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1.
Mucosal Immunol ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013572

RESUMO

IL-10-expressing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) are dysfunctional in patients with many immune disorders. The underlying mechanism remains to be further elucidated. Glutamine is an essential nutrient for cell metabolism. This study aims to elucidate the role of glutaminolysis in maintaining the immune regulatory capacity in B10 cells. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 50 patients with allergic rhinitis and 50 healthy control subjects. B cells were isolated from blood samples by cell sorting with flow cytometry. The role of glutaminolysis in regulating B10 cell activities was assessed by immunological and biochemical approaches. The results showed that B cells from patients with allergic rhinitis expressed low levels of the transporter of glutamine and neutral amino acid. Glutaminolysis was required in the IL-10 expression in B cells. The glutamine catabolism was required in B10 cell generation. The mTOR activation mediated the glutaminolysis-associated B10 cell induction, and the suppression of the B cell glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activation. GSK3 activation suppressed IL-10 expression in B cells. Inhibition of GSK3 enhanced IL-10 expression in B cells and alleviated experimental allergic rhinitis by generating immune competent type 1 regulatory T cells.

2.
World J Pediatr ; 17(6): 637-642, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between vestibular and auditory functions in pediatric patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). METHODS: A total of 30 pediatric patients experiencing unilateral SSHL between 5.9 and 13.0 years of age were enrolled in this study. Pure tone audiometry was evaluated prior to treatment initiation and again after one month of treatment. Prior to treatment initiation, vertigo symptoms were noted; then several vestibular function tests were conducted including caloric testing, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (o-VEMPs) and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (c-VEMPs). Associations between pre and post-treatment vestibular function and hearing threshold levels were analyzed. RESULTS: Initial hearing thresholds of children with vertigo were higher than thresholds of children without vertigo (92 dB vs 79 dB, P = 0.033), while initial hearing thresholds of children with abnormal caloric test findings were higher than thresholds of children with normal caloric test findings (93 dB vs 67 dB, P = 0.014). Cutoff values of hearing thresholds for those with vertigo symptoms and abnormal vestibular test results were 86.000- and 89.583-dB HL, respectively. Regarding prognosis, children with vertigo exhibited lower recovery rates than children without vertigo (33% vs 75%, P = 0.025); recovery rates of children with abnormal caloric test results were lower than the overall recovery rate (25% vs 73%, respectively, P = 0.039). CONCLUSION: Assessments of vertigo symptoms and vestibular function are useful tools in predicting pediatric SSHL patient disease severity and prognosis.

4.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 253-262, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging disease. The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in infants remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 have adverse brain development. METHODS: This multicenter observational study was conducted at two designated maternal and children's hospitals in Hubei Province, mainland China from February 1, 2020 to May 15, 2020. Neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were enrolled. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and volumes of grey and white matters, and physical growth parameters were observed at 44 weeks corrected gestational age. RESULTS: Of 72 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19, 8 (11%) were diagnosed with COVID-19, 8 (11%) were critically ill, and no deaths were reported. Among the eight neonates that underwent brain MRI at corrected gestational age of 44 weeks, five neonates were diagnosed with COVID-19. Among these five neonates, three presented abnormal MRI findings including abnormal signal in white matter and delayed myelination in newborn 2, delayed myelination and brain dysplasia in newborn 3, and abnormal signal in the bilateral periventricular in newborn 5. The other three neonates without COVID-19 presented no significantly changes of brain MRI findings and the volumes of grey matter and white matter compared to those of healthy newborns at the equivalent age (P > 0.05). Physical growth parameters for weight, length, and head circumference at gestational age of 44 weeks were all above the 3rd percentile for all neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 had abnormal brain MRI findings but these neonates did not appear to have poor physical growth. These findings may provide the information on the follow-up schedule on the neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2, but further study is required to evaluate the association between the abnormal MRI findings and the exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
5.
World J Pediatr ; 17(2): 171-179, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We collected neonatal neurological, clinical, and imaging data to study the neurological manifestations and imaging characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This case-control study included newborns diagnosed with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China from January 2020 to July 2020. All included newborns had complete neurological evaluations and head magnetic resonance imaging. We normalized the extracted T2-weighted imaging data to a standard neonate template space, and segmented them into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. The comparison of gray matter volume was conducted between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of five neonates with COVID-19 were included in this study. The median reflex scores were 2 points lower in the infected group than in the control group (P = 0.0094), and the median orientation and behavior scores were 2.5 points lower in the infected group than in the control group (P = 0.0008). There were also significant differences between the two groups in the total scale score (P = 0.0426). The caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus had the strongest correlations with the Hammersmith neonatal neurologic examination (HNNE) score, and the absolute correlation coefficients between the gray matter volumes and each part of the HNNE score were all almost greater than 0.5. CONCLUSIONS: We first compared the neurological performance of neonates with and without COVID-19 by quantitative neuroimaging and neurological examination methods. Considering the limited numbers of patients, more studies focusing on the structural or functional aspects of the virus in the central nervous system in different age groups will be carried out in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Desenvolvimento Infantil , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 702: 108828, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741336

