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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(4): 875-880, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472488

RESUMO

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is considered a robust prognostic biomarker for predicting patient survival outcomes in many diseases. However, it remains unclear whether it can be used as a biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To correlate NLR with disease progression and survival in sporadic ALS, 1030 patients with ALS between January 2012 and December 2018 were included in this study. These patients were assigned into three groups according to their NLR values: Group 1 (NLR < 2, n = 544 [52.8%]), Group 2 (NLR = 2-3, n = 314 [30.5%]), and Group 3 (NLR > 3, n = 172 [16.7%]). All patients were followed up until April 2020. Patients in Group 3 had a significantly older onset age, a lower score on the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, and rapidly progressing disease conditions. Furthermore, faster disease progression rates were associated with higher NLR values (odds ratio = 1.211, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.090-1.346, P < 0.001) after adjusting for other risk factors. Compared with Groups 1 and 2, the survival time in Group 3 was significantly shorter (log-rank P = 0.002). The NLR value was considered an independent parameter for the prediction of survival in ALS patients after normalizing for all other potential parameters (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.079, 95% CI: 1.016-1.146, P = 0.014). The effects on ALS survival remained significant when adjusted for treatment (HR = 1.074, 95% CI: 1.012-1.141, Ptrend = 0.019) or when considering the stratified NLR value (HR = 1.115, 95% CI: 1.009-1.232, Ptrend = 0.033). Thus, the NLR may help to predict the rate of disease progression and survival in patients with sporadic ALS. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China (approval No. 2015 (236)) on December 23, 2015.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of new causative and risk genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified mostly in patients of European ancestry. In contrast, we know relatively little regarding the genetics of ALS in other ethnic populations. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the genetics of ALS in an unprecedented large cohort of Chinese mainland population and correlate with the clinical features of rare variants carriers. METHODS: A total of 1587 patients, including 64 familial ALS (FALS) and 1523 sporadic ALS (SALS), and 1866 in-house controls were analysed by whole-exome sequencing and/or testing for G4C2 repeats in C9orf72. Forty-one ALS-associated genes were analysed. FINDINGS: 155 patients, including 26 (40.6%) FALS and 129 (8.5%) SALS, carrying rare pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants of ALS causative genes were identified. SOD1 was the most common mutated gene, followed by C9orf72, FUS, NEK1, TARDBP and TBK1. By burden analysis, rare variants in SOD1, FUS and TARDBP contributed to the collective risk for ALS (p<2.5e-6) at the gene level, but at the allelic level TARDBP p.Gly294Val and FUS p.Arg521Cys and p.Arg521His were the most important single variants causing ALS. Clinically, P/LP variants in TARDBP and C9orf72 were associated with poor prognosis, in FUS linked with younger age of onset, and C9orf72 repeats tended to affect cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide essential information for understanding the genetic and clinical features of ALS in China and for optimal design of genetic testing and evaluation of disease prognosis.

4.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(4): 1845-1855, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic studies have indicated that variants in several lysosomal genes are risk factors for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role of lysosomal genes in PD in Asian populations is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze rare variants in lysosomal related genes in Chinese population with early-onset and familial PD. METHODS: In total, 1,136 participants, including 536 and 600 patients with sporadic early-onset PD (SEOPD) and familial PD, respectively, underwent whole-exome sequencing to assess the genetic etiology. Rare variants in PD were investigated in 67 candidate lysosomal related genes (LRGs), including 15 lysosomal function-related genes and 52 lysosomal storage disorder genes. RESULTS: Compared with the autosomal dominant PD (ADPD) or SEOPD cohorts, a much higher proportion of patients with multiple rare damaging variants of LRGs were found in the autosomal recessive PD (ARPD) cohort. At a gene level, rare damaging variants in GBA and MAN2B1 were enriched in PD, but in SCARB2, MCOLN1, LYST, VPS16, and VPS13C were much less in patients. At an allele level, GBA p. Leu483Pro was found to increase the risk of PD. Genotype-phenotype correlation showed no significance in the clinical features among patients carrying a discrepant number of rare variants in LRGs. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests rare variants in LRGs might be more important in the pathogenicity of ARPD cases compared with ADPD or SEOPD. We further confirm rare variants in GBA are involve in PD pathogenecity and other genes associated with PD identified in this study should be supported with more evidence.

