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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2088, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350246

RESUMO

The tight relationship between attention and conscious perception has been extensively researched in the past decades. However, whether attentional modulation extended to unconscious processes remained largely unknown, particularly when it came to abstract and high-level processing. Here we use a double Stroop paradigm to demonstrate that attention load gates unconscious semantic processing. We find that word and color incongruencies between a subliminal prime and a supraliminal target cause slower responses to non-Stroop target words-but only if the task is to name the target word (low-load task), and not if the task is to name the target's color (high-load task). The task load hypothesis is confirmed by showing that the word-induced incongruence effect can be detected in the color-naming task, but only in the late, practiced trials. We further replicate this task-induced attentional modulation phenomenon in separate experiments with colorless words (word-only) and words with semantic relationship but no orthographic similarities (semantics-only).

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(10): 6077-6086, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384955

RESUMO

DNA methylation regulated gene expression is important for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation during bone remodeling and its deregulation leads to the development of osteoporosis. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is an important regulator of DNA methylation. To explore the effect and mechanism of differential expression of DNMT1 in osteoblast precursor cells, DNMT1 siRNAs were designed and synthesized to interfere with DNMT1 expression in the osteoblast precursor cells, MC3T3E1 (Clone 24; MC3T3E1-24). The expression of the target gene, DNMT1, and osteogenic differentiation indicators osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting (WB). MTT assay was used to detect the effect on cell proliferation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red staining were used to detect the effect of DNMT1 on osteogenic differentiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to detect the morphological changes in MC3T3E1-24 cells. Twenty-four hours following the transfection of MC3T3E1-24 cells with DNMT1 siRNA using cationic liposomes, DNMT1 mRNA and protein levels decreased significantly (P <0.001 for both). The reduced expression of DNMT1 promoted the OPG mRNA and protein expression (P <0.05), increased the ratio of OPG to RANKL (P <0.05), inhibited the expression of RANKL (P <0.01) without affecting the RANKL gene expression (not significant, P >0.05). The reduced expression of DNMT1 also promoted the proliferation of osteoblast precursor cells. In addition, ALP activity test and alizarin red staining showed that reduced expression of DNMT1 resulted in an increase in OPG/RANKL ratio and promoted the differentiation of the precursor cells. The cultured cells were found to have fibroblast-like appearance, and calcium nodules were observed after 7 days of conventional culture. In addition, to improve the efficiency of RNA extraction and save time, a type of silica nanomagnetic beads was used in the early stage of this study to extract RNA and assist qPCR detection of the target genes. The results showed that the magnetic beads could effectively extract RNA from the cells. In conclusion, low expression of DNMT1 affects proliferation and maturation of osteoblasts by upregulating OPG and OPG/RANKL ratio.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 138171, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392684

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a crucial role in modulating air pollution by ozone and fine particles, particularly in urban areas. While in recent years short-term intervention actions for better air quality during big events in China did present good opportunities to examine the effectiveness of control measures in reducing anthropogenic VOCs emission, it is highly challenging to interpret the real effect of a specific control measure based on field monitoring data when a cocktail of control measures were adopted. Here we took the air quality intervention actions during the 16th Asian Games (AG) in Guangzhou as a case study to explore the impact of short-term multiple measures on VOCs reduction. The average mass concentrations of VOCs decreased by 52-68% during the AG. These percentages could not reflect emission reduction rates as the concentration might be also heavily impacted by dispersion conditions. Diagnostic ratios, such as methyl tert-butyl ether to carbon monoxide (MTBE/CO) and i-pentane/CO, decreased by over 60% during the AG, suggesting a substantial reduction in gasoline related emissions. A method linking emission reduction rates of two sources with their contribution percentages before and during the AG by using a receptor model was further formulated. With the available reduction rate of 34% for vehicular exhaust obtained during the traffic restriction drill in our previous study, VOCs emissions from gasoline evaporation and solvent use reduced by 45.7% and 13.6% during the AG, respectively. Total VOCs emissions decreased by 25.3% on average during the AG, and the emission control of vehicular exhaust, oil evaporation, and solvent use accounted for 17.0%, 6.3% and 2.0% of total VOCs emission reduction, respectively. This study presented an observed-based method with diagnostic/quantitative approaches to single out the effectiveness of each control measures in reducing VOCs emissions.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(10): 5973-5979, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343120