RESUMO

Eosinophils (Eos) are the canonical effector cells in allergic rhinitis (AR) and many inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of eosinophilia occurring in the lesion sites is not fully understood yet. Twist1 protein (Twist, in short) is an apoptosis inhibitor that also has immune regulatory functions. This study aims to investigate the role of Twist in the pathogenesis of eosinophilia in AR. In this study, surgically removed human nasal mucosal samples were obtained from patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps with AR (the AR group) or without AR (the nAR group). Eos were isolated from the samples by flow cytometry. We found that abundant Eos were obtained from the surgically removed nasal mucosa tissues of both nAR and AR groups. Significantly higher Ras activation was detected in AR Eos than that in nAR Eos. Ras activation was associated with the apoptosis resistance in AR Eos. The Twist (an apoptosis inhibitor) expression was higher in AR Eos, which was positively correlated with the Ras activation status. The sensitization to IgG induced Twist expression in Eos, in which Ras activated the MAPK-HIF-1α pathway, the latter promoted the Twist gene transcription. Twist bound Rac GTPase activating protein-1 to sustain the Ras activation in Eos. Ras activation sustained the apoptosis resistance in Eos. In conclusion, high Ras activation was detected in the AR nasal mucosal tissue-isolated Eos. IgG-sensitization induced Ras activation and Twist expression in Eos, that conferred Eos the apoptosis resistance.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Eosinófilos/citologia , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21301, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has affected people's health worldwide. For college students, web-based physical education is a challenge, as these course are normally offered outdoors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use data from a web-based survey to evaluate the relationship between the mental health status of college students and their sports-related lifestyles. Problems related to web-based physical education were also examined. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted by snowball sampling from May 8 to 11, 2020. Demographic data, mental health status, and sports-related lifestyles of college students in Wuhan as well as issues related to web-based physical education were collected. Mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: The study included 1607 respondents from 267 cities. The average scores of the DASS-21 subscales (2.46 for depression, 1.48 for anxiety, and 2.59 for stress) were significantly lower in our study than in a previous study (P<.05). Lower DASS-21 scores were significantly correlated with regular exercise, maintaining exercise habits during the outbreak of COVID-19, exercising more than 1 to 2 times a week, exercise duration >1 hour, and >2000 pedometer steps (all P<.05). None of the three forms of web-based physical education was preferred by more than 50% of respondents. Frequent technical problems were confronted by 1087/1607 students (67.6%). Shape-up exercises (846/1607, 52.6%), a designed combination of exercises (710/1607, 44.2%), and Chinese kung fu (559/1607, 34.8%) were suggested sports for web-based physical education. CONCLUSIONS: Mental status was significantly correlated with regular exercise and sufficient exercise duration. Professional physical guidance is needed for college students in selected sports. Exercises not meeting students' preferences, frequent technical problems, and the distant interaction involved in web-based physical education were the main problems that should be solved in future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Educação Física e Treinamento/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Estudos Transversais , Educação à Distância/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 232-239, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333248

