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1.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of intrapulmonary lymph node (ILN, stations 13-14) dissection on disease-free survival (DFS) in stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in order to facilitate a more suitable determination of surgical strategies for early-stage cases. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 416 patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC from February 2016 to November 2019. The patients were divided into a group with ILN dissection (ILND+ group) and a group without ILN dissection (ILND- group). DFS was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared statistically using the log-rank test before and after propensity score matching (PSM). Subgroup analysis of DFS stratified based on tumor size was also calculated. RESULTS: Both before and after PSM, the four-year DFS of the ILND+ group was greatly increased compared to that of ILND- group (90.1% vs. 79.7%, p = 0.003; 95.5% vs. 80.6%, p = 0.003, respectively) and multivariable cox regression analysis revealed ILN dissection was an independent factor favoring DFS in stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.016 and p = 0.015, respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed the four-year DFS was comparable between the ILN D+ and ILND- groups with regard to tumor size ≤1.5 cm (90.6% vs. 92.7%, p = 0.715). However, the ILN D+ group was found to have a better oncological outcome compared with the ILND- group with regard to tumor size >1.5 cm (90.0% vs. 73.8%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic impact of ILN dissection on patients with stage IA NSCLC appears to be significantly influenced by tumor size, and this should be taken into account when choosing the most appropriate therapeutic modality.

2.
Mol Cell ; 81(7): 1370-1371, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798414

RESUMO

Using a forward-genetic screening of macrophages from randomly mutagenized mice, Kayagaki et al. (2021) identify NINJ1 that mediates plasma membrane rupture following various types of programmed cell death, an event previously thought to be passive.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Animais , Membrana Celular , Células Endoteliais , Macrófagos , Camundongos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765367

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the biological function of miR-425/PAK4 axis in proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis of ovarian cancer (OC) cells. METHODS: qRT-PCR and Western blot were adopted to examine miR-425 and PAK4 expressions in OC tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and BrdU assays were applied to detect the proliferation ability of OC cells, and Transwell assay was adopted to assess the migration and invasion of OC cells. Flow cytometry was employed to evaluate the apoptosis of OC cells. The interaction between miR-425 and PAK4 was predicted and verified by bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter gene assay, respectively. RESULTS: miR-425 was reduced in OC tissues and cell lines, and its underexpression was in evident correlation with the shorter overall survival time of OC patients. miR-425 impeded OC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and accelerated apoptosis. Additionally, PAK4 was validated as the target of miR-425, and the cotransfection of PAK4 reversed the antitumor effect of miR-425. CONCLUSION: miR-425 suppresses the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells and enhances apoptosis via inhibiting PAK4, and it is expected to be a prognostic indicator and therapeutic target for the patients with OC.

4.
Int J Urol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report our single-center experience of the management of children with prostatic utricle cysts. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 15 children who were incidentally found to have a prostatic utricle cyst and were admitted to our department between October 2013 and August 2020. Clinical characteristics and management were collected and catalogued. RESULTS: Recurrent genitourinary tract infections were the most frequent complaint, and two-thirds of patients also had hypospadias. A connection between the posterior urethra and the prostatic utricle cyst was found in all cases. Two patients directly had their progressively enlarging prostatic utricle cyst resected laparoscopically. Endoscopic techniques were used in 13 patients, two of whom underwent laparoscopic excision for repeated symptoms. The mean (range) follow-up period was 34.9 (2-82) months. No recurrences were observed in four patients who underwent prostatic utricle cyst excision and eight patients who received endoscopic treatment. Three patients had recurrent symptoms after endoscopic treatment and were managed by nonsurgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic utricle cyst is a rare disease which can cause recurrent genitourinary tract infections. Extra attention should be paid to evaluation for prostatic utricle cyst in children with external genital anomalies. Retrograde urethrogram and magnetic resonance imaging are useful tools with which to distinguish prostatic utricle cyst from other cystic lesions that are located in the midline pelvis in male patients. Individualized treatment is appropriate when considering fertility preservation, recurrences and malignancy. Laparoscopic excision is feasible for symptomatic and large prostatic utricle cyst. Regular long-term monitoring is recommended for all patients with prostatic utricle cyst.

