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1.
J Xray Sci Technol ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of CT-based radiomics signature for preoperatively discriminating mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) from nomucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) in rectal cancer and compare with conventional CT values. METHOD: A total of 225 patients with histologically confirmed MA or NMA of rectal cancer were retrospectively enrolled. Radiomics features were computed from the entire tumor volume segmented from the post-contrast phase CT images. The maximum relevance and minimum redundancy (mRMR) and LASSO regression model were performed to select the best preforming features and build the radiomics models using a training cohort of 155 cases. Then, predictive performance of the models was validated using a validation cohort of 70 cases and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis method. Meanwhile, CT values in post- and pre-contrast phase, as well as their difference (D-values) of tumors in two cohorts were measured by two radiologists. ROC curves were also calculated to assess diagnostic efficacies. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-three patients were confirmed by pathology as NMA and 62 cases were MA. The radiomics signature comprised 19 selected features and showed good discrimination performance in both the training and validation cohorts. The areas under ROC curves (AUC) are 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-0.98) in training cohort and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87-0.99) in validation cohort, respectively. Three sets of CT values of MA in pre- and post-contrast phase, and their difference (D-value) (31±7.0, 51±12.6 and 20±9.3, respectively) were lower than those of NMA (37±5.6, 69±13.3 and 32±11.7, respectively). Comparing to the radiomics signature, using three sets of conventional CT values yielded relatively low diagnostic performance with AUC of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78-0.88), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.69-0.81) and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.72-0.83), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that CT radiomics features could be utilized as a noninvasive biomarker to identify MA patients from NMA of rectal cancer preoperatively, which is more accurate than using the conventional CT values.

2.
Nature ; 579(7799): 421-426, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188939

RESUMO

Bioorthogonal chemistry capable of operating in live animals is needed to investigate biological processes such as cell death and immunity. Recent studies have identified a gasdermin family of pore-forming proteins that executes inflammasome-dependent and -independent pyroptosis1-5. Pyroptosis is proinflammatory, but its effect on antitumour immunity is unknown. Here we establish a bioorthogonal chemical system, in which a cancer-imaging probe phenylalanine trifluoroborate (Phe-BF3) that can enter cells desilylates and 'cleaves' a designed linker that contains a silyl ether. This system enabled the controlled release of a drug from an antibody-drug conjugate in mice. When combined with nanoparticle-mediated delivery, desilylation catalysed by Phe-BF3 could release a client protein-including an active gasdermin-from a nanoparticle conjugate, selectively into tumour cells in mice. We applied this bioorthogonal system to gasdermin, which revealed that pyroptosis of less than 15% of tumour cells was sufficient to clear the entire 4T1 mammary tumour graft. The tumour regression was absent in immune-deficient mice or upon T cell depletion, and was correlated with augmented antitumour immune responses. The injection of a reduced, ineffective dose of nanoparticle-conjugated gasdermin along with Phe-BF3 sensitized 4T1 tumours to anti-PD1 therapy. Our bioorthogonal system based on Phe-BF3 desilylation is therefore a powerful tool for chemical biology; our application of this system suggests that pyroptosis-induced inflammation triggers robust antitumour immunity and can synergize with checkpoint blockade.

3.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169433

RESUMO

The leaves of Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kosterm. are traditionally used as healthy tea for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Chinese. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effects and potential mechanisms of the aqueous extracts from L. aggregate leaves (AqLA-L) on normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL) mice. HCL mice were induced by high fat diet (HFD) and orally administrated with or without AqLA-L for ten days. The results showed that AqLA-L (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/kg) significantly reduced serum TG, ALT, but elevated fecal TG in normal mice. AqLA-L (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/kg) also remarkably lowered serum TC, TG, LDL, N-HDL, ALT, GLU, APOB, hepatic GLU and increased serum HDL, APOA-I, fecal TG levels in HCL mice. These results revealed that AqLA-L treatment regulated the disorders of the serum lipid and liver function, reduced hepatic GLU contents both in normal and HCL mice. The potential mechanisms for cholesterol-lowering effects of AqLA-L might be up-regulation of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), as well as down-regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR). The data indicated that AqLA-L has potential therapeutic value in treatment of hyperlipidemia with great application security.