RESUMO

In the early February, 2020, we called up an experts' committee with more than 30 Chinese experts from 11 national medical academic organizations to formulate the first edition of consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which has been published in this journal. With accumulated experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in children, we have updated the consensus statement and released the second edition recently. The current version in English is a condensed version of the second edition of consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in children. In the current version, diagnosis and treatement criteria have been optimized, and early identification of severe and critical cases is highlighted. The early warning indicators for severe pediatric cases have been summarized which is utmost important for clinical practice. This version of experts consensus will be valuable for better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in children worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Criança , Consenso , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Biogerontology ; 21(3): 311-323, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026209

RESUMO

The cochlear basilar membrane (CBM) contains inner hair cells and outer hair cells that convert sound waves into electrical signals and transmit them to the central auditory system. Cochlear aging, the primary reason of age-related hearing loss, can reduce the signal transmission capacity. There is no ideal in vitro aging model of the CBM. In this study, we cultured the CBM, which was dissected from the cochlea of the C57BL/6 mice 5 days after birth, in a medium containing 20 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, or 60 mg/mL D-galactose (D-gal). Compared with the control group, the levels of senescence-associated ß-galactosidase were increased in a concentration-dependent manner in the CBM of the D-gal groups. In addition, levels of the mitochondrial superoxide and patterns of an age-related mitochondrial DNA3860-bp deletion were significantly increased. The ATP levels and the membrane potential of the mitochondrial were significantly decreased in the CBM of the D-gal groups compared with the control group. Furthermore, in comparison with the control group, damaged hair cell stereocilia and a loss of inner hair cell ribbon synapses were observed in the CBM of the D-gal groups. A loss of hair cells and activation of caspase-3-mediated outer hair cell apoptosis were also observed in the CBM of the high-dose D-gal group. These insults induced by D-gal in the CBM in vitro were similar to the ones that occur in cochlear natural aging in vivo. Thus, we believe that this is a successful in vitro aging model using cultured CBM. These results demonstrate the effects of mitochondrial oxidative damage on presbycusis and provide a reliable aging model to study the mechanisms of presbycusis in vitro.


Assuntos
Membrana Basilar , Galactose , Animais , Membrana Basilar/metabolismo , Cóclea/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Cell Immunol ; 344: 103930, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196568

RESUMO

The tolerogenic dendritic cell dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of immune diseases. Microbial stimulus is required in the maintenance of immune functions. This study aims to elucidate the role of Mal signal in the maintenance of DEC205+ DC (decDC) immune tolerogenic function. In this study, peripheral DCs were collected from allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and healthy control (HC) subjects to assess the functional status of decDCs. An AR murine model was developed to test the role of Mal signals in the maintenance of decDCs' functions. We observed that AR decDCs (decDCs obtained from AR patients) were incompetent in the induction of type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells). AR decDCs expressed less IL-10 than that in HC decDCs. IL-10 mRNA decayed spontaneously in AR decDCs. Tat-activating regulatory DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP43) protected IL-10 mRNA from decay. AR decDCs expressed lower levels of Mal than that in HC decDCs. Mal depletion resulted in IL-10 mRNA decay in HC decDCs. Reconstitution of Mal in AR decDCs restored the capacity of inducing Tr1 cells and attenuated experimental AR in mice. In conclusion, Mal plays a critical role in the maintenance of decDC's immune tolerogenic function. The absence or insufficient Mal signal impairs decDC's tolerogenic property. Reconstitution of Mal in AR decDCs can restore the immune tolerogenic capacity, which may have translational potential in the treatment of AR and other allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-1/deficiência , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 105(4): 719-727, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694585