RESUMO

The oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide by hydroperoxy (HO2) and organic peroxy radicals (RO2) is responsible for the chemical net ozone production in the troposphere and for the regeneration of hydroxyl radicals, the most important oxidant in the atmosphere. In Summer 2014, a field campaign was conducted in the North China Plain, where increasingly severe ozone pollution has been experienced in the last years. Chemical conditions in the campaign were representative for this area. Radical and trace gas concentrations were measured, allowing for calculating the turnover rates of gas-phase radical reactions. Therefore, the importance of heterogeneous HO2 uptake on aerosol could be experimentally determined. HO2 uptake could have suppressed ozone formation at that time because of the competition with gas-phase reactions that produce ozone. The successful reduction of the aerosol load in the North China Plain in the last years could have led to a significant decrease of HO2 loss on particles, so that ozone-forming reactions could have gained importance in the last years. However, the analysis of the measured radical budget in this campaign shows that HO2 aerosol uptake did not impact radical chemistry for chemical conditions in 2014. Therefore, reduced HO2 uptake on aerosol since then is likely not the reason for the increasing number of ozone pollution events in the North China Plain, contradicting conclusions made from model calculations reported in the literature.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 395: 122672, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305716

RESUMO

Duckweeds are widely recognized for the heavy metal phytoremediation. However, the intraspecific variations in biological responses of duckweeds to heavy metal remain largely unknown. Here, the toxicity and phytoaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) were synchronously evaluated in 30 accessions of giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) collected from different provenances in Southern China. Exposure to 1 µM Cd decreased relative growth rates of dry weight, fronds number and fronds area, as well as photosynthetic pigment contents, while it increased H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in the majority of accessions. Cd treatment led to remarkable Cd accumulation but little changes in the starch content in giant duckweed. The biological responses to Cd varied among the accessions. Further correlation analysis indicated that growth traits and Cd concentration were positively correlated with Cd accumulation, while the contents of chlorophyll, H2O2 and MDA were negatively associated with Cd accumulation. Our results proved the great intraspecific variation in Cd tolerance of giant duckweed, suggesting a valuable natural resource for Cd phytoremediation. Moreover, different mechanisms may be exploited by S. polyrhiza for phytoaccumulation, but growth maintenance, Cd uptake and antioxidative enzyme-independent ROS-scavenging under Cd exposure are the common mechanisms contributing to Cd accumulation ability.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 3849-3860, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131584

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitutes a large fraction of organic aerosol worldwide, however, the formation mechanisms in polluted environments remain poorly understood. Here we observed fast daytime growth of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) (with formation rates up to 10 µg m-3 h-1) during low relative humidity (RH, daytime average 38 ± 19%), high RH (53 ± 19%), and fog periods (77 ± 13%, fog occurring during nighttime with RH reaching 100%). Evidence showed that photochemical aqueous-phase SOA (aqSOA) formation dominantly contributed to daytime OOA formation during the periods with nighttime fog, while both photochemical aqSOA and gas-phase SOA (gasSOA) formation were important during other periods with the former contributing more under high RH and the latter under low RH conditions, respectively. Compared to daytime photochemical aqSOA production, dark aqSOA formation was only observed during the fog period and contributed negligibly to the increase in OOA concentrations due to fog scavenging processes. The rapid daytime aging, as indicated by the rapid decrease in m,p-xylene/ethylbenzene ratios, promoted the daytime formation of precursors for aqSOA formation, e.g., carbonyls such as methylglyoxal. Photooxidants related to aqSOA formation such as OH radical and H2O2 also bear fast daytime growth features even under low solar radiative conditions. The simultaneous increases in ultraviolet radiation, photooxidant, and aqSOA precursor levels worked together to promote the daytime photochemical aqSOA formation. We also found that biomass burning emissions can promote photochemical aqSOA formation by adding to the levels of aqueous-phase photooxidants and aqSOA precursors. Therefore, future mitigation of air pollution in a polluted environment would benefit from stricter control on biomass burning especially under high RH conditions.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137430, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112945

RESUMO

A new aerosol optical depth (AOD) data assimilation (DA) module was developed in Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) 3-dimensional variational (3DVAR) system, named FastJ/CRTM-AOD DA module. And applied to the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe with the Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM) in the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF/Chem). The Fast-J optical module in WRF/Chem was used as the observation operator of AOD. The corresponding Jacobian code was modified from the one of CRTM-AOD in GSI. This way obviated the need for the Jacobian code's generation, which was complex and difficult for the highly nonlinear observation operator. During the studying period (January and April of 2014), compared to the ground AOD observations, AOD DA reduced about 20% fractional error (FE) with MADE/SORGAM. The original DA framework, which applied to the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) mechanism, performed slightly better than the new assimilation scheme for the low-value AOD situations (value < 0.4). However, compared to the original DA framework, the new DA scheme show a notable improvement for the high-value (0.4 < value ≤ 1.2) and extreme-high-value (value > 1.2) AOD situations. FE can be reduced by 48% and 64%, respectively. It indicates that the AOD DA impacts on AOD forecasts vary significant between different aerosol mechanisms. Moreover, FastJ/CRTM-AOD DA module can be easily and efficiently applied to the other aerosol schemes and the other optical modules, which is important to the development on AOD assimilation.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4526, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161294