5.
J Clin Invest ; 131(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720048

RESUMO

Chronic HIV-1 infection is generally characterized by progressive CD4+ T cell depletion due to direct and bystander death that is closely associated with persistent HIV-1 replication and an inflammatory environment in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the loss of CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection are incompletely understood. In this study, we simultaneously monitored caspase-1 and caspase-3 activation in circulating CD4+ T cells, which revealed that pyroptotic and apoptotic CD4+ T cells are distinct cell populations with different phenotypic characteristics. Levels of pyroptosis and apoptosis in CD4+ T cells were significantly elevated during chronic HIV-1 infection, and decreased following effective antiretroviral therapy. Notably, the occurrence of pyroptosis was further confirmed by elevated gasdermin D activation in lymph nodes of HIV-1-infected individuals. Mechanistically, caspase-1 activation closely correlated with the inflammatory marker expression and was shown to occur through NLRP3 inflammasome activation driven by virus-dependent and/or -independent ROS production, while caspase-3 activation in CD4+ T cells was more closely related to T cell activation status. Hence, our findings show that NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis plays an essential role in CD4+ T cell loss in HIV-1-infected patients and implicate pyroptosis signaling as a target for anti-HIV-1 treatment.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2100260, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734516

RESUMO

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been widely used to synthesize high-quality 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from different precursors. At present, quantitative control of the precursor with high precision and good repeatability is still challenging. Moreover, the process to synthesize TMDCs with designed patterns is complicated. Here, by using an industrial inkjet-printer, an in situ aqueous precursor with robust usage control at the picogram (10-12 g) level is achieved, and by precisely tuning the inkjet-printing parameters, followed by a rapid heating process, large-area patterned TMDC films with centimeter size and good thickness controllability, as well as heterostructures of the TMDCs, are achieved facilely, and high-quality single-domain monolayer TMDCs with millimeter-size can be easily synthesized within 30 s (corresponding to a growth rate up to 36.4 µm s-1 ). The resulting monolayer MoS2 and MoSe2 exhibits excellent electronic properties with carrier mobility up to 21 and 54 cm2 V-1 s-1 , respectively. The study paves a simple and robust way for the in situ ultrafast and patterned growth of high-quality TMDCs and heterostructures with promising industrialization prospects. Moreover, this ultrafast and green method can be easily used for synthesis of other 2D materials with slight modification.

7.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the perioperative outcomes of patients who underwent uniport video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) segmentectomy for identifying the intersegmental boundary line (IBL) by the near-infrared fluorescence imaging with the intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) method or the modified inflation-deflation (MID) method and assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the ICG fluorescence (ICGF)-based method. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the perioperative data in total 198 consecutive patients who underwent uniport VATS segmentectomy between February 2018 and August 2020. With the guidance of a preoperative imaging interpretation and analysis system (IQQA-3D), the targeted segment structures could be precisely identified and dissected, and then the IBL was confirmed by the ICGF-based method or the MID method. The clinical effectiveness and postoperative complications of the two methods were evaluated. RESULTS: An IBL was visible in 98% of patients in the ICGF-based group, even with low doses of ICG. The ICGF-based group was significantly associated with a shorter IBL clear presentation time (23.6 ± 4.4 vs. 23.6 ± 4.4 s) (p < 0.01) and operative time (89.3 ± 31.6 vs. 112.9 ± 33.3 min) (p < 0.01) compared to the MID group. The incidence of postoperative prolonged air leaks was higher in the MID group than in the ICGF-based group (8/100, 8% vs. 26/98, 26.5%, p = 0.025). There were no significant differences in bleeding volume, chest tube duration, postoperative hospital stays, surgical margin width, and other postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: The ICGF-based method could highly accurately identify the IBL and make anatomical segmentectomy easier and faster, and therefore has the potential to be a feasible and effective technique to facilitate the quality of uniport VATS segmentectomy.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144812, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736168