RESUMO

T helper (Th)2 polarization plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the underlying mechanism remains to be further investigated. B cell lymphoma protein-2 like protein-12 (Bcl2L12) has the anti-apoptotic function. This study aims to elucidate the contribution of Bcl2L12 to Th2 polarization in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). In this study, human CD4+ T cells were isolated from blood samples collected from AR patients and healthy control (HC) subjects. The immune response profiles of CD4+ T cells were analyzed by immunologic approaches. The results showed that AR CD4+ T cells (CD4+ T cells collected from AR patients) showed defects of apoptosis. The expression of FasL in AR CD4+ T cells was lower than that of HC CD4+ T cells. Serum IL-5 levels were negatively correlated with the expression of FasL in AR CD4+ T cells. Exposure of CD4+ T cells to IL-5 in the culture suppressed the expression of FasL and increased the expression of Bcl2L12. IL-5 increased the levels of Bcl2L12 in CD4+ T cells, the latter bound to the FasL promoter to prevent FasL gene transcription. Inhibition of Bcl2L12 restored the apoptosis machinery in AR CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, overexpression of Bcl2L12 in CD4+ T cells compromises the apoptosis machinery; the latter can be restored by inhibition of Bcl2L12. BcL2L12 in CD4+ T cells may be a novel target for the treatment of AR and other allergic disorders.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Interleucina-5/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Adulto , Proteína Ligante Fas/genética , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-5/sangue , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/sangue , Rinite Alérgica/genética , Transcrição Genética
12.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 8(11): 1274-1283, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interleukin (IL)-10 expression in B cells plays an important role in immune tolerance. The regulation of IL-10 expression in B cells is not fully understood yet. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is increased in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. This study tests a hypothesis that TNF enhances histone deacetylase (HDAC)11 expression to inhibit the expression of IL-10 in B cells of AR patients. METHODS: Peripheral B cells were collected from healthy persons and patients with AR. The B cells were analyzed by immune assay and molecular biological approaches for the expression of IL-10. RESULTS: The expression of HDAC11 was higher in B cells of patients with AR than that in healthy persons. The expression of IL-10 in B cells was lower in AR patients than that in healthy subjects. The levels of HDAC11 in B cells were negatively correlated with the levels of IL-10. Exposure of B cells to TNF in the culture inhibited the expression of IL-10, in which HDAC11 played a critical role in the interference with the Il10 gene transcription. Inhibition of HDAC11 restored the IL-10 expression in B cells from AR patients and attenuated the experimental AR. CONCLUSION: TNF can suppress the expression of IL-10 in B cells via enhancing the expression of HDAC11. Inhibition of HDAC11 restores the IL-10 expression in B cells of AR subjects. HDAC11 may be a novel target for the treatment of AR.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Histona Desacetilases/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(30): 48915-48921, 2017 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388587

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of nasal polyp is to be further investigated. Micro RNA (miR) plays a role in the development of allergic inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-10-producing dendritic cells (DC) have immune tolerogenic properties. This study test a hypothesis that miR-17-92 cluster is associated with suppressing IL-10 in peripheral DC. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained from 26 patients with nasal polyp. The CD11c DCs were isolated from the blood samples and analyzed for the expression of IL-10. We observed that, as compared with healthy subjects, the IL-10 expression in peripheral DC was significantly lower in polyp patients. The levels of miR-19a, but not the rest 5 members of the miR-17-92 cluster, were markedly higher in DCs in polyp group. Exposure to recombinant IL-4 suppressed the IL-10 expression in DCs, which was abolished by blocking histone deacetylase-11 or knocking down the miR-19a gene in DCs. We conclude that miR-19a plays a critical role in the suppression of IL-10 in peripheral DCs, which may be a target in the immune therapy for nasal polyp.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-10/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Pólipos Nasais/genética , Interferência de RNA , Adulto , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Pólipos Nasais/diagnóstico , Pólipos Nasais/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica/genética , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nanoscale ; 8(8): 4688-98, 2016 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26853517

