 3116-3122, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429847

RESUMO

The integration of one more gain media in droplet microlasers with morphology-dependent modes, which can be employed in optofluidic systems as multi-wavelength lasing sources, is highly attractive and demands new cavity design and fabrication approaches. Here, cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) droplets with an integrative triple-emulsion cavity are fabricated via glass-capillary-based microfluidic technologies and dual-gain lasing with variable modes, flexibly configured by the combination and incorporation of gain dyes and CLCs into both the core and shell. The distributed feedback (DFB) mode, formed by the feedback from the self-assembled helix periodic structure of CLCs, the whispering gallery (WG) mode, and the hybrid, is selectively excited by controlling the spatial coupling between the pump beam and the droplet with gain. With the merits of dual-gain and controllable lasing, a prototype dual-wavelength-ratiometric thermometer with self-calibration capability is expected to be developed. Furthermore, the anisotropic CLC core is substituted with an isotropic fluid and the gain from the CLC shell is additionally removed, DFB lasings in both shell and core are absent, and only Bragg-shell reflection-based hybrid modes are excited for lasing. The CLC droplet microlasers with an integrative cavity are expected to provide a new route to future lab-on-chip (LOC) applications.

10.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 14(6): 066007, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430741

RESUMO

Inspired by the physiological structure of the hand capable of realizing the continuous change in finger stiffness when grasping objects of different masses, a self-locking soft continuum robot with a large variable-stiffness range based on particle jamming and fibre jamming is proposed in this paper to meet the requirements of it in practical application. In this paper, a variable stiffness range is derived due to the good fluidity and rigidity of the spherical particles and the low elasticity and high toughness of the fibres. Then, an analysis model is established to deduce its self-locking condition, and the deflection angle of self-locking under the influence of external force is about 0.17 rad. The maximum stiffness of the experimental prototype can reach 1223.58 N m-1 due to the limitation of the experimental materials, despite the fact that the theoretical stiffness can be increased infinitely after self-locking. To explain the adaptability of the robot, the adaptive conditions of the soft continuum robot with variable stiffness are deduced. A new evaluation index, the adaptive intensity of the soft continuum robot, is introduced and the adaptability experiments are carried out. In adaptability experiments, the maximum bending angle of the continuum robot reaches 108°. Finally, the adaptability of the soft continuum robot to different geometries is discussed.

11.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 66(4): 29-39, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taiwan has the highest incidence and prevalence of dialysis in the world. The literature suggests that severity of depression at the beginning of dialysis treatment is an independent predictor of survival. Depression significantly worsens the condition of chronic renal disease patients, with the adverse consequences of depression including increased mortality and hospitalization rates as well as poor compliance and quality of life. Given the importance of this problem, providing safe and effective information and good nursing care to dialysis patients is urgently needed. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of implementing health promotion education groups on self-perceived depression, hope, and quality of life in dialysis patients. METHODS: Dialysis patients who met the study criteria and had provided consent to participate in the health promotion education group were randomly assigned to either the treatment group (20 persons) or the control group (20 persons). In the control group, routine dialysis treatment and nursing care were maintained. In addition to receiving routine dialysis treatment and nursing care, the experimental group participated in health promotion education group activities for 90 minutes, twice a week for a total of 8 sessions. The quantitative data from both groups and the qualitative data analysis of the experimental group were used to assess the effects of the intervention. RESULTS: The results showed that the intervention had significantly improved self-perceived depression, hope, and quality of life in the experimental group. The participants indicated that the health promotion education group had helped them learn to adapt to their physical conditions, change their mindset, learn to regard happiness as the purpose of life, and maintain hope and increase mutual support in the face of difficulties. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study demonstrated that the cross-disciplinary integrated care provided through health promotion education groups is able to significantly improve depression, hope, and quality of life in dialysis patients. Thus, health promotion education groups arranged by the case management nurses for dialysis patients have the potential to promote mental health and quality of life in these patients. Therefore, continuing education is recommended to strengthen the awareness and knowledge of dialysis case management nurses with regard to applying integrated cross-disciplinary care in health promotion education groups and to promoting the implementation of these groups in the holistic care of dialysis patients.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Processos Grupais , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Esperança , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Humanos , Diálise Renal/enfermagem , Taiwan
12.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273999

RESUMO

A rare new quinolone alkaloid containing three degrees of unsaturation in the side chain, named as 1-methyl-2-[(6Z,9Z,12Z)-6,9,12-pentadecatriene]-4(1H)-quinolone (1), together with three known quinolone alkaloids 1-methyl-2-[(6Z,9Z)-6,9-pentadecadienyl]-4(1H)-quinolone (2), 1-methyl-2-[(4Z,7Z)-4,7-tridecadienyl]-4(1H)-quinolone (3), 1-methyl-2-[(Z)-8-tridecenyl]-4(1H)-quinolone (4), were isolated from the fruits of Tetradium ruticarpum (A.Juss.) T.G.Hartley. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human tumor cell lines, including Lovo, MDA-MB-231, HeLa cells, by MTT method in 96-well microplates, and compounds 1 exhibited potent activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 7.95 µM.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2777-2784, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359690