5.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 181, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camptocormia is common in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). The current study was aimed at assessing the frequency of camptocormia and its related factors in MSA patients with different disease durations. Also, the impact of camptocormia on disability was evaluated. METHODS: A total of 716 patients were enrolled in the study. They were classified into three groups based on disease duration (≤ 3, 3-5, ≥ 5 years). Specific scales were used to evaluate the motor and non-motor symptoms. Disease severity was assessed using the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS). The binary logistic regression model was used to explore the factors related to camptocormia. To analyze the impact of camptocormia on disability in patients with disease duration less than 5 years, propensity score matching (PSM) and stratified Cox regression analysis were used. RESULTS: In the current study, we found that the frequency of camptocormia was 8.9, 19.7 and 19.2% when the disease duration was ≤3, 3-5, ≥ 5 years, respectively. In the disease duration ≤3 years group, we found that MSA-parkinsonian subtype (MSA-P) (OR = 2.043, P = 0.043), higher total UMSARS score (OR = 1.063, P < 0.001), older age of onset (OR = 1.047, P = 0.042), and lower score on the frontal assessment battery (FAB) (OR = 0.899, P = 0.046) were associated with camptocormia. Only greater disease severity was associated with camptocormia in the group of patients with disease duration 3-5 years (OR = 1.494, P = 0.025) and in the group of patients with disease duration ≥5 years (OR = 1.076, P = 0.005). There was no significant impact of camptocormia on disability in patients with a disease duration of < 5 years (HR = 0.687, P = 0.463). CONCLUSION: The frequency of camptocormia increased with prolonged disease duration. Disease severity was related to camptocormia at different stages of the disease. The MSA-P subtype, older age of onset, and lower FAB score were associated with camptocormia in the early stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/complicações , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/etiologia , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
6.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(7): 3435-3442, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723766

RESUMO

Functional and genetic studies have identified association between several Zinc finger (ZNF) proteins and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, most of them were still awaiting further replications, especially in the Asian population. Here, we systematically selected PD-relevant ZNF genes and analyzed the genetic associations between these ZNFs and PD in a large Chinese PD cohort. We identified rare variants (minor allele frequency < 0.01) in 743 unrelated patients with early-onset PD (EOPD, age at onset < 50 years) using whole exome sequencing and evaluated the association between rare variants and EOPD at both allele and gene levels. Totally 91 rare variants were identified in ZNF746, ZNF646, ZNF184, ZNF165, ZND219, and GLIS1. One variant p.R373H in ZNF219 and two variants p.G161D and p.R158H in ZNF746 were significantly associated with EOPD, and gene-based burden analysis showed enrichment of rare variants of ZNF746 in EOPD. Our findings build up the connection between ZNF746 and PD from a genetic perspective for the first time, supplement current understanding for the genetic role of ZNFs in EOPD, and broaden the mutation spectrum in PD.