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. While both genetic and environmental factors have been linked to the incidence and mortality associated with CRC, an ethnic aspect of its etiology has also emerged. Since previous large-scale cancer genomics studies are mostly based on samples of European ancestry, the patterns of clinical events and associated mechanisms in other minority ethnic patients suffering from CRC are largely unexplored. We collected 104 paired and adjacent normal tissue and CRC tumor samples from Taiwanese patients and employed an integrated approach - paired expression profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) combined with transcriptome-wide network analyses - to catalog the molecular signatures of this regional cohort. On the basis of this dataset, which is the largest ever reported for this type of systems analysis, we made the following key discoveries: (1) In comparison to the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, the Taiwanese CRC tumors show similar perturbations in expressed genes but a distinct enrichment in metastasis-associated pathways. (2) Recurrent as well as novel CRC-associated gene fusions were identified based on the sequencing data. (3) Cancer subtype classification using existing tools reveals a comparable distribution of tumor subtypes between Taiwanese cohort and TCGA datasets; however, this similarity in molecular attributes did not translate into the predicted subtype-related clinical outcomes (i.e., death event). (4) To further elucidate the molecular basis of CRC prognosis, we developed a new stratification strategy based on miRNA-mRNA-associated subtyping (MMAS) and consequently showed that repressed WNT signaling activity is associated with poor prognosis in Taiwanese CRC. In summary, our findings of distinct, hitherto unreported biosignatures underscore the heterogeneity of CRC tumorigenesis, support our hypothesis of an ethnic basis of disease, and provide prospects for translational medicine.

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(4): 1040-1046, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing thoracic lung wedge resection could benefit from tubeless strategies. However, postoperative pneumothorax is a primary limiting factor for such strategies. Accordingly, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of the prophylactic use of an air-extraction catheter as an improved drainage strategy and compared the findings with those for chest tube drainage in patients undergoing thoracic wedge resection. METHODS: Patients undergoing thoracic wedge resection between August 2017 and October 2018 were enrolled in this single-center, randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial. Patients who received an improved drainage strategy involving the use of a prophylactic air-extraction catheter were randomized to the intervention group, whereas those who underwent routine chest tube drainage were assigned to the control group. Analysis was based on the per-protocol population. The primary outcome was the incidence of pneumothorax on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included patient recovery and related complications, including pleural effusion, lung infection, numeric rating scale score for pain, postoperative chest tube or catheter removal, postoperative hospitalization, and chest tube reinsertion. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were randomized. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between groups. The incidence of pneumothorax in the intervention and control groups was 10.0% and 9.1%, respectively (noninferiority, P = 1.00). In addition, there were no significant between-group differences in secondary outcomes. A significantly lower pain score was observed in the intervention group (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: The improved drainage strategy is not inferior to standard chest tube drainage after thoracic wedge resection and should be popularized.

10.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 108: 110189, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924023

RESUMO

Particulate pollution in the air has strong links with increased morbidity of cardiopulmonary diseases. Iron is one of the major carcinogens in air pollution and can produce hydroxyl radical which induce oxidative stress, lead to cell damage and even to cancer. In this work, a novel nitronyl nitroxide radical NITPh(OMe)2 (2-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl) -4,4,5,5- tetramethylimidazoline- 1- oxyl-3- oxide) was prepared and characterized by electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (ESR), X-ray crystal diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, ultraviolet and visible spectra (UV-Vis), and the electronic transition processes was also calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to analysis UV-Vis spectrum. In vitro cell model of oxidative damage was established by ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) overload, and NITPh(OMe)2 was studied as a free radical scavenger to protect peroxidation of A549 cells. Results showed that NITPh(OMe)2 could significantly alleviate the damage of A549 cells by iron overload in cell morphology, cell viability, cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. The apoptotic signaling pathway of A549 cells induced by FAC and the protection mechanism of NITPh(OMe)2 were all discussed through the expression of three relating proteins, Bcl-2, Bax and DDIT3. This work confirms that nitroxide radicals are effective antioxidants, and have potential application in clinical practice as therapeutic agents.