RESUMO

It is a great challenge in nanotechnology for fluorescent nanobioprobes to be applied to visually detect and directly isolate pathogens in situ. A novel and visual immunosensor technique for efficient detection and isolation of Salmonella was established here by applying fluorescent nanobioprobes on a specially-designed cellulose-based swab (a solid-phase enrichment system). The selective and chromogenic medium used on this swab can achieve the ultrasensitive amplification of target bacteria and form chromogenic colonies in situ based on a simple biochemical reaction. More importantly, because this swab can serve as an attachment site for the targeted pathogens to immobilize and immunologically capture nanobioprobes, our mAb-conjugated QD bioprobes were successfully applied on the solid-phase enrichment system to capture the fluorescence of targeted colonies under a designed excitation light instrument based on blue light-emitting diodes combined with stereomicroscopy or laser scanning confocal microscopy. Compared with the traditional methods using 4-7 days to isolate Salmonella from the bacterial mixture, this method took only 2 days to do this, and the process of initial screening and preliminary diagnosis can be completed in only one and a half days. Furthermore, the limit of detection can reach as low as 10(1) cells per mL Salmonella on the background of 10(5) cells per mL non-Salmonella (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis or Citrobacter freundii, respectively) in experimental samples, and even in human anal ones. The visual and efficient immunosensor technique may be proved to be a favorable alternative for screening and isolating Salmonella in a large number of samples related to public health surveillance.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Humanos , Luz , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pontos Quânticos/ultraestrutura , Salmonella/imunologia
15.
Mol Neurobiol ; 48(3): 729-36, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23553314

