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1.
Chin J Traumatol ; 22(1): 1-11, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850324

RESUMO

Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) is frequently used in abdominal surgeries. However, relevant guidelines are rare. Chinese Trauma Surgeon Association organized a committee composed of 28 experts across China in July 2017, aiming to provide an evidence-based recommendation for the application of VSD in abdominal surgeries. Eleven questions regarding the use of VSD in abdominal surgeries were addressed: (1) which type of materials should be respectively chosen for the intraperitoneal cavity, retroperitoneal cavity and superficial incisions? (2) Can VSD be preventively used for a high-risk abdominal incision with primary suture? (3) Can VSD be used in severely contaminated/infected abdominal surgical sites? (4) Can VSD be used for temporary abdominal cavity closure under some special conditions such as severe abdominal trauma, infection, liver transplantation and intra-abdominal volume increment in abdominal compartment syndrome? (5) Can VSD be used in abdominal organ inflammation, injury, or postoperative drainage? (6) Can VSD be used in the treatment of intestinal fistula and pancreatic fistula? (7) Can VSD be used in the treatment of intra-abdominal and extra-peritoneal abscess? (8) Can VSD be used in the treatment of abdominal wall wounds, wound cavity, and defects? (9) Does VSD increase the risk of bleeding? (10) Does VSD increase the risk of intestinal wall injury? (11) Does VSD increase the risk of peritoneal adhesion? Focusing on these questions, evidence-based recommendations were given accordingly. VSD was strongly recommended regarding the questions 2-4. Weak recommendations were made regarding questions 1 and 5-11. Proper use of VSD in abdominal surgeries can lower the risk of infection in abdominal incisions with primary suture, treat severely contaminated/infected surgical sites and facilitate temporary abdominal cavity closure.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Drenagem/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Traumatologia/organização & administração , Vácuo , China , Humanos
2.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 129(3): 304-8, 2016 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26831232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China. Both HIV and HBV can be treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC), so we evaluated the safety and efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included TDF, 3TC, and efavirenz (EFV) among ART-naive individuals who were co-infected with HIV and HBV. METHODS: One hundred HIV/HBV co-infected ARV-naive individuals were started on the regimen of TDF, 3TC, and EFV, and the levels of plasma HBV DNA, HIV RNA, and biochemical evaluation related to the function of liver and kidney were analyzed. RESULTS: Concerning efficacy, this study found that by week 48, the vast majority co-infected participants receiving this ART regimen had undetectable HBV DNA levels (71%) and/or HIV RNA levels (90%). Concerning safety, this study found that the median estimated glomerular filtration rate of participants decreased from baseline (109 ml·min-1·1.73 m-2) to week 12 (104 ml·min-1·1.73 m-2) but was almost back to baseline at week 48 (111 ml·min-1·1.73 m-2). CONCLUSION: This combination ART regimen is safe and effective for patients with HIV/HBV co-infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01751555; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01751555.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 44(6): 545-57, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24499360