11.
Cancer Res Treat ; 52(1): 31-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the survival and toxicities in cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (CESCC) treated by concurrent chemoradiothrapy with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 consecutive CESCC patients were retrospectively reviewed. 3D-CRT and IMRT groups had been analyzed by propensity score matching method, with sex, age, Karnofsky performance status, induction chemotherapy, and tumor stage well matched. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Toxicities were compared between two groups by Fisher exact test. RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 34.9 months, the 3-year OS (p=0.927) and PFS (p=0.859) rate was 49.6% and 45.8% in 3D-CRT group, compared with 54.4% and 42.8% in IMRT group. The rates of grade ≥ 3 esophagitis, grade ≥ 2 pneumonitis, esophageal stricture, and hemorrhage were comparable between two groups, while the rate of tracheostomy dependence was much higher in IMRT group than 3D-CRT group (14.3% vs.1.8%, p=0.032). Radiotherapy technique (hazard ratio [HR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.79) and pretreatment hoarseness (HR, 0.12; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.70) were independently prognostic of tracheostomy dependence. CONCLUSION: No survival benefits had been observed while comparing IMRT versus 3D-CRT in CESCC patients. IMRT with fraction dose escalation and pretreatment hoarseness were considered to be associated with a higher risk for tracheostomy dependence. Radiation dose escalation beyond 60 Gy should be taken into account carefully when using IMRT with hypofractionated regimen.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121056, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470305

RESUMO

We report a new 7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1, 3-diazolyl (NBD)-based chemosensor containing a piperazine derivative, NBDP, for detection of mercury ions in almost 100% aqueous medium. The chemosensor shows sensing exclusively toward Hg2+ with a switch-on fluorescence response at 543 nm, which could be attributed to the blocking of PET (photo-induced electron transfer) process upon complexation with mercury ions. The molar ratio of Hg(Ⅱ) to NBDP in the complex is 1:1 based on the Job's plot and HRMS studies. Optimized configurations of NBDP and NBDP-Hg2+ complexes were simulated by means of DFT calculations. The reversible fluorescence response with low detection limit (19.2 nM) in the pH range of 6.0-7.5 renders NBDP a promising candidate for Hg2+ detection in neutral aqueous environments. For the practical application of the chemosensor, test strips were successfully fabricated for rapid detection of Hg2+ ions. Moreover, the utility of NBDP showing the mercury recognition in Human liver cancer cells (SMMC-7721) and zebrafish as well as in live tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana has been demonstrated as monitored by fluorescence imaging.

13.
J Hand Microsurg ; 11(3): 166-169, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814670

RESUMO

Entrapment of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the distal ulna with a plate and screw construct is rare. By literature review, we found evidence of such complication associated with distal radius fracture, but no past reports relating to the distal ulna. ORIF of the distal ulna is a common procedure for both fracture treatment and deformity correction. Due to the EIP muscle originating primarily from the dorsoradial surface of the distal ulna and the adjacent interosseous membrane, the muscle may be damaged or compressed by a fixation plate during ORIF, resulting in entrapment. We present two case reports of this rare complication, describing the method of clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcome. Our accompanying cadaver dissection provides an explanation for proper plate positioning during ORIF of the ulna to reduce the risk of EIP entrapment.

14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 8169125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827703

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and there is no cure for it at present. We have previously reported that the tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) derivative T-006 exhibited beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. However, its effect on PD remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of T-006 against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced lesions in in vivo and in vitro PD models. Our results demonstrated that T-006 alleviated mitochondrial membrane potential loss and restored the energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis that were induced by 6-OHDA in PC12 cells. In addition, animal experiments showed that administration of T-006 significantly attenuated the 6-OHDA-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase- (TH-) positive neurons in the SNpc, as well as dopaminergic nerve fibers in the striatum, and also increased the concentration of dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC, HVA) in the striatum. Functional deficits were restored following T-006 treatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, as demonstrated by improved motor coordination and rotational behavior. In addition, we found that the neuroprotective effects of T-006 were mediated, at least in part, by the activation of both the PKA/Akt/GSK-3ß and CREB/PGC-1α/NRF-1/TFAM pathways. In summary, our findings demonstrate that T-006 could be developed as a novel neuroprotective agent for PD, and the two pathways might be promising therapeutic targets for PD.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(49): 24463-24469, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740599