7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 27, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested comorbidity between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and autoimmune disorders. However, little is known about their shared genetic architecture. METHODS: To examine the relation between ALS and 10 autoimmune diseases, including asthma, celiac disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and ulcerative colitis (UC), and identify shared risk loci, we first estimated the genetic correlation using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies, and then analyzed the genetic enrichment leveraging the conditional false discovery rate statistical method. RESULTS: We identified a significant positive genetic correlation between ALS and CeD, MS, RA, and SLE, as well as a significant negative genetic correlation between ALS and IBD, UC, and CD. Robust genetic enrichment was observed between ALS and CeD and MS, and moderate enrichment was found between ALS and UC and T1D. Thirteen shared genetic loci were identified, among which five were suggestively significant in another ALS GWAS, namely rs3828599 (GPX3), rs3849943 (C9orf72), rs7154847 (G2E3), rs6571361 (SCFD1), and rs9903355 (GGNBP2). By integrating cis-expression quantitative trait loci analyses in Braineac and GTEx, we further identified GGNBP2, ATXN3, and SLC9A8 as novel ALS risk genes. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that the shared risk genes were involved in four pathways including membrane trafficking, vesicle-mediated transport, ER to Golgi anterograde transport, and transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a specific genetic correlation between ALS and autoimmune diseases and identify shared risk loci, including three novel ALS risk genes. These results provide a better understanding for the pleiotropy of ALS and have implications for future therapeutic trials.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Doença Celíaca/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psoríase/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(4): 1583-1592, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219486

RESUMO

Recent genetic studies clearly indicate that variants in several lysosomal genes act as risk factors for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Variants in the co-activator of glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) and the four active saposins (Sap A-D) which are encoded by the prosaposin gene (PSAP) are of particular interest; however, their genetic roles in PD are unknown. Whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were used to assess the genetic etiology of 400 autosomal dominant inherited PD (ADPD) and 300 sporadic PD (SPD) patients. Variants from public databases, including Genome Aggregation Database-East Asian (GnomAD_EAS) and Chinese Millionome Database (CMDB), were used as control groups. Burden analysis based on gene and domains level were performed to investigate the role of rare PSAP variants in PD. Six rare and likely pathogenic variants, located in the Sap A-D domains, were identified and accounted for 0.75% (3/400) of ADPD and 1.33% (4/300) of SPD in the Chinese population. Based on the gene or domain, burden analysis showed that damaging missense variants in SapC had statistical significance on the risk of developing PD. Interestingly, rs4747203, an intronic variant potentially linked to PSAP expression, was associated with reduced risk for PD (p = 8.6e-7 in GnomAD EAS and p = 0.002 in Chinese). Clinically, patients carrying the likely pathogenic variants presented typical PD motor symptoms and responded well to levodopa treatment. Six out of seven patients carrying the likely pathogenic variants of PSAP presented slow disease progression, and none of the patients developed cognitive impairment. Our study expands the spectrum of mutations associated with the risk of developing PD and enhances the understanding of the relationship of the clinical phenotype of PD with PSAP variants.

10.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(3): 591-595, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985493

RESUMO

Creatine kinase is a muscle enzyme that has been reported at various levels in different studies involving patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the present retrospective case-control study, we included 582 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 582 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All amyotrophic lateral sclerosis participants received treatment in the Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, China, between May 2008 and December 2018. Serum creatine kinase levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. Subgroup analysis revealed that serum creatine kinase levels in men were higher than those in women in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Compared with patients with bulbar-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, patients with limb-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had higher creatine kinase levels. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that serum creatine kinase levels were not correlated with body mass index, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised score, or progression rate. After adjusting for prognostic covariates, higher log creatine kinase values were correlated with higher overall survival in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. We also investigated the longitudinal changes in serum creatine kinase levels in 81 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients; serum creatine kinase levels were decreased at the second blood test, which was sampled at least 6 months after the first blood test. Together, our results suggest that serum creatine kinase levels can be used as an independent factor for predicting the prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. This study received ethical approval from the Ethics Committee of West China Hospital, China (approval No. 2015(236)) on December 23, 2015.