RESUMO

The brain of a human neonate is more vulnerable to hypoglycemia than that of pediatric and adult patients. Repetitive and profound hypoglycemia during the neonatal period (RPHN) causes brain damage and leads to severe neurologic sequelae. Ex vivo high-resolution (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was carried out in the present study to detect metabolite alterations in newborn and adolescent rats and investigate the effects of RPHN on their occipital cortex and hippocampus. Results showed that RPHN induces significant changes in a number of cerebral metabolites, and such changes are region-specific. Among the 16 metabolites detected by ex vivo (1)H NMR, RPHN significantly increased the levels of creatine, glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and aspartate, as well as other metabolites, including succine, taurine, and myo-inositol, in the occipital cortex of neonatal rats compared with the control. By contrast, changes in these neurochemicals were not significant in the hippocampus of neonatal rats. When the rats had developed into adolescence, the changes above were maintained and the levels of other metabolites, including lactate, N-acetyl aspartate, alanine, choline, glycine, acetate, and ascorbate, increased in the occipital cortex. By contrast, most of these metabolites were reduced in the hippocampus. These metabolic changes suggest that complementary mechanisms exist between these two brain areas. RPHN appears to affect occipital cortex and hippocampal activities, neurotransmitter transition, energy metabolism, and other metabolic equilibria in newborn rats; these effects are further aggravated when the newborn rats develop into adolescence. Changes in the metabolism of neurotransmitter system may be an adaptive measure of the central nervous system in response to RPHN.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Occipital/metabolismo , Prótons , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Análise Discriminante , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metaboloma , Lobo Occipital/patologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21924106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the reasons of multiple operations in children with airway foreign body through analyzing the clinical data of children who received two or more operations. METHODS: From 2003 to 2009, all children with airway foreign body who received two or more operations in hospital were enrolled. The clinical manifestations, image before and after operation and intraoperative conditions were retrospectively analyzed, in order to find the reasons of multiple operations. RESULTS: All children fully recovered, no serious complications or death. The reasons of two or more operations were multiple: 21 cases (42.8%) were related to the factor of apparatus, 20 (40.8%) cases were related to the quality, surrounding conditions and location of the foreign body and experience and surgical skills of operator, 4 (8.2%) cases were due to incarceration of foreign body, another 4 (8.2%) cases were due to unstable intraoperative oxygen saturation. CONCLUSIONS: Both subjective and objective factors (quality, surrounding conditions or location of foreign body, et al) were related to multiple operations. To reduce the chance of multiple operations, careful preoperative assessment and preparation are necessary.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Sistema Respiratório , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 49(3): 218-21, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21575374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the level of serum uric acid (UA) in children with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). METHOD: Between Sep. 2008 and Mar. 2010, 138 children with OSAHS were enrolled in study group. Sixty-five children with accessory auricle or ptosis of upper lid were enrolled into the control group. Furthermore, according to apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) or obstructive apnea index (OAI) the study group was further divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe group). At last, the study group and control group were divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI), separately. The fasting serum UA level was compared among the different groups. Then the correlation between the serum UA level and AHI, BMI, oxygen desaturation index, least arterial oxygen saturation (LSaO(2)) and the percentage of total sleep time with arterial oxygen saturation < 0.92 was also analyzed in OSAHS children with or without overweight and obesity respectively. RESULT: The difference of serum UA level between the study group and control group (z = -0.443), and the difference among the three groups (χ(2) = 1.241) was not significant(P > 0.05). The serum UA level in overweight and obese children [study group, 273.0 (238.3 - 357.3); control group, 298.0 (253.0 - 336.0)] was significantly higher than that in children with normal BMI [study group, 246.5(215.8 - 300.0); control group, 266.0 (224.0 - 303.3)] (z = -2.084, -2.214, P < 0.05). That serum UA level did not correlate with the above index of OSAHS was observed in children with or without overweight and obesity in study group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Findings of higher serum UA level were not observed in children with OSAHS. There was no correlation between serum UA level and the above indices of OSAHS. The serum UA level in overweight and obese children was significantly higher than that in children with normal BMI.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21055243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic value of pulse transit time (PTT) in children with sleep disordered breathing(SDB). METHODS: Forty eight randomly selected snorers (2 - 13 years) with SDB were examined by PSG and PTT in the same time. Data obtained were analyzed by different technicians respectively. Statistics and analysis of the data were performed. RESULTS: Apnea hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive apnea index (OAI), the lowest oxygen and micro-arousal index were obtained by PSG and PTT. The results was described as M [25 percentile; 75 percentile]: 4.9[1.3;10.1], 4.6[1.5;11.8]; 1.2[0.7;4.9], 1.3[0.6;5.0]; 0.93[0.85;0.95], 0.93[0.84;0.95]; 14.5[12.6;16.4], 26.0[17.4;30.6]. The difference of AHI, OAI, and the lowest oxygen were not significant (P > 0.05), while the PTT arousal index detection rate was higher than PSG (Z = -5.19, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and determination of degree of patient's condition (P > 0.05). PTT could identify upper airway resistance syndrome in children without OASHS. CONCLUSIONS: Both methods can be used to diagnose SDB. However, PTT is easy to use and suitable for the diagnosis of SDB in children, especially for UARS.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Pulso Arterial
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20654171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare secondary postoperative haemorrhage rate of coblation with the conventional pediatric adenotonsillectomy. And to analyze possible reasons which cause the secondary bleeding after coblation adenotonsillectomy. METHODS: A retrospective study was applied to compare the secondary postoperative haemorrhage rate and the bleeding moment between two groups in which 1-14 years old children from April 2005 to September 2009 in Guangzhou Children's Hospital were included. Group A was pediatric patients who had conventional adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy (dissection, without heat damage to the tissue) from April 2005 to July 2006 in Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Group B was pediatric patients who had coblation adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy from April 2008 to September 2009 in Department of Otorhinolaryngology. RESULTS: Two of 484 cases in group A had secondary postoperative bleeding, the rate was 0.4%. One happened 2 days after operation, another after 3 days. Eleven of 502 cases in group B had secondary postoperative bleeding, the rate was 2.2%. Secondary bleeding happened 2 to 12 days after surgery, median 6.0 days. The secondary postoperative haemorrhage rate of operating by the freshman was 2.6%(10/385), and it was 0.9%(1/117) by the senior. The rate of secondary bleeding was higher in group B than group A (chi(2) = 5.987, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference of secondary bleeding time in both groups (Mann-Whitney U score was 2.500, P > 0.05). Six of 13 cases who had secondary bleeding suffered wound or upper respiratory tract infection. Three of 13 ate inappropriately after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric coblation adenotonsillectomy is a new method. The most possible reasons of secondary bleeding are poor surgery skills and ill experience. And, infection, inappropriate eating after the operation may be the other reasons of secondary bleeding.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos , Adenoidectomia/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilectomia/métodos
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