RESUMO

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is one of the main environmental air pollutants, but it can be retained and adsorbed by plants. To systematically and comprehensively conduct qualitative and quantitative research on the relationship between the leaf PM retention ability and the microstructure of leaf surfaces, this study evaluated the PM retention abilities of ten common tree species (1860 leaf pieces in total) in the greenbelts around the Lin'an toll station of the Hang-Rui Expressway in Hangzhou, China, in October 2019. The leaf surface roughness and contact angle were measured with confocal laser scanning microscopy and a contact angle measuring instrument. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to collect data on the stomata and groove morphology. The PM retention ability of the leaves was assessed by quantifying the PM mass and number density on the leaves. The results revealed that Platanus acerifolia and Sapindus mukorossi had a strong ability to retain particulates of different sizes. The mass of the retained PM2.5 on their leaves accounted for the lowest proportion (mean: 8.12%) among the total retained particulate mass, but the number density of the retained PM2.5 accounted for the highest proportion (mean: 97.49%) among the total number density. A significant negative correlation between the PM2.5 mass and the groove width on the adaxial surface (R2 = 0.746, P < 0.05) and a significant positive correlation between the roughness and the PM number density on the adaxial surface (R2 = 0.702, P < 0.01) were observed. No obvious correlations were found among the groove width, roughness and number density of the retained PM on the abaxial surface. Leaf surfaces with dense and narrow grooves, strip-like projections, high roughness and high wettability had strong retention abilities. This study can provide a theoretical reference for selecting plants with strong PM retention ability for green urban garden design.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Árvores
9.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666785

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common tumor in children, usually in the retroperitoneum. After various treatments, low- and intermediate-risk patients have achieved good results, but the prognosis of high-risk patients is still very poor. Therefore, it is necessary to find new effective targets for the treatment of high-risk patients. In this study, comprehensive bioinformatics analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEG and DEM) between high-risk patients and non-high-risk patients, and it was identified that ADRB2 may affect the survival status of high-risk patients due to miR -30a-5p regulation. The GSE49710, GSE73517, and GSE121513 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Synthesis (GEO) database, and DEG and DEM were selected. Then, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were applied to the selected DEGs. The STRING database and Cytoscape software were used to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and perform modular analysis of the DEGs. The TARGET data set containing information on overall survival days were used for the prognostic analysis of central genes. We identified a total of 255 DEGs from GSE49710 and GSE73517, and 193 DEMs from GSE121513. We identified the 5 most important central genes from the PPI network, performed a prognostic analysis in the target data set, and verified their expression using RT-qPCR to select the most important ADRB2 gene to predict miRNA. Integrating the differential miRNA predicted by miRDB and miRSystem and GSE121513 between the targeted miRNA and the prognosis, miR-30a-5p was finally identified as the targeted miRNA of ADRB2.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(1): 41-45, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645049

RESUMO

Drying is one of the most common unit operations in the production of traditional Chinese medicine. The drying process of traditional Chinese medicine materials is accompanied by the dynamic reduction of water content. As a key index to determine the end of the drying process, the moisture content of materials plays an important role in improving drying efficiency and saving energy. Recently, the drying process of traditional Chinese medicine is mostly monitored by offline detection, and there are few reports of online moisture detection applications. In this paper, the principle and current application of online inspection technology for the material drying process in different fields were introduced. The significance of online detection technology in drying of traditional Chinese medicine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the application prospect of online detection technology in the field of drying of traditional Chinese medicine was predicted. In response to urgent transformation and upgrading of the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing industry, the application of online moisture detection technology is expected to be a key breakthrough in the intelligent upgrading of traditional Chinese medicine drying technology and equipment.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Dessecação , Controle de Qualidade , Tecnologia Farmacêutica
11.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; : 1-33, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at improving the water solubility and oral bioavailability of Chl by self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (Chl-SMEDDS). METHODS: Compatibility experiments, pseudo-ternary phase diagram and central composite design were used to optimize the formulation. The selected systems were further evaluated for physical characteristics, including particle size, zeta potential, and appearance. The stability, in vitro dispersion test, and in vivo intestinal perfusion experiments were used to evaluate the SMEDDS. RESULTS: The optimal composition of Chl-SMEDDS included: Labrafil M 1944 CS (35%), kolliphor RH 40 (46%), Transcutol HP (19%) and 60 mg/g Chl. The appearance of water emulsified Chl-SMEDDS was green and transparent. The particle size, ζ-potential, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that spherical globules of Chl-SMEDDS with a size of about 22.82 ± 1.29 nm and a negative surface charge of -24.21 ± 3.45 mV were obtained. Chl-SMEDDS could remain stable at 25 °C and 4 °C for at least 6 months. The dispersion test showed that Chl-SMEDDS dispersed spontaneously to form microemulsion after disintegration of capsule shell and 90% drug dispersed in just 30 min in pH 1.2 HCl without any drug precipitation during the test period. In vivo intestinal perfusion experiment revealed that the main absorption site for Chl-SMEDDS was duodenum. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that SMEDDS formulation could be an effective strategy for the oral administration of Chl.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 50(12): 4355-4362, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690776