11.
eNeurologicalSci ; 22: 100301, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319079

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are genetically, pathologically and clinically-related progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Thus far, several SQSTM1 variations have been identified in patients with ALS and FTD. However, it remains unclear how SQSTM1 variations lead to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of ectopic expression of SQSTM1 variants, which were originally identified in Japanese and Chinese sporadic ALS patients, on the cellular viability, their intracellular distributions and the autophagic activity in cultured cells. Expression of SQSTM1 variants in PC12 cells exerted no observable effects on viabilities under both normal and oxidative-stressed conditions. Further, although expression of SQSTM1 variants in PC12 cells and Sqstm1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in the formation of numerous granular SQSTM1-positive structures, called SQSTM1-bodies, their intracellular distributions were indistinguishable from those of wild-type SQSTM1. Nonetheless, quantitative colocalization analysis of SQSTM1-bodies with MAP1LC3 demonstrated that among ALS-linked SQSTM1 variants, L341V variant showed the significantly lower level of colocalization. However, there were no consistent effects on the autophagic activities among the variants examined. These results suggest that although some ALS-linked SQSTM1 variations have a discernible effect on the intracellular distribution of SQSTM1-bodies, the impacts of other variations on the cellular homeostasis are rather limited at least under transiently-expressed conditions.

12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(6): 690-698, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders are common but under-researched symptoms in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). We investigated the frequency and factors associated with sleep-related symptoms in patients with MSA and the impact of sleep disturbances on disease severity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 165 patients with MSA. Three sleep-related symptoms, namely Parkinson's disease (PD)-related sleep problems (PD-SP), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), were evaluated using the PD Sleep Scale-2 (PDSS-2), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ), respectively. Disease severity was evaluated using the Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS). RESULTS: The frequency of PD-SP (PDSS-2 score of ≥18), EDS (ESS score of ≥10), and RBD (RBDSQ score of ≥5) in patients with MSA was 18.8%, 27.3%, and 49.7%, respectively. The frequency of coexistence of all three sleep-related symptoms was 7.3%. Compared with the cerebellar subtype of MSA (MSA-C), the parkinsonism subtype of MSA (MSA-P) was associated with a higher frequency of PD-SP and EDS, but not of RBD. Binary logistic regression revealed that the MSA-P subtype, a higher total UMSARS score, and anxiety were associated with PD-SP; that male sex, a higher total UMSARS score, the MSA-P subtype, and fatigue were associated with EDS; and that male sex, a higher total UMSARS score, and autonomic onset were associated with RBD in patients with MSA. Stepwise linear regression showed that the number of sleep-related symptoms (PD-SP, EDS, and RBD), disease duration, depression, fatigue, and total Montreal Cognitive Assessment score were predictors of disease severity in patients with MSA. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-related disorders were associated with both MSA subtypes and the severity of disease in patients with MSA, indicating that sleep disorders may reflect the distribution and degree of dopaminergic/non-dopaminergic neuron degeneration in MSA.


Assuntos
Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sono
13.
JAMA Neurol ; 77(6): 746-754, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310270

RESUMO

Importance: Large-scale genome-wide association studies in the European population have identified 90 risk variants associated with Parkinson disease (PD); however, there are limited studies in the largest population worldwide (ie, Asian). Objectives: To identify novel genome-wide significant loci for PD in Asian individuals and to compare genetic risk between Asian and European cohorts. Design Setting, and Participants: Genome-wide association data generated from PD cases and controls in an Asian population (ie, Singapore/Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, mainland China, and South Korea) were collected from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018, as part of an ongoing study. Results were combined with inverse variance meta-analysis, and replication of top loci in European and Japanese samples was performed. Discovery samples of 31 575 individuals passing quality control of 35 994 recruited were used, with a greater than 90% participation rate. A replication cohort of 1 926 361 European-ancestry and 3509 Japanese samples was analyzed. Parkinson disease was diagnosed using UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genotypes of common variants, association with disease status, and polygenic risk scores. Results: Of 31 575 samples identified, 6724 PD cases (mean [SD] age, 64.3 [10] years; age at onset, 58.8 [10.6] years; 3472 [53.2%] men) and 24 851 controls (age, 59.4 [11.4] years; 11 030 [45.0%] men) were analyzed in the discovery study. Eleven genome-wide significant loci were identified; 2 of these loci were novel (SV2C and WBSCR17) and 9 were previously found in Europeans. Replication in European-ancestry and Japanese samples showed robust association for SV2C (rs246814; odds ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11-1.21; P = 1.17 × 10-10 in meta-analysis of discovery and replication samples) but showed potential genetic heterogeneity at WBSCR17 (rs9638616; I2=67.1%; P = 3.40 × 10-3 for hetereogeneity). Polygenic risk score models including variants at these 11 loci were associated with a significant improvement in area under the curve over the model based on 78 European loci alone (63.1% vs 60.2%; P = 6.81 × 10-12). Conclusions and Relevance: This study identified 2 apparently novel gene loci and found 9 previously identified European loci to be associated with PD in this large, meta-genome-wide association study in a worldwide population of Asian individuals and reports similarities and differences in genetic risk factors between Asian and European individuals in the risk for PD. These findings may lead to improved stratification of Asian patients and controls based on polygenic risk scores. Our findings have potential academic and clinical importance for risk stratification and precision medicine in Asia.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(9): 865-879, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175000