4.
Bioresour Technol ; 306: 123162, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197194

RESUMO

Herein, a novel innovative lipid co-extraction strategy using the biodiesel-producing microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and planktonic cladoceran Daphnia was proposed. Co-extraction occurred as Daphnia ingested and digested microalgal cells in a pre-treatment process; thereafter, lipids from these organisms were extracted. Composition of fatty acids from C. pyrenoidosa and Daphnia were appropriate as potential biodiesel feedstocks. Daphnia had different absorption and conversion capacities of various fatty acids from C. pyrenoidosa, which showed potential for improving biodiesel characteristics. Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3) were absorbed significantly into the body of Daphnia. The optimal lipid extraction and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) recovery rates were up to 41.08% and 12.35%, respectively, which were greater than that of the traditional lipid extraction method due to the rich oil content of Daphnia. Overall, this lipid co-extraction process serves a potential Daphnia utilization as an economical, green, low-energy way for microalgae biodiesel production.

5.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 45, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are lots of variations of pulmonary veins including dangerous type that could cause serious complications during surgery, limited information has been reported about these variations. We have experienced an extremely rare anomaly of the right superior pulmonary vein during right superior lobectomy. We used a technique called "non fissure" to manage the right superior pulmonary vein, and the results were satisfactory. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old woman with lung nodules visited our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple ground glass nodules in the right lung, the main pulmonary nodule was 11 mm in diameter and presented mixed density. The patient had a previous history of rectal cancer surgery. Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional computed tomography showed that the right superior pulmonary vein abnormally ran between the pulmonary artery trunk and the right main bronchus. We performed a right superior lobectomy and lymph node sampling by uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The pathological findings showed microinvasive adenocarcinoma with no lymphatic metastasis. She was discharged 7 days after surgery without any surgical complications. CONCLUSIONS: Although the variation of pulmonary vein is uncommon, it is dangerous to misidentify in the operation. Preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography is useful for avoiding unexpected bleeding. The technique "no fissure" might be a useful way to manage the variation of pulmonary vein.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073037

RESUMO

A well-defined crystalline cyano-functionalized graphdiyne (CN-GDY) is synthesized at a liquid/liquid interface through alkyne-alkyne coupling reactions. The configurations and nanostructures of CN-GDY were well characterized by TEM, SEM, AFM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. HR-TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) in combination with structure simulation firmly revealed a 9-fold stacking mode for CN-GDY.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098112

RESUMO

Grafted plant is a chimeric organism formed by the connection of scion and rootstock through stems, so stem growth and development become one of the important factors to affect grafted plant state. However, information regarding the molecular responses of stems secondary growth after grafting is limited. A grafted Rosa plant, with R. rugosa 'Rosea' as the scion (Rr_scion) grafted onto R. multiflora 'Innermis' as the stock (Rm_stock), has been shown to significantly improve stem thickness. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of stem secondary growth in grafted plant, a genome-wide transcription analysis was performed using an RNA sequence (RNA-seq) method between the scion and rootstock. Comparing ungrafted R. rugosa 'Rosea' (Rr) and R. multiflora 'Innermis' (Rm) plants, there were much more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified in Rr_scion (6887) than Rm_stock (229). Functional annotations revealed that DEGs in Rr_scion are involved in two Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways: the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction, whereas DEGs in Rm_stock were associated with starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. Moreover, different kinds of signal transduction-related DEGs, e.g., receptor-like serine/threonine protein kinases (RLKs), transcription factor (TF), and transporters, were identified and could affect the stem secondary growth of both the scion and rootstock. This work provided new information regarding the underlying molecular mechanism between scion and rootstock after grafting.