RESUMO

From 2013 to 2017, with the implementation of the toughest-ever clean air policy in China, significant declines in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations occurred nationwide. Here we estimate the drivers of the improved PM2.5 air quality and the associated health benefits in China from 2013 to 2017 based on a measure-specific integrated evaluation approach, which combines a bottom-up emission inventory, a chemical transport model, and epidemiological exposure-response functions. The estimated national population-weighted annual mean PM2.5 concentrations decreased from 61.8 (95%CI: 53.3-70.0) to 42.0 µg/m3 (95% CI: 35.7-48.6) in 5 y, with dominant contributions from anthropogenic emission abatements. Although interannual meteorological variations could significantly alter PM2.5 concentrations, the corresponding effects on the 5-y trends were relatively small. The measure-by-measure evaluation indicated that strengthening industrial emission standards (power plants and emission-intensive industrial sectors), upgrades on industrial boilers, phasing out outdated industrial capacities, and promoting clean fuels in the residential sector were major effective measures in reducing PM2.5 pollution and health burdens. These measures were estimated to contribute to 6.6- (95% CI: 5.9-7.1), 4.4- (95% CI: 3.8-4.9), 2.8- (95% CI: 2.5-3.0), and 2.2- (95% CI: 2.0-2.5) µg/m3 declines in the national PM2.5 concentration in 2017, respectively, and further reduced PM2.5-attributable excess deaths by 0.37 million (95% CI: 0.35-0.39), or 92% of the total avoided deaths. Our study confirms the effectiveness of China's recent clean air actions, and the measure-by-measure evaluation provides insights into future clean air policy making in China and in other developing and polluting countries.

16.
Int J Nurs Pract ; : e12796, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713284

RESUMO

AIM: Recurrent miscarriage is considered a major life event. The main purposes of this study were to compare the differences in stress, anxiety, social support, sleep quality and depressive symptoms in couples experiencing recurrent miscarriage compared to peers who experience full-term normal childbirth in southern Taiwan. METHODS: Convenience sampling and snowball sampling were used respectively to recruit 78 couples with and 80 couples without recurrent miscarriage from October 2014 to July 2015. Five structured questionnaires including Perceived Stress Scale, State- Anxiety Inventory, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Edinburgh Depression Scale were administered. RESULTS: Women who experienced recurrent miscarriage perceived significantly higher levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms than their husbands. Women in the recurrent miscarriage group reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than women of the other group. A stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated key predictors of depressive symptoms among women of childbearing age, accounting for 62.9% of the variance, were anxiety, stress, social support and history of recurrent miscarriage. CONCLUSION: Women with recurrent miscarriage suffer mild to moderate depressive symptoms and a greater incidence of depression than their peers who experienced normal childbirth. Health professionals can use the knowledge gained from these findings to evaluate women with recurrent miscarriage for stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms and develop supportive interventions.

17.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 8(4): 489-499, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555521

RESUMO

Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening trials indicated that LDCT is effective for the early detection of lung cancer, but the findings were accompanied by high false positive rates. Therefore, the detection of lung cancer needs complementary blood biomarker tests to reduce false positive rates. Methods: In order to evaluate the potential of metabolite biomarkers for diagnosing lung cancer and increasing the effectiveness of clinical interventions, serum samples from subjects participating in a low-dose CT-scan screening were analyzed by using untargeted liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). Samples were acquired from 34 lung patients with ground glass opacity diagnosed lung cancer and 39 healthy controls. Results: In total, we identified 9 metabolites in electron spray ionization (ESI)(+) mode and 7 metabolites in ESI(-) mode. L-(+)-gulose, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)(22:2(13Z,16Z)/15:0), cysteinyl-glutamine, S-japonin, threoninyl-glutamine, chlorate, 3-oxoadipic acid, dukunolide A, and malonic semialdehyde levels were observed to be elevated in serum samples of lung cancer cases when compared to those of healthy controls. By contrast, 1-(2-furanylmethyl)-1H-pyrrole, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, monoethyl carbonate, guanidinosuccinic acid, pseudouridine, DIMBOA-Glc, and 4-feruloyl-1,5-quinolactone levels were lower in serum samples of lung cancer cases compared with those of healthy controls. Conclusions: This study demonstrates evidence of early metabolic alterations that can possibly distinguish malignant ground glass opacity from benign ground glass opacity. Further studies in larger pools of samples are warranted.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(18): 10676-10684, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418557