RESUMO

According to the data of Pinellia ternate transcriptome,two calmodulin genes were cloned and named as Pt Ca M1 and PtCa M2 respectively. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that Pt Ca Ms genes contained a 450 bp open reading frame,encoding149 amino acids.The identity of the coding sequences was 80%,and the identity of amino acids sequence was 91%. Pt Ca Ms genes contained EF-hand structure domain,belonging to the Ca M families. The Real-time PCR analysed the expression patterns of Pt Ca Ms in different tissues and different treatments. RESULTS:: showed that Pt Ca M1 and Pt Ca M2 gene were the highest expression level in tuber. Under Ca Cl2 treatment,the expressions of Pt Ca Ms were significantly higher than the control. Under EGTA,La Cl3 and TFP treatments,the expression level of Pt Ca Ms decreased gradually. In this study,the Pt Ca Ms gene were successfully cloned from P. ternate,which laid a foundation for the functional characteristic of Pt Ca Ms gene and the synthesis of alkaloids from P. ternata for further study.


Assuntos
Calmodulina/genética , Pinellia/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Tubérculos/genética
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109110, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252263

RESUMO

Resveratrol has been suggested to mediate liver fibrosis. The switch from classically M(LPS) to alternatively activated M(IL-4) macrophages shows to protect organs from fibrosis. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. The study aimed to investigate whether resveratrol inhibited liver fibrosis by delivering IL-10 to promote the macrophage polarization in vitro and in vivo. We observed that resveratrol improved CCL4-induced liver fibrosis, upregulated Kupffer cells, increased the expression of IL-10 and M(IL-4) marks including Mrc1, Mrc2, CD163 and Arg1, whereas it slightly suppressed the level of M(LPS) including iNOS, TNF-α and MCP1. In vitro, resveratrol promoted the M(LPS) switch to M(IL-4) macrophage and elevated the expression of CD206 and iNOS as well. Meanwhile, IL-10 increased in both M(IL-4) and M(LPS). We concluded that resveratrol relieved liver fibrosis by producing more IL-10 to promote the polarization of M(LPS) to M(IL-4)-like macrophages.

15.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(11): 1337-1343, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorectal melanoma (AM) is an extremely rare malignant tumor originating from anorectal melanocytes with a poor prognosis. AM has been reported to have a much lower incidence than cutaneous or choroid melanoma, accounting for 0.4%-1.6% of all melanomas. CASE SUMMARY: We report a 76-year-old female patient diagnosed with anorectal malignant melanoma by colonoscopy and biopsy. Intraoperative examination revealed two distinct anorectal tumors, one melanotic and another amelanotic, as well as two pigmented mucosal zones at the dentate line level. Abdominal perineal resection was performed. A pathological report confirmed all four lesions to be melanomas. Postoperatively, we followed an immunotherapy protocol targeting PD-1 (nivolumab). The patient had 24 mo of disease-free follow-up upon completion of nivolumab treatment. CONCLUSION: This is the first reported case presenting coexistence of pigmented and unpigmented AMs in the same patient.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 379: 120750, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238220

RESUMO

Catalytic incineration is one of the cost-effective technologies to deal with odor cooking oil fumes (COFs). Hydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNT) supported Pt catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The 2.0 wt.%Pt/CNT catalyst gave the highest activity with the lowest light-off temperature near 200 °C. The catalyst was further coated on the carbonized honeycomb which offered low-pressure drop and high surface area per unit volume. Toward feasibility application, hydrophobic honeycomb supported Pt/CNT catalyst achieved an excellent catalytic performance with the conversion of 88.0-91.3 % in gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) ranging from 5,700 to 17,200 h-1 at 300 °C. Importantly, the honeycomb supported Pt/CNT catalyst could remove COFs substantially under simulated cooking conditions. Only a slight amount of heptane remained after catalytic incineration. In addition, the honeycomb support used much less Pt/CNT catalyst by maintaining the same performance, compared with powder catalyst. Our research outcome provides an excellent opportunity to apply the honeycomb supported Pt/CNT catalyst for moderate-temperature catalytic incineration of odor exhaust from kitchen hood.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 294(25): 10006-10017, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101655