8.
Cell ; 180(5): 941-955.e20, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109412

RESUMO

The pyroptosis execution protein GSDMD is cleaved by inflammasome-activated caspase-1 and LPS-activated caspase-11/4/5. The cleavage unmasks the pore-forming domain from GSDMD-C-terminal domain. How the caspases recognize GSDMD and its connection with caspase activation are unknown. Here, we show site-specific caspase-4/11 autoprocessing, generating a p10 product, is required and sufficient for cleaving GSDMD and inducing pyroptosis. The p10-form autoprocessed caspase-4/11 binds the GSDMD-C domain with a high affinity. Structural comparison of autoprocessed and unprocessed capase-11 identifies a ß sheet induced by the autoprocessing. In caspase-4/11-GSDMD-C complex crystal structures, the ß sheet organizes a hydrophobic GSDMD-binding interface that is only possible for p10-form caspase-4/11. The binding promotes dimerization-mediated caspase activation, rendering a cleavage independently of the cleavage-site tetrapeptide sequence. Crystal structure of caspase-1-GSDMD-C complex shows a similar GSDMD-recognition mode. Our study reveals an unprecedented substrate-targeting mechanism for caspases. The hydrophobic interface suggests an additional space for developing inhibitors specific for pyroptotic caspases.

9.
Exp Cell Res ; 389(2): 111912, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084391

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke leads to neuronal cell death and induces a cascade of inflammatory signals that results in secondary brain damage. Although constant efforts to develop therapeutic strategies and to reveal the molecular mechanism resulting in the physiopathology of this disease, much still remains unclear. Membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are two major families of pattern recognition receptors that initiate pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. In the present study, we explored the role of NLRP10 in regulating inflammatory responses in acute ischemic stroke using the wild type (WT) and NLRP10 knockout (KO) mice by inducing middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO) injuries. The study first showed that NLRP10 was over-expressed in the ischemic penumbra of WT mice. Then, the brain infarct volume was significantly decreased, and the moving activity was improved post-MCAO in mice with NLRP10 knockout. Apoptosis was also alleviated by NLRP10-knockout, as evidenced by the decreased number of TUNEL-staining cells. Further, NLRP10 deficiency attenuated the activation of glia cells in hippocampus of mice with MCAO operation. NLRP10 inhibition ameliorated the levels of inflammatory factors in peripheral blood serum and hippocampus of mice after stroke. The activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways was markedly suppressed by NLRP10 ablation in mice after MCAO treatment. Importantly, inflammasome, including NLRP12, ASC and Caspase-1, induced by MCAO in hippocampus of mice was clearly impeded by the loss of NLRP10. The results above were mainly verified in LPS-incubated astrocytes in the absence of NLRP10. Correspondingly, in LPS-treated astrocytes, NLRP10 knockout-reduced inflammation via impairing TLR-4/NF-κB and NLRP12/ASC/Caspase-1 pathways was evidently restored by over-expressing NLRP10. Therefore, the results above indicated an essential role of NLRP10 in regulating ischemic stroke, presenting NLRP10 as a promising target to protect human against stroke.

10.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 30-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914661

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the dysfunction of immune system and consequently the destruction of insulin-producing ß cells. In past decades, numerous studies have uncovered that CD4+ T cell subsets are critical in the pathogenesis of T1D, manifesting that type 1 T helper (Th1) and Th17 cells are pathogenic, while regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th2 cells are protective. More recently, the pathogenic role of another subset, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells that essentially regulate germinal center (GC) formation and humoral responses, has also been demonstrated in T1D and many other autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the aberrant differentiation and function of Tfh cells in T1D, and also discuss the underlying mechanisms. A better understanding on the pathogenic role of Tfh cells in T1D will inspire the design of potential therapeutic strategies to target this subset in the future.

11.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a 48-week course of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) plus Chinese medicine (CM) therapy, namely Tiaogan Jianpi Hexue () and Tiaogan Jiedu Huashi () fomulae, in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive Chinese patients. METHODS: A total of 605 HBeAg-positive Chinese CHB patients were screened and 590 eligible participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups in 1:1 ratio including experimental group (EG, received ADV plus CM) and control group (CG, received ADV plus CM-placebo) for 48 weeks. The major study outcomes were the rates of HBeAg and HBV-DNA loss on week 12, 24, 36, 48, respectively. Secondary endpoints including liver functions (enzymes and bilirubin readings) were evaluated every 4 weeks at the beginning of week 24, 36, and 48. Routine blood, urine, and stool analyses in addition to electrocardiogram and abdominal B scan were monitored as safety evaluations. Adverse events (AEs) were documented. RESULTS: The combination therapy demonstrated superior HBeAg loss at 48 weeks, without additional AEs. The full analysis population was 560 and 280 in each group. In the EG, population achieved HBeAg loss on week 12, 24, 36, and 48 were 25 (8.90%), 34 (12.14%), 52 (18.57%), and 83 (29.64%), respectively; the equivalent numbers in the CG were 20 (7.14%), 41 (14.64%), 54 (19.29%), and 50 (17.86%), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between these group values on week 48 (P<0.01). No additional AEs were found in EG. Subgroup analysis suggested different outcomes among treatment patterns. CONCLUSION: Combination of CM and ADV therapy demonstrated superior HBeAg clearance compared with ADV monotherapy. The finding indicates that this combination therapy may provide an improved therapeutic effect and safety profile (ChiCTR-TRC-11001263).