RESUMO

1·8 billion people of diverse ethnicities and cultures live in the Western Pacific Region. The increasing longevity of populations in this region is a major contributor to the exponential increase in Parkinson's disease prevalence worldwide. Differences exist between Parkinson's disease in the Western Pacific Region and in Europe and North America that might provide important insights into our understanding of the disease and approaches to management. For example, some genetic factors (such as LRRK2 mutations or variants) differ, environmental exposures might play differential roles in modulating the risk of Parkinson's disease, and fewer dyskinesias are reported, with some differences in the profile of non-motor symptoms and comorbidities. Gaps in awareness of the disease and inequitable access to treatments pose challenges. Further improvements in infrastructure, clinical governance, and services, and concerted collaborative efforts in training and research, including greater representation of the Western Pacific Region in clinical trials, will improve care of patients with Parkinson's disease in this region and beyond.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Oceania/epidemiologia , Prevalência
15.
Sci China Life Sci ; 62(4): 517-525, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863961

RESUMO

Continual discoveries of new genes and unraveling the genetic etiology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have provided greater insight into the underlying pathogenesis in motor neuron degeneration, as well as facilitating the disease modeling and the testing of targeted therapeutics. While, the genetic etiology accounted for two-thirds of FALS and approximately 11% of SALS in Caucasians. However, the contributions of these causative genes to ALS vary among different populations. Furthermore, the prominent difference between Chinese population and other ethnics remains a source of ongoing debate. We systemically reviewed genetics literature of Chinese ALS populations and updated the mutation frequencies of the main ALS-implicated genes aiming to determine the genetic features of ALS in Chinese population. We also reviewed the associations between ALS-implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of ALS in Chinese population. A total of 116 studies were included in this analysis (86 gene mutation study articles and 30 SNPs study articles). The results showed that the overall gene mutation rates of ALS-related causative genes were 55.0% in familial ALS (FALS) and 11.7% in sporadic ALS (SALS) in Chinese population. In Chinese FALS, the highest mutation frequency was found in SOD1 gene (25.6%), followed by FUS (5.8%), TARDBP (5.8%), DCTN1 (3.6%) and C9orf72 (3.5%). In Chinese SALS, the highest mutation frequency was also identified in SOD1 gene (1.6%), followed by ANXA11 (1.4%), FUS (1.3%), SQSTM1 (1.0%), OPTN (0.9%) and CCNF (0.8%). The associations between several SNPs and risk of ALS were also reported in Chinese population. The genetic features of ALS in Chinese population are significantly different from those in Caucasian population, indicating an association between genetic susceptibility and origin of population. Further explorations are required to understand the gene complexity of ALS, including the contribution of most minor genes and the molecular mechanisms in ALS pathologies.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(45): 11567-11572, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348779