RESUMO

Three novel cicada-like nickel(ii) clusters, formulated as [Ni6(bdped)2(mba)6(Hdmpz)2(NO3)2(H2O)2]·4MeCN (SD/Ni6b), [Ni5(bdped)2(tca)6(Hdmpz)(MeOH)2(H2O)]·MeOH (SD/Ni5a) and [Ni4(Hbdped)2(ba)4(Hdmpz)2]·2NO3·2MeCN (SD/Ni4a), were obtained by tuning the auxiliary carboxylic acids, where H2bdped = 1,2-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-ethane-1,2-diol; Hmba = 2-methylbenzoic acid; Hdmpz = 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole; Htca = 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid; and Hba = benzoic acid. The structures of SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a are built from a central Ni4O4 opened cube, appending two to zero NiNO5 octahedra. The solution behaviours of SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a were studied in detail via an ESI-MS technique and their solution stabilities were confirmed. Magnetic analysis indicated the presence of Ising-type anisotropy: D = -13, -10, and -11 cm-1 for SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a, and SD/Ni4a, respectively; moreover, dominantly ferromagnetic interactions were found between magnetic centers: J1 = 6.5 cm-1, J2 = -0.44 cm-1 and J1 = 5.9 cm-1, J2 = 2.6 cm-1 for SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a, respectively. Besides, the photocurrent signals were observed and they reached the maximum very quickly for these three nickel(ii) clusters and then their current intensities remained almost constant, which provide a possibility to be used for light-harvesting and photo-related catalysis.

13.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104883, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722552

RESUMO

Two new aporphine alkaloids, (R)-1,2-methylenedioxy-3,9-dimethoxy-11-hydroxy-N- carbamoyl-noraporphine (1) and 3,10,11-trimethoxy-1,2-methylenedioxy-7-oxoaporphine(2), and one new dihydrochalcone, 4',5'-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-3',6'-quinodihydrochalcone (3), along with five known alkaloids were isolated from the ethanol extracts of the stems of Fissistigma oldhamii var. longistipitatum. The compounds were obtained by various classical column chromatographic methods, and the structure elucidation was completed primarily on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, such as UV, NMR and HR-ESI-MS. The isolated compounds were subjected to evaluate cytotoxic activities in vitro, compound 1 had activity against HL-60 and HELA (IC50 value of 8.4 µM and 5.2 µM, respectively), compound 2 against MCF-7 (IC50 value of 3.7 µM), compound 3 against HEPG2 (IC50 value of 10.8 µM), respectively.

14.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570819

RESUMO

Obesity is considered as a risk factor for chronic health diseases such as heart diseases, cancer and diabetes 2. Reduced physical activities, lifestyle, poor nutritional diet and genetics are among the risk factors associated with the development of obesity. In recent years, several studies have explored the link between the gut microbiome and the progression of diseases including obesity, with the shift in microbiome abundance and composition being the main focus. The alteration of gut microbiome composition affects both nutrients metabolism and specific gene expressions, thereby disturbing body physiology. Specifically, the abundance of fibre-metabolizing microbes is associated with weight loss and that of protein and fat-metabolizing bacteria with weight gain. Various internal and external factors such as genetics, maternal obesity, mode of delivery, breastfeeding, nutrition, antibiotic use and the chemical compounds present in the environment are known to interfere with the richness of the gut microbiota (GM), thus influencing weight gain/loss and ultimately the development of obesity. However, the effectiveness of each factor in potentiating the shift in microbes' abundance to result in significant changes that can lead to obesity is not yet clear. In this review, we will highlight the factors involved in shaping GM, their influence on obesity and possible interventions. Understanding the influence of these factors on the diversity of the GM and how to improve their effectiveness on disease conditions could be keys in the treatment of metabolic diseases.