12.
Int J Pharm ; 575: 119002, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893546

RESUMO

Itraconazole (ITZ) can be used for the treatment of cryptococcus neoformans meningitis and aspergillus brain abscess. While, the inherent hydrophobicity of ITZ and the existence of blood brain barrier (BBB) limit its applications as a central nervous system drug. In this study, a novel brain targeting drug delivery system based on bovine serum albumin (BSA) was constructed for enhancing ITZ distribution in brain. Firstly, ITZ was loaded into BSA nanoparticles (ITZ-NPs) with 11.6% of drug loading. Subsequently, the nanoparticles were modified with borneol (BO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (PEG/BO-ITZ-NPs). The resulting nanoparticles retained their nanosize (186.3 nm), uniform and spherical morphology, and negative surface charge (-21.03 mV). Cell uptake studies showed that compared with ITZ-NPs, PEG/BO-ITZ-NPs had significantly increased uptake in bEnd.3 cells, and the increase in BO concentration was beneficial for the cellular uptake of NPs. Moreover, PEG/BO-ITZ-NPs displayed an approximately 3.5-fold higher area under the curve in rats and about 2-fold higher brain distribution in mice than that of Sporanox®, i.e. ITZ solubilized by hydroxylpropyl-ß-cyclodetrin, after i.v. administration. In a word, BO and PEG dual modified BSA nanoparticles may potentially serve as an ITZ vehicle for brain targeting.

13.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(3): 2447-2457, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680311

RESUMO

The dysregulation of long noncoding (lncRNA) UCA1 may play an important role in tumor progression. However, the function in gliomas is unclear. Therefore, this experiment was designed to explore the pathogenesis of glioma based on lncRNA UCA1. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of lncRNA UCA1, miR-135a, and HOXD9 in gliomas tissues. The effect of lncRNA UCA1 and miR-135a on tumor cell proliferation and migration invasiveness was examined by CCK-8 and transwell assays. Target gene prediction and screening, luciferase reporter assay were used to verify downstream target genes of lncRNA UCA1. Expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and HOXD9 was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The tumor changes in mice were detected by in vivo experiments in nude mice. lncRNA UCA1 was highly expressed in glioma tissues and cell lines. lncRNA UCA1 expression was associated with significantly poor overall survival in gliomas. Moreover, lncRNA UCA1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and migration, and promoted the occurrence of EMT. In addition, lncRNA UCA1 promoted the development of EMT by positively regulating HOXD9 expression as a miR-135a sponge. In vivo experiments indicated that UCA1 exerted its biological functions by modulating miR-135a and HOXD9. In conclusion, lncRNA UCA1 can induce the activation of HOXD9 by inhibiting the expression of miR-135a and promote the occurrence of EMT in glioma.

14.
Singapore Med J ; 61(1): 34-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Near-peer teaching is gaining popularity as a teaching modality, as it improves the learner's understanding, is targeted at an appropriate level and promotes familiarisation. This study was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating near-peer instruction into simulation-based training within a junior residency programme. METHODS: 42 first-year residents from an internal medicine junior residency programme were recruited. Participants underwent a simulation-based training programme conducted over five weeks. Each week involved either an emergency or acute clinical scenario. A structured questionnaire was administered prior to and after the course to compare participants' perceived knowledge, experience and confidence in managing the clinical scenarios. RESULTS: In our study, 83% of participants agreed/strongly agreed that the scenarios were realistic. There were improvements in perceived knowledge, experience and confidence after the course. The greatest improvement was seen for experience (post-simulation: median 7.00 [interquartile range (IQR) 6.00‒8.00] vs. pre-simulation: median 5.00 [IQR 3.00-6.25]). 65% of participants were keen to help with future training. CONCLUSION: Near-peer simulation training was found to be a viable and valuable method of instruction for first-year residents for increasing experience, instilling confidence and improving perceived knowledge. Integration of such programmes within medical education curricula shows good promise of continuity, with many first-year residents inspired to organise subsequent sessions.

