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1.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(3): 221-229, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996095
2.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(11): 737-742, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual, and transgender youth and homeless youth are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little recent data exist describing STI positivity by anatomical site among those groups. We determined the positivity of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection, and syphilis antibody reactivity among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and homeless youth. METHODS: We recruited 1,264 adolescents with high risk behavior aged 12 to 24 years from homeless shelters, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender organizations, community health centers, and using social media and online dating apps in Los Angeles, California and New Orleans, Louisiana from May 2017 to February 2019. Participants received point-of-care pharyngeal, rectal, and urethral/vaginal CT and NG testing and syphilis antibody testing. We calculated STI positivity by anatomical site and compared positivity by participant subgroups based on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, sex assigned at birth, and gender identity. RESULTS: CT and NG positivity and syphilis antibody reactivity was higher among HIV-infected adolescent men who have sex with men (MSM) than HIV-uninfected adolescent MSM (40.2% vs. 19%, P < 0.05), particularly CT or NG rectal infection (28% vs. 12.3%, P < 0.05). Of participants with positive CT or NG infections, 65% had extragenital-only infections, 20% had both extragenital and urogenital infections, and 15% had urogenital-only infections. CONCLUSIONS: Sexually transmitted infection positivity was high, particularly among transgender women and MSM. The high proportion of rectal and pharyngeal infections highlights the importance of both urogenital and extragenital STI screening. More accessible STI testing is necessary for high-risk adolescent populations.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 8(3): e10795, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates are increasing in the United States, with approximately half of new infections occurring among adolescents aged 15-24 years. Gay, bisexual, and transgender youth (GBTY), homeless youth, and youth with histories of drug use, mental health disorders, and incarceration are all at uniquely high risk for STIs. However, these adolescents often lack access to sexual health services. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to use point-of-care STI tests in community-based settings to screen for and treat STIs in adolescents. METHODS: We are recruiting 1500 HIV-uninfected youth and 220 HIV-infected youth from homeless shelters, GBTY organizations, and community health centers in Los Angeles, California and New Orleans, Louisiana. Study participants will receive STI screening every 4 months for 24 months. STI screening includes rapid HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Hepatitis C virus testing. Trained paraprofessionals will conduct all STI testing. When a participant screens positive for an STI, they are either linked to a partner medical clinic or provided with same-day antibiotic therapy and expedited partner therapy. We will monitor STI prevalence among study participants as well as point-of-care test performance, linkage to care, and treatment outcomes. RESULTS: The project was funded in 2016, and enrollment will be completed in 2019. Preliminary data analysis is currently underway. CONCLUSIONS: As STI rates continue to rise, it is important to improve access to screening and treatment services, particularly for high-risk adolescents. In this study, we aim to evaluate the use of point-of-care STI diagnostic tests in community-based organizations. We hope to determine the prevalence of STIs among these adolescents and evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of community-based STI screening and treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03134833; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03134833. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/10795.

4.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(9): 632-635, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases. Diagnosis and susceptibility testing of M. genitalium are limited by the fastidious nature of the organism. Therefore, the prevalence of infection and azithromycin resistance are poorly studied. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory study on remnant clinical specimens. We collected remnant DNA from consecutive urine samples and clinical swabs (cervical/vaginal, rectal, and pharyngeal) previously tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis using the Cobas 4800 CT/NG assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA) between March-April 2017 from across the University of California, Los Angeles Health System. We then retrospectively tested all specimens with the ResistancePlus MG (550) kit, a molecular assay for the detection of M. genitalium and genetic mutations associated with azithromycin resistance. RESULTS: Among 500 specimens, the prevalence of M. genitalium was 1.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04%-3.0%) in urine samples (n = 362), 17.4% (95% CI, 5.7%-39.6%) in rectal swabs (n = 23), and 1.9% (95% CI, 0.3%-7.3%) in cervical/vaginal swabs (n = 106). The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae was 0.6% in urine samples and 4.3% in rectal swabs, whereas the prevalence of C. trachomatis was 2.2% in urine samples, 4.3% in rectal swabs and 3.8% in cervical/vaginal swabs. Of the 10 M. genitalium positive specimens, 8 (80.0%) had a mutation associated with azithromycin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in our population varied by anatomic site of infection. Most M. genitalium infections had at least 1 mutation associated with azithromycin resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Colo do Útero/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Mutação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Faringe/microbiologia , Prevalência , Reto/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
5.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(9): e65-e67, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596225

RESUMO

We aimed to determine if rapid treponemal tests intended for whole-blood specimens could be used to detect treponemal antibody in oral fluid. We found a high sensitivity of oral fluid rapid testing, which increased with increasing rapid plasma reagin titer, suggesting potential for the development of accurate rapid oral syphilis tests.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sífilis/microbiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Fatores de Tempo , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(10): 673-676, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections during pregnancy are linked with adverse birth outcomes. However, few countries have prenatal CT, NG, or TV screening programs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of CT, NG, and TV screening and treatment among pregnant women across 6 low- to middle-income countries. METHODS: A total of 1817 pregnant women were screened for CT, NG, and TV in Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, South Africa, and Vietnam. An additional 640 pregnant women were screened for CT in Peru. Screening occurred between December 2012 and October 2017. Acceptability of screening was evaluated at each site as the proportion of eligible women who agreed to participate in screening. Feasibility of treatment was calculated as the proportion of women who tested positive that received treatment. RESULTS: Acceptability of screening and feasibility of treatment was high across all 6 sites. Acceptability of screening ranged from 85% to 99%, and feasibility of treatment ranged from 91% to 100%. DISCUSSION: The high acceptability and feasibility of screening and treatment of CT, NG, and TV among pregnant women supports further research to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of prenatal CT, NG, and TV screening programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gestantes , Parceiros Sexuais , Tricomoníase/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 30(1): 137-143, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315111

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence is on the rise in the United States. The increase is especially pronounced in adolescents (15-24 years of age). Despite making up only a quarter of the population, adolescents account for approximately half of new STIs in the United States every year. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of STIs, excluding HIV, in adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we examine the epidemiology, screening, management, and prevention of STIs in adolescents. STI rates in adolescents have been rising since 2014, with young women and MSM at particularly high risk. Barriers to STI screening for adolescents include confidentiality concerns and lack of access to health services. Prevention through STI vaccines represents a promising way to combat the epidemic. SUMMARY: STIs are a growing concern for adolescents. Routine screening and management are of critical importance. Furthermore, prevention efforts such as human papillomavirus vaccination should be prioritized. Much of the current literature on STIs does not address the unique nature of STIs in adolescents, and additional research into effective prevention and treatment strategies of STIs in adolescents is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(3): ofx121, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721353

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection uncommonly causes chronic hepatitis and neurologic disease. We describe a case of genotype 3a HEV meningoencephalitis diagnosed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing, illustrating the power of an unbiased molecular approach to microbial testing and the first reported case of HEV infection presumably acquired through lung transplantation.

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