15.
Cell ; 184(5): 1362-1376.e18, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545087

RESUMO

Lungfishes are the closest extant relatives of tetrapods and preserve ancestral traits linked with the water-to-land transition. However, their huge genome sizes have hindered understanding of this key transition in evolution. Here, we report a 40-Gb chromosome-level assembly of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) genome, which is the largest genome assembly ever reported and has a contig and chromosome N50 of 1.60 Mb and 2.81 Gb, respectively. The large size of the lungfish genome is due mainly to retrotransposons. Genes with ultra-long length show similar expression levels to other genes, indicating that lungfishes have evolved high transcription efficacy to keep gene expression balanced. Together with transcriptome and experimental data, we identified potential genes and regulatory elements related to such terrestrial adaptation traits as pulmonary surfactant, anxiolytic ability, pentadactyl limbs, and pharyngeal remodeling. Our results provide insights and key resources for understanding the evolutionary pathway leading from fishes to humans.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539323

RESUMO

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) may lead to the cognitive dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. EGB761, extracted from Ginkgo biloba and as a phytomedicine widely used in the world, has been showed to have various neuroprotective roles and mechanisms, and therapeutic effects in Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive dysfunctions. However, improvements in cognitive function after CCH, following treatment with EGB761, have not been ascertained yet. In this study, we used the behavior test, electrophysiology, neurobiochemistry, and immunohistochemistry to investigate the EGB761's effect on CCH-induced cognitive dysfunction and identify its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that EGB761 ameliorates spatial cognitive dysfunction occurring after CCH. It may also improve impairment of the long-term potentiation, field excitable potential, synaptic transmission, and the transmission synchronization of neural circuit signals between the entorhinal cortex and hippocampal CA1. EGB761 may also reverse the inhibition of neural activity and the degeneration of dendritic spines and synaptic structure after CCH; it also prevents the downregulation of synaptic proteins molecules and pathways related to the formation and stability of dendritic spines structures. EGB761 may inhibit axon demyelination and ameliorate the inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway after CCH to improve protein synthesis. In conclusion, EGB761 treatment after CCH may improve spatial cognitive function by ameliorating synaptic plasticity impairment, synapse degeneration, and axon demyelination by rectifying the inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway.

17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(4): 1038-1048, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High incidence of asymptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been observed in severe COVID-19 patients, but the characteristics of symptomatic VTE in general COVID-19 patients have not been described. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively explore the prevalence and reliable risk prediction for VTE in COVID-19 patients. METHODS/RESULTS: This retrospective study enrolled all COVID-19 patients with a subsequent VTE in 16 centers in China from January 1 to March 31, 2020. A total of 2779 patients were confirmed with COVID-19. In comparison to 23,434 non-COVID-19 medical inpatients, the odds ratios (ORs) for developing symptomatic VTE in severe and non-severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients were 5.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.91-10.09) and 2.79 (95% CI 1.43-5.60), respectively. When 104 VTE cases and 208 non-VTE cases were compared, pulmonary embolism cases had a higher rate for in-hospital death (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.18-20.81). VTE developed at a median of 21 days (interquartile range 13.25-31) since onset. Independent factors for VTE were advancing age, cancer, longer interval from symptom onset to admission, lower fibrinogen and higher D-dimer on admission, and D-dimer increment (DI) ≥1.5-fold; of these, DI ≥1.5-fold had the most significant association (OR 14.18, 95% CI 6.25-32.18, p = 2.23 × 10-10 ). A novel model consisting of three simple coagulation variables (fibrinogen and D-dimer levels on admission, and DI ≥1.5-fold) showed good prediction for symptomatic VTE (area under the curve 0.865, 95% CI 0.822-0.907, sensitivity 0.930, specificity 0.710). CONCLUSIONS: There is an excess risk of VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This novel model can aid early identification of patients who are at high risk for VTE.