RESUMO

In contrast to summer smog, the contribution of photochemistry to the formation of winter haze in northern mid-to-high latitude is generally assumed to be minor due to reduced solar UV and water vapor concentrations. Our comprehensive observations of atmospheric radicals and relevant parameters during several haze events in winter 2016 Beijing, however, reveal surprisingly high hydroxyl radical oxidation rates up to 15 ppbv/h, which is comparable to the high values reported in summer photochemical smog and is two to three times larger than those determined in previous observations during winter in Birmingham (Heard et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2004, 31, (18)), Tokyo (Kanaya et al. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 2007, 112, (D21)), and New York (Ren et al. Atmos. Environ. 2006, 40, 252-263). The active photochemistry facilitates the production of secondary pollutants. It is mainly initiated by the photolysis of nitrous acid and ozonolysis of olefins and maintained by an extremely efficiently radical cycling process driven by nitric oxide. This boosted radical recycling generates fast photochemical ozone production rates that are again comparable to those during summer photochemical smog. The formation of ozone, however, is currently masked by its efficient chemical removal by nitrogen oxides contributing to the high level of wintertime particles. The future emission regulations, such as the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions, therefore are facing the challenge of reducing haze and avoiding an increase in ozone pollution at the same time. Efficient control strategies to mitigate winter haze in Beijing may require measures similar as implemented to avoid photochemical smog in summer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Pequim , New York , Fotoquímica , Smog
19.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370148

RESUMO

A novel functional ion-exchange/adsorption metal organic resin (MOR), TEBAC-HKUST-1, was prepared and characterized. Ethanedithiol was used as the grafting agent to introduce thiol groups onto HKUST-1, and 4-vinylbenzyl chloride was then grafted onto SH-HKUST-1 using thiol groups. Finally, the quaternary ammonium functional group was immobilized onto the carrier by performing a quaternization reaction. The structure and property of TEBAC-HKUST-1 MOR were characterized by TGA, N2 adsorption-desorption, FTIR, SEM, and XRD. TEBAC-HKUST-1 MOR was used to remove metal cyanide complexes from wastewater. The adsorption was rapid, and the metal cyanide complexes including Pt(CN)42-, Co(CN)63-, Cu(CN)32-, and Fe(CN)63- were removed in 30 min. TEBAC-HKUST-1 MOR exhibited a high stability in neutral and weak basic aqueous solutions. Furthermore, Pt(II) could be efficiently recovered through two-step elution. The recovery rate of Pt(II) for five cycles were over 92.0% in the mixture solution containing Pt(CN)42-, Co(CN)63-, Cu(CN)32-, and Fe(CN)63-. The kinetic data were best fitted with the pseudo second-order model. Moreover, the isothermal data were best fitted with the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic results show that the adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. TEBAC-HKUST-1 MOR not only exhibited excellent ability for the rapid removal of metal cyanide complexes, but also provided a new idea for the extraction of noble metals from cyanide-contaminated water.


Assuntos
Cianetos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cianetos/química , Cianetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Cinética , Paládio/química , Termodinâmica , Poluentes Químicos da Água
20.
Yi Chuan ; 41(8): 716-724, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447422

RESUMO

In order to investigate the genetic variations and the clinical manifestations of a range of congenital ectrodactyly family and to summarize the split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) types and their related pathogenic genes, we conducted phenotypic analyses of patient's limbs by physical and X-ray examination. The haplotypes were analyzed by using the extracted genes from peripheral blood on D10S1709, D10S192, D10S597, D10S1693 and D10S587 loci, and the mutation duplication loci were confirmed by Array-CGH detection. The pathogenic factors and inheritance pattern of SHFM were analyzed based on family investigation and gene analysis. Results demonstrate the proband's phenotype is typically of a congenital SHFM which is manifested by missing bilateral index and middle fingers, short bilateral thumbs, deformed left ring finger with webbing of the skin missing at the middle finger; bilateral big toe with the second and the third toe missing, fourth and fifth toe fusion leading to a deformed toe separated from the first toe by the middle of the foot. The haplotype analyses show that there is a repeat of at least 610 kb in chromosome 10q24.31-10q24.32 region. Array-CGH analysis shows 10q24.31 (102 832 650-103 511 083) ×3. Our results demonstrate that the pathogenic gene variation of ectrodactyly in this family is due to duplication of 10q24.31 (102 832 650~103 511 083). The haplotype 165-251-289-219-102 can be used as a disease marker for detecting 10q24.31~10q24.32 allele for SHFM.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Humanos , Linhagem
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