15.
Chem Asian J ; 15(3): 391-397, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851414

RESUMO

We report the preparation and the full characterization of a novel mononuclear trigonal bipyramidal CoII complex [Co(NS3 iPr )Br](BPh4 ) (1) with the tetradentate sulfur-containing ligand NS3 iPr (N(CH2 CH2 SCH(CH3 )2 )3 ). The comparison of its magnetic behaviour with those of two previously reported compounds [Co(NS3 iPr )Cl](BPh4 ) (2) and [Co(NS3 tBu )Br](ClO4 ) (3) (NS3 tBu =N(CH2 CH2 SC(CH3 )3 )3 ) with similar structures shows that 1 displays a single-molecule magnet behaviour with the longest magnetic relaxation time (0.051 s) at T=1.8 K, which is almost thirty times larger than that of 3 (0.0019 s) and more than three times larger than that of 2 (0.015 s), though its effective energy barrier (26 cm-1 ) is smaller. Compound 1, which contains two crystallographically independent molecules, presents smaller rhombic parameters (E=1.45 and 0.59 cm-1 ) than 2 (E=2.05 and 1.02 cm-1 ) and 3 (E=2.00 and 0.80 cm-1 ) obtained from theoretical calculations. Compounds 2 and 3 have almost the same axial (D) and rhombic (E) parameter values, but present a large difference of their effective energy barrier and magnetic relaxation which may be attributed to the larger volume of BPh4 - than ClO4 - leading to larger diamagnetic dilution (weaker magnetic dipolar interaction) for 2 than for 3. The combination of these factors leads to a much slower magnetic relaxation for 1 than for the two other compounds.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 4177-4184, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854883

RESUMO

The effects of Thiobacillus denitrificans combined with signal molecules on the removal of sulfide and nitrate was investigated. By adding signal molecules and T. denitrificans at the same, the total number of microorganisms increased, the removal of sulfide and nitrate was accelerated, and an increase in nitrogen gas and more stable accumulation of elemental sulfur was observed. The total number of microorganisms after the reaction was detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. In this experiment, the optimal concentration for the stable accumulation of elemental sulfur from six concentrations of signal molecules was revealed. Further, the effects of adding signal molecules, T. denitrificans, and their combination were analyzed at this concentration. The results showed that it was easier to accumulate elemental sulfur after the addition of 1.0 µmol·L-1 signal molecule. After adding both T. denitrificans and 1.0 µmol·L-1 signal molecules at a sulfide concentration of 200 mg·L-1, the removal of sulfide and nitrate increased to 99.8% and 96.9% at 72 h, respectively, and increases in nitrogen gas and sulfur were observed. The amounts of elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas reached to 59.0 mg and 80.0 mL, respectively, after adding 2.5 µmol·L-1 signal molecules at 72 h when the sulfide concentration was 300 mg·L-1. Under those conditions, the removal efficiency of sulfide and nitrate reached 99.0% and 93.9%, and the production of elemental sulfur and nitrogen reached 63.1 mg and 79.5 mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Enxofre , Thiobacillus , Reatores Biológicos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Nitratos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sulfetos , Enxofre/metabolismo
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 9786-9793, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess a radiomic scheme that combines image features from digital mammography and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to improve classification accuracy of nonpalpable breast lesion (NBL) with Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3-5 microcalcifications-only in mammography. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study was approved by the Internal Research Review and Ethical Committee of our hospital. We included 81 patients who underwent a three-dimensional digital breast X-ray wire positioning for local resection between October 2012 and November 2016. All patients underwent breast MRI and mammography before the treatment, and all obtained pathological confirmation. According to the pathological results, 41 patients with benign lesions were assigned to the benign group and 40 patients with malignant lesions were assigned to the malignant group. We used the random forest algorithm to select significant features and to test the single and multimodal classifiers using the Leave-One-Out-Cross-Validation method. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was also used to evaluate its discriminating performance. RESULTS The multimodal classifier achieved AUC of 0.903, with a sensitivity of 82.5% and a specificity of 80.48%, which was better than any single modality. CONCLUSIONS Multimodal radiomics classification shows promising power in discriminating malignant lesions from benign lesions in NBL patients with BI-RADS 3-5 microcalcifications-only in mammography.

