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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 595, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802039

RESUMO

The indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the tryptophan degradation pathway in which dysfunction of neuroactive metabolites has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Inflammatory molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines could enhance the activity of IDO. There are few studies on the expression of IDO levels and its correlation with levels of inflammatory cytokines in first-episode drug-naive patients with schizophrenia. One hundred inpatients (female = 33, male = 67) with first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia entered a 6-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. All individuals were assigned celecoxib or placebo combined with risperidone. Serum levels of IDO and six inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α IL-17, IL-4, and INF-γ) were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms. Compared to healthy subjects, patients had significantly elevated levels of IDO and six cytokines at baseline. Over the 6-week treatment period, the decrease in the levels of IDO and TNF-α and the improvement in the PANSS total score, positive scores, and negative scores in the celecoxib group were significantly greater than in the placebo group. There was a significantly positive correlation between IDO levels and the PANSS negative scores and between IDO levels and TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in the celecoxib group. These findings showed abnormal expression of IDO levels which correlated with negative symptoms and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia, suggesting the important role of IDO in the pathological mechanism of schizophrenia. Registration number: ChiCTR2000041403.

2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3242-3252, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622632

RESUMO

L-asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to produce L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and serum of some rodents, and has important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. However, the poor thermal stability, low catalytic efficiency and low yield hampered the further application of L-asparaginase. In this paper, rational design and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) design strategies were used to increase the specific enzyme activity and protein expression of L-asparaginase derived from Rhizomucor miehei (RmAsnase). The results showed that among the six mutants constructed through homology modeling combined with sequence alignment, the specific enzyme activity of the mutant A344E was 1.5 times higher than the wild type. Subsequently, a food-safe strain Bacillus subtilis 168/pMA5-A344E was constructed, and the UTR strategy was used for the construction of recombinant strain B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E. The enzyme activity of B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E was 7.2 times higher than that of B. subtilis 168/pMA5-A344E. The recombinant strain B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E was scaled up in 5 L fermenter, and the final yield of L-asparaginase was 489.1 U/mL, showing great potential for industrial application.


Assuntos
Asparaginase , Rhizomucor , Asparaginase/biossíntese , Asparaginase/genética , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Microbiologia Industrial , Engenharia de Proteínas , Rhizomucor/enzimologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112806, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555716

RESUMO

Ionic liquids (ILs) are widely used for their physical and chemical properties. Toxicological assessments of ILs could help to avoid their threat to human health, but these are rarely reported, and no assessments of IL neurotoxicity in mammals have been performed. Here, we aimed to evaluate the neurotoxicity of chronic 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8mim][PF6]) (0, 1 mg/kg) exposure during development on rats. Our results indicated that chronic exposure to low-dose ([C8mim][PF6]) induces behavioural abnormalities, including cognitive deficits, social communication disorders, and sensory gating function impairment. Moreover, rats subjected to chronic ([C8mim][PF6]) exposure showed hypofunction of glutamatergic excitatory synapses, including increased expression of NMDA receptor subunits, increased density and immaturity of dendritic spines, and increased expression of PSD95. Additionally, ([C8mim][PF6]) exposure resulted in hippocampal-specific inflammatory activation, indicated by increased levels of proinflammatory factors, elevated nuclear localisation of NF-κB, and activation of microglia and astrocytes. In conclusion, chronic exposure to low-dose ([C8mim][PF6]) induced neurotoxicity, including damage to glutamatergic excitatory synapses and inflammatory activation, which may illuminate the associated behavioural abnormalities. The results presented here may be helpful for the safe use of ILs in the future.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Astrócitos , Microglia , NF-kappa B , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Ratos
4.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 677153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234640

RESUMO

Objectives: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder with high heritability, and genetic components are thought to be pivotal risk factors for this illness. The glutamate decarboxylase 1 gene (GAD1) was hypothesized to be a candidate risk locus for SZ given its crucial role in the GABAergic neurotransmission system, and previous studies have examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the GAD1 gene with SZ. However, inconsistent results were obtained. We hence examined the associations between GAD1 SNPs and SZ in two independent case-control samples of Han Chinese ancestry. Materials and Methods: Two Han Chinese SZ case-control samples, referred as the discovery sample and the replication sample, respectively, were recruited for the current study. The discovery sample comprised of 528 paranoid SZ cases (with age of first onset ≥ 18) and 528 healthy controls; the independent replication sample contained 1,256 early onset SZ cases (with age of first onset < 18) and 2,661 healthy controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between GAD1 SNPs and SZ. Results: Ten SNPs covering GAD1 gene were analyzed in the discovery sample, and two SNPs showed nominal associations with SZ (rs2241165, P = 0.0181, OR = 1.261; rs2241164, P = 0.0225, OR = 1.219). SNP rs2241164 was also nominally significant in the independent replication sample (P = 0.0462, OR = 1.110), and the significance became stronger in a subsequent meta-analysis combining both discovery and replication samples (P = 0.00398, OR = 1.138). Nevertheless, such association could not survive multiple corrections, although the effect size of rs2241164 was comparable with other SZ risk loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Han Chinese population. We also examined the associations between GAD1 SNPs and SZ in published datasets of SZ GWAS in East Asians and Europeans, and no significant associations were observed. Conclusion: We observed weak associations between GAD1 SNPs and risk of SZ in Han Chinese populations. Further analyses in larger Han Chinese samples with more detailed phenotyping are necessary to elucidate the genetic correlation between GAD1 SNPs and SZ.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 660712, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912467