18.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 36, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the value of radiomics parameters derived from contrast enhanced (CE) MRI in differentiation of hypovascular non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (hypo-NF-pNETs) and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas (SPNs). METHODS: Fifty-seven SPN patients and twenty-two hypo-NF-pNET patients were enrolled. Radiomics features were extracted from T1WI, arterial, portal and delayed phase of MR images. The enrolled patients were divided into training cohort and validation cohort with the 7:3 ratio. We built four radiomics signatures for the four phases respectively and ROC analysis were used to select the best phase to discriminate SPNs from hypo-NF-pNETs. The chosen radiomics signature and clinical independent risk factors were integrated to construct a clinic-radiomics nomogram. RESULTS: SPNs occurred in younger age groups than hypo-NF-pNETs (P < 0.0001) and showed a clear preponderance in females (P = 0.0185). Age was a significant independent factor for the differentiation of SPNs and hypo-NF-pNETs revealed by logistic regression analysis. With AUC values above 0.900 in both training and validation cohort (0.978 [95% CI, 0.942-1.000] in the training set, 0.907 [95% CI, 0.765-1.000] in the validation set), the radiomics signature of the arterial phase was picked to build a clinic-radiomics nomogram. The nomogram, composed by age and radiomics signature of the arterial phase, showed sufficient performance for discriminating SPNs and hypo-NF-pNETs with AUC values of 0.965 (95% CI, 0.923-1.000) and 0.920 (95% CI, 0.796-1.000) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Delong Test did not demonstrate statistical significance between the AUC of the clinic-radiomics nomogram and radiomics signature of arterial phase. CONCLUSION: CE-MRI-based radiomics approach demonstrated great potential in the differentiation of hypo-NF-pNETs and SPNs.

19.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503304

RESUMO

The Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) is a nocturnal and benthic freshwater fish endemic to the Yangtze River and its tributaries. In this study, we constructed a chromosome-level draft genome of S. meridionalis using 69.7 Gb Nanopore long reads and 49.5 Gb Illumina short reads. The genome assembly was 741.2 Mb in size with a contig N50 of 13.19 Mb. An additional 116.4 Gb of Bionano and 77.4 Gb of Hi-C data were applied to assemble contigs into scaffolds and further into 29 chromosomes, resulting in a 738.9 Mb genome with a scaffold N50 of 28.04 Mb. A total of 22,965 protein-coding genes were predicted from the genome with 22,519 (98.06%) genes functionally annotated. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed a rod-dominated visual system which was responsible for scotopic vision. The absence of cone opsins SWS1 and SWS2 resulted in the lack of UV and blue violet sensitivity. Mutations at key amino acid sites of RH1.1, RH1.2 and RH2 resulted in spectral tuning good for dim light vision and narrow color vision. A higher expression level of rod phototransduction genes than that of cone genes and higher rod-to-cone ratio led to higher optical sensitivity under dim light conditions. In addition, analysis of the genes involved in eye morphogenesis and development revealed the loss of some conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), which might be associated with the small eyes in catfish. Taken together, our study provided important clues for the adaptation of the catfish visual system to the nocturnal and benthic lifestyles. The draft genome of S. meridionalis represents a valuable resource for studies of the molecular mechanisms of ecological adaptation.

20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(1): 73-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390834

RESUMO

In recent years, a vast number of potential cancer therapeutic targets have emerged. However, developing efficient and effective drugs for the targets is of major concern. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), one of the three known gasotransmitters, is involved in the regulation of various cellular activities such as autophagy, apoptosis, migration, and proliferation. Low production of H2S has been identified in numerous cancer types. Treating cancer cells with H2S donors is the common experimental technique used to improve H2S levels; however, the outcome depends on the concentration/dose, time, cell type, and sometimes the drug used. Both natural and synthesized donors are available for this purpose, although their effects vary independently ranging from strong cancer suppressors to promoters. Nonetheless, numerous signaling pathways have been reported to be altered following the treatments with H2S donors which suggest their potential in cancer treatment. This review will analyze the potential of H2S donors in cancer therapy by summarizing key cellular processes and mechanisms involved.

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