18.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690840

RESUMO

The gasdermins are a family of recently identified pore-forming effector proteins that cause membrane permeabilization and pyroptosis, a lytic pro-inflammatory type of cell death. Gasdermins contain a cytotoxic N-terminal domain and a C-terminal repressor domain connected by a flexible linker. Proteolytic cleavage between these two domains releases the intramolecular inhibition on the cytotoxic domain, allowing it to insert into cell membranes and form large oligomeric pores, which disrupts ion homeostasis and induces cell death. Gasdermin-induced pyroptosis plays a prominent role in many hereditary diseases and (auto)inflammatory disorders as well as in cancer. In this Review, we discuss recent developments in gasdermin research with a focus on mechanisms that control gasdermin activation, pore formation and functional consequences of gasdermin-induced membrane permeabilization.

19.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative evaluation of the consistency of pituitary macroadenomas is important for neurosurgeons to prepare the surgical plan. PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of texture analysis (TA) of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at a standard b-value (b = 1000 s/mm2 ) and a high b-value (b = 2000 s/mm2 ) for their ability to assess the tumor consistency of pituitary macroadenomas. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION/SUBJECTS: Fifty patients with histologically confirmed pituitary macroadenomas were classified as soft (n = 37) or hard (n = 13) types. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Coronal T2 -weighted imaging (T2 WI), Readout Segmentation of Long Variable Echo-trains (RESOLVE) DWI at b = 1000 s/mm2 and b = 2000 s/mm2 were acquired with 3.0T MRI. ASSESSMENT: The corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps (ADC1000 and ADC2000 ) were registered to T2 WI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually drawn along the solid part of the tumor from the coregistered T2 WI-ADC images. The texture parameters from T2 WI, ADC1000 , and ADC2000 were acquired. STATISTICAL TESTS: The texture parameters were compared between the two types by using unpaired Student's t-test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analyses were used to assess their diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Significant differences in TA parameters of ADC1000 and ADC2000 were observed between soft and hard types (P < 0.05 for all), whereas the TA of T2 WI resulted in no significant difference (P > 0.05 for all). TA of ADC2000 provided a superior diagnostic performance compared with that of ADC1000 (P = 0.038). A combination of mean value and entropy of ADC2000 yielded an AUC, a sensitivity, and a specificity of 0.911, 78.4% and 92.3%, respectively. DATA CONCLUSION: TA of ADC values were useful for assessing the tumor consistency of pituitary macroadenomas. ADC2000 may facilitate better type discrimination. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(49): 46044-46053, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718126

RESUMO

In this article, the inkjet printing technique is demonstrated for the stacking of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanosheets for flexible all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors. The ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate/graphene oxide ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O/GO) aqueous inks are facilely printed on polymide (PI) film and transformed to RGO/MoO3 hybrids via thermal treatments at air atmosphere. The compound inks are water-based, inkjet-printable, and nontoxic for inkjet printing to form two-dimensional crystal materials. The physical properties of aqueous inks are optimized within a printable range characterized by the Ohnesorge number of 1 < Z < 14. The inkjet-printed symmetric micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-H2SO4 gel electrolyte possess a wide voltage window of 0-0.8 V, excellent flexibility, a high volumetric specific capacitance of 22.5 F cm-3 at 0.044 A cm-3, as well as good cyclic stability due to the synergistic effect of RGO and MoO3. Furthermore, the inkjet-printed composite MSCs delivered a maximum energy density of 2 mWh cm-3 and a power density of 0.018 W cm-3, and the capacity retention rate of inkjet-printed MSCs is still retained 82% even after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles, indicating good electrochemical properties. Above all, the as-designed inkjet printing technique shows potential for flexible and wearable energy storage electronics.

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