RESUMO

Nucleus accumbens-associated protein-1 (NAC1) is a transcriptional repressor encoded by the NACC1 gene, which is amplified and overexpressed in various human cancers and plays critical roles in tumor development, progression, and drug resistance. NAC1 has therefore been explored as a potential therapeutic target for managing malignant tumors. However, effective approaches for effective targeting of this nuclear protein remain elusive. In this study, we identified a core unit consisting of Met7 and Leu90 in NAC1's N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-130), which is critical for its homodimerization and stability. Furthermore, using a combination of computational analysis of the NAC1 dimerization interface and high-throughput screening (HTS) for small molecules that inhibit NAC1 homodimerization, we identified a compound (NIC3) that selectively binds to the conserved Leu-90 of NAC1 and prevents its homodimerization, leading to proteasomal NAC1 degradation. Moreover, we demonstrate that NIC3-mediated down-regulation of NAC1 protein sensitizes drug-resistant tumor cells to conventional chemotherapy and enhances the antimetastatic effect of the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab both in vitro and in vivo These results suggest that small-molecule inhibitors of NAC1 homodimerization may effectively sensitize cancer cells to some anticancer agents and that NAC1 homodimerization could be further explored as a potential therapeutic target in the development of antineoplastic agents.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(21): 19132-19140, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062963

RESUMO

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising but immensely challenging technology for sustainable production of hydrogen. To this end, highly active, durable, and inexpensive photocathodes that operate under conditions compatible with those for photoanodes are desired. Herein, Si-based composite photocathodes were constructed by coating the front surface of Si with an N-doped carbon nanolayer and then a TiO2 protective layer, followed by decorating the electrode surface with Ni and Ni-Mo catalysts. The carbon nanolayer, denoted as CPDA, was formed directly on the Si surface by in situ self-polymerization of dopamine, followed by carbonization of the polydopamine (PDA) coating. The performance of the as-fabricated Si photocathodes with and without the CPDA layer was comparatively studied for PEC hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolytes to evaluate the effect of the sandwich CPDA layer in between the Si substrate and the TiO2 layer on the photoelectrocatalytic behaviors of Si-based electrodes. The photocathodes containing the CPDA layer demonstrated lower electron transfer resistance, higher built-in photovoltage, and larger band bending relative to the analogous electrodes without the CPDA layer. Accordingly, the short-circuit photocurrents of the Ni and Ni-Mo-decorated photocathodes with the CPDA layer were enhanced by a factor of 2.8-3.3, and their open-circuit photovoltages were enlarged by 0.14-0.22 V, compared to those of the corresponding electrodes without the CPDA layer in 1 M KOH under simulated 1 sun illumination. Moreover, the photocathodes with the CPDA layer also exhibited an improved stability for PEC HER in alkaline solutions, with a faradaic efficiency of 90-97% in the initial hour.

19.
Stat Methods Med Res ; : 962280219850595, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144601

RESUMO

As individuals may respond differently to treatment, estimating subgroup effects is important to understand the characteristics of individuals who may benefit. Factors that define subgroups may be correlated, complicating evaluation of subgroup effects, especially in observational studies requiring control of confounding variables. We address this problem when propensity score methods are used for confounding control. A common practice is to evaluate candidate subgroup identifiers one at a time without adjusting for other candidate identifiers. We show that this practice can be misleading if the treatment effect modification attributed to a candidate identifier is in truth due to the effect of other correlated true effect modifiers. Whereas jointly analyzing multiple identifiers provides estimates of the desired subgroup effects adjusted for the effects of the other identifiers, it requires the propensity scores to adequately reflect the underlying treatment selection processes and balance the covariates within each subgroup of interest. Satisfying the requirement in practice is hard since the number of strata may increase quickly, while the per stratum sample size may decrease dramatically. A practically helpful approach is utilizing the whole cohort for the propensity score estimation with modeling of interaction terms to reflect the potentially different treatment selection processes across strata. We empirically examine the performance of the whole cohort approach by itself and with subjecting the interaction terms to variable selection. Our results using both simulations and real data analysis suggest that the whole cohort approach should explore inclusion of high-order interactions in the propensity score model to ensure adequate covariate balance across strata, and that variable selection is of limited utility.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(5): 1661-1673, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060714

RESUMO

Caspase recruitment domain (CARD) protein-B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-MALT1 paracaspase (MALT1) [CBM] complexes are critical signaling adaptors that facilitate immune and inflammatory responses downstream of both cell surface and intracellular receptors. Germline mutations that alter the function of members of this complex (termed CBM-opathies) cause a broad array of clinical phenotypes, ranging from profound combined immunodeficiency to B-cell lymphocytosis. With an increasing number of patients being described in recent years, the clinical spectrum of diseases associated with CBM-opathies is rapidly expanding and becoming unexpectedly heterogeneous. Here we review major discoveries that have shaped our understanding of CBM complex biology, and we provide an overview of the clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and treatment options for those carrying germline mutations affecting CARD9, CARD11, CARD14, BCL10, and MALT1.

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