RESUMO

A novel trypsin inhibitor with thermal and pH stability, designated Merrtine, was isolated from Glycine max L. merr. The procedure involved ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50, and affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel. The 20 N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined to be DEYSKPCCDLCMCTRRCPPQ, demonstrating high homology with the sequence of Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitors. The molecular mass and isoelectric point of the inhibitor were estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing to be 20.0 kD and 5.8, respectively. Trypsin could be completely inhibited by Merrtine when the molar ratio was 8.1. The inhibitory activity of Merrtine was unaffected after exposure to temperatures up to 85 °C, as well as within the pH range 2-12. Besides inhibiting trypsin-chymotrypsin, the inhibitor demonstrated additional antifungal activity against the species of Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Physalospora piricola, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium solani. We herein report not only the trypsin inhibitor's extraction and isolation for the first time, but also its physiochemical and antifungal properties.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Quimotripsina/antagonistas & inibidores , Soja/química , Inibidores da Tripsina/isolamento & purificação , Tripsina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia/métodos , Quimotripsina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fungos Mitospóricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peso Molecular , Estabilidade Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 34(12): 1237-41, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24518028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, researchers investigated the demographic and clinical characteristics of AIDS patients who died in hospitals, analyzed the specific causes of death, and looked for the correlation between specific cause of death and their clinical characteristics. METHODS: Data of clinical characteristics of patients and their specific causes AIDS of death who died in the seven hospitals from 2009 to 2010 were collected retrospectively. All the specific causes of death were classified according to the Cause of Death (CoDe) project protocol. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to find the association between some categorical variables and the risk for AIDS patients died from AIDS related illnesses. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics and the cause of death of the 381 deceased in seven hospitals in this study were collected. 82.4% were male, with priority as 30-45 years old. 123 (32.3%) death patients had received ART before death. In all death cases, the cause of death of 252 patients (66.1%) were due to AIDS related diseases, with opportunistic infections the most (92.4%). Tubercle bacillus, infection of Penicillium marneffei and Pneumocystis jiroveci were the three leading causes of opportunistic infection deaths. Of 129 patients who died of non-AIDS related disease, non-AIDS infection (29.5%), hepatitis (22.5%), and non-AIDS malignancy(10.1%)were the first three causes of death. The cause of death in patients who had injecting drug use behavior within one year, had not received ART or not long enough, with opportunistic infections, without hepatitis, with the last low CD4 cell counts before death etc. were tend to due to AIDS related disease. CONCLUSION: Opportunistic infections, non-AIDS related infections and hepatitis were the three leading causes of death in this study. The duration of time on ART had impact on the patient's cause of death. The HIV infected patients who had received ART before death had more risk to die of non-AIDS related disease, compared to patients who had not. The longer time they had accessed to ART, the less likely they would die on non-AIDS related illnesses.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 123(23): 3400-5, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22166521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among asymptomatic Chinese patients with HIV infection has not been investigated despite high tuberculosis burden in China. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of PTB among asymptomatic patients with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi to facilitate the development of diagnostic and treatment strategies. METHODS: All asymptomatic adult HIV-infected patients with CD4 < 350 cells/µl who attended four HIV clinics in Guangxi between August 2006 and March 2008 were evaluated for active PTB with physical examination, chest X-ray (CXR), sputum smear and/or sputum liquid culture. Data were described using median (interquartile range, IQR) and frequencies. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with PTB. RESULTS: Among 340 asymptomatic subjects, 15 (4%) were diagnosed with PTB, with 4 (27%) sputum smear positive and 8 (53%) sputum culture positive. CXR has higher diagnostic sensitivity (87%) than sputum smear (25%) and sputum culture (67%), but lower specificity (56%) compared with sputum smear (99%) and culture (100%). In univariate analysis, injection drug user, body mass index (BMI) < 18 kg/m(2), CD4 < 50 cells/µl and presence of peripheral lymphadenopathy were associated with an increased risk of asymptomatic PTB, while in multivariate analysis only peripheral lymphadenopathy maintained statistical significance (OR = 7.6, 95%CI 1.4 - 40). Patients with negative smear and minor or no abnormalities on CXR had longer interval between screening and TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PTB was relatively common in this group of HIV(+) asymptomatic Chinese patients. Diagnosis is challenging especially where sputum culture is unavailable. These findings suggest that an enhanced evaluation for PTB needs to be integrated with HIV care in China and transmission prevention in China to control at both households and health care facilities, especially for patients with factors associated with a higher risk of PTB.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Doenças Linfáticas/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 85(2): 313-21, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19547968

RESUMO

Chitinases are listed as one class of pathogenesis-related proteins, and they have become a popular research topic because of their resistance to plant-pathogenic diseases. A chitinase with antifungal activity was isolated from the Canadian cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The procedure included extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, CM-Sephadex C-50, and Sephadex G-75. There was an almost 108-fold increase in specific activity of the purified chitinase compared with that of the crude extract. The enzyme exhibited a molecular mass of 30.6 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis both under reducing and non-reducing conditions, indicating that it was a monomeric protein. The pI was determined to be 7.6 by isoelectric-focusing electrophoresis. The optimum pH and the optimum temperature for activity towards N-acetyl-glucosamine was 5.4 and 40-55 degrees C, respectively. It exerted a potent inhibitory action toward fungal species including Botrytis cinerea, Physalospora piricola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pythium aphanidermatum. The chitinase was thermostable up to 58 degrees C in both enzymatic reaction and antifungal activity. The present findings demonstrated a thermostable chitinase from cranberry beans with potentially exploitable significance.


Assuntos
Quitinases/metabolismo , Quitinases/farmacologia , Fabaceae/enzimologia , Phaseolus/enzimologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitinases/química , Quitinases/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Estabilidade Enzimática , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Metais/farmacologia , Peso Molecular , Pythium/efeitos dos fármacos , Termodinâmica
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 55(24): 9792-9, 2007 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17979231

RESUMO

A protein designated Hypotin, with both antifungal and antibacterial activity, was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds. The isolation procedure included extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion chromatography, and gel filtration. The protein exhibited a molecular mass of 30.4 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both reducing and nonreducing conditions, indicating that it is a monomeric protein. Its N-terminal sequence was highly homologous to those of chitinases and chitinase precursors from plants. It exerted potent antifungal action toward a variety of fungal species, including Pythium aphanidermatum, Fusarium solani, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, this novel protein exhibited antiproliferative activity against tumor cells. These findings further the progress in the research of leguminous plants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Arachis/química , Proliferação de Células , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quitinases , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Humanos , Fungos Mitospóricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação
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