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing has been successful in identifying genetic factors contributing to familial or sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, this approach has not been applied to explore the impact of de novo mutations on PD pathogenesis. Here, we sequenced the exomes of 39 early onset patients, their parents, and 20 unaffected siblings to investigate the effects of de novo mutations on PD. We identified 12 genes with de novo mutations (MAD1L1, NUP98, PPP2CB, PKMYT1, TRIM24, CEP131, CTTNBP2, NUS1, SMPD3, MGRN1, IFI35, and RUSC2), which could be functionally relevant to PD pathogenesis. Further analyses of two independent case-control cohorts (1,852 patients and 1,565 controls in one cohort and 3,237 patients and 2,858 controls in the other) revealed that NUS1 harbors significantly more rare nonsynonymous variants (P = 1.01E-5, odds ratio = 11.3) in PD patients than in controls. Functional studies in Drosophila demonstrated that the loss of NUS1 could reduce the climbing ability, dopamine level, and number of dopaminergic neurons in 30-day-old flies and could induce apoptosis in fly brain. Together, our data suggest that de novo mutations could contribute to early onset PD pathogenesis and identify NUS1 as a candidate gene for PD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/antagonistas & inibidores , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Pais , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Irmãos
19.
J Biol Chem ; 293(44): 17135-17153, 2018 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224357

RESUMO

Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2 (ALS2) is a juvenile autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by the mutations in the ALS2 gene. The ALS2 gene product, ALS2/alsin, forms a homophilic oligomer and acts as a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rab5. This oligomerization is crucial for both Rab5 activation and ALS2-mediated endosome fusion and maturation in cells. Recently, we have shown that pathogenic missense ALS2 mutants retaining the Rab5 GEF activity fail to properly localize to endosomes via Rac1-stimulated macropinocytosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dysregulated distribution of ALS2 variants remain poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to clarify the relationship between intracellular localization and oligomeric states of pathogenic ALS2 variants. Upon Rac family small GTPase 1 (Rac1) activation, all mutants tested moved from the cytosol to membrane ruffles but not to macropinosomes and/or endosomes. Furthermore, most WT ALS2 complexes were tetramers. Importantly, the sizes of an ALS2 complex carrying missense mutations in the N terminus of the regulator of chromosome condensation 1-like domain (RLD) or in-frame deletion in the pleckstrin homology domain were shifted toward higher molecular weight, whereas the C-terminal vacuolar protein sorting 9 (VPS9) domain missense mutant existed as a smaller dimeric or trimeric smaller form. Furthermore, in silico mutagenesis analyses using the RLD protein structure in conjunction with a cycloheximide chase assay in vitro disclosed that these missense mutations led to a decrease in protein stability. Collectively, disorganized higher structures of ALS2 variants might explain their impaired endosomal localization and the stability, leading to loss of the ALS2 function.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Endossomos/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/química , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Endossomos/química , Endossomos/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Estabilidade Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
20.
Neurosci Lett ; 686: 205-210, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of genetic variants have previously been identified and associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including rs10838725 in CELF1, rs28834970 in PTK2B, rs17125944 in FERMT2, and rs10410544 in SIRT2 based on genome-wide association studies. Considering the overlap between the clinical manifestation and pathological characteristics of AD and Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), we conducted a large sample study to investigate the associations between these variants and these three common neurodegenerative diseases in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 2449 patients, including 1219 PD, 870 sporadic ALS, and 360 MSA, and 821 healthy controls were examined for this study. All cases were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms using Sequenom iPLEX assay technology. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in genotype distribution and minor allele frequencies between the four candidate variants and the three neurodegenerative diseases. However, a significant difference was found in the minor allele frequency of rs28834970 in PTK2B between PD patients with normal and abnormal cognitive function (p = 0.001). Moreover, the minor allele "C" was associated with an increased risk for cognitive impairment in PD (OR = 1.84). Although this observation was not significant (p = 0.064), the mean Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACER) score of PD patients with the risk allele of rs28834970 was 2.913 ± 1.569 points lower than that of PD patients without the risk allele. CONCLUSION: This study provides new insight into some of the phenotypes that may share the common pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
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