RESUMO

Curcumin [(1E,6E) ­1,7­bis(4­hydroxy­3­methoxyphenyl) hepta­1,6­diene­3,5­ dione] is a natural polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the turmeric plant Curcuma longa. Accumulated evidences have presented curcumin's function in terms of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties, and especially anti-tumor activities. Studies demonstrated that curcumin could exert anti-tumor activity via multiple biological signaling pathways, such as PI3K/Akt, JAK/STAT, MAPK, Wnt/ß-catenin, p53, NF-ĸB and apoptosis related signaling pathways. Moreover, Curcumin can inhibit tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion and metastasis by regulating tumor related non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression. In this review, we summarized the roles of curcumin in regulating signaling pathways and ncRNAs in different kinds of cancers. We also discussed the regulatory effect of curcumin through inhibiting carcinogenic miRNA and up regulating tumor suppressive miRNA. Furthermore, we aim to illustrate the cross regulatory relationship between ncRNA and signaling pathways, further to get a better understanding of the anti-tumor mechanism of curcumin, thus lay a theoretical foundation for the clinical application of curcumin in the future.

6.
Brain Behav ; 11(5): e02133, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is characterized by several core behavioral features, in which the gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently reported. Maternal immune activation (MIA) has been developed in a rodent model to study neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. However, the changes in the gut environment of MIA rats remain largely unknown. METHODS: 10 mg/kg of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) on gestational day 9 was intravenously administered to rats to induce MIA in order to assess changes in behavior, the intestinal barrier and microbiota in offspring. RESULTS: Maternal immune activation offspring shown increased anxiety as indicated by reduced exploration of central area in open field test and decreased exploration of open arms in elevated plus test. Cognitive impairment of MIA offspring was confirmed by reduced exploration of novel arm in Y maze test and deficiency of PPI. Intestinal muscle thickness became thinner and some specific microbial anomalies previously identified clinically were observed in MIA offspring. In addition, an increase of inflammatory responses was found in the gut of MIA offspring. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal immune activation alters behavior, intestinal integrity, gut microbiota and the gut inflammation in adult offspring.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação , Gravidez , Ratos
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(8): 2512-2521, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522235

RESUMO

2,5-Dimethylpyrazine (2,5-DMP) is an important pharmaceutical intermediate and an important essence. Conventional chemical synthesis methods are often accompanied by toxic substances as by-products, and the biosynthesis efficiency of 2,5-DMP is insufficient for industrial applications. In this study, the tdh and soaao genes were overexpressed to enhance enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions in metabolic pathways, and kbl was knocked out to block competitive branching carbon flow metabolic pathways. Finally, a genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain with the highest carbon recovery rate (30.18%) and the highest yield reported to date was successfully constructed, and 9.21 g·L-1 threonine was able to produce 1682 mg·L-1 2,5-DMP after 24 h. At the same time, an expression regulation strategy and whole-cell biocatalysis helped to eliminate the damage to cells caused by 2,5-DMP, aminoacetone, and reactive oxygen species generated by aminoacetone oxidase from S. oligofermentans, and the negative effect of 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase on the yield of 2,5-DMP in E. coli was also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Carbono , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/genética , Engenharia Metabólica , Pirazinas , Treonina
8.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(6): 1103-1112, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791513

RESUMO

Genetic analyses for bipolar disorder (BD) have achieved prominent success in Europeans in recent years, whereas its genetic basis in other populations remains relatively less understood. We herein report that the leading risk locus for BD in European genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9834970 near TRANK1 at 3p22 region, is also genome-wide significantly associated with BD in a meta-analysis of four independent East Asian samples including 5748 cases and 65,361 controls (p = 2.27 × 10-8, odds ratio = 1.136). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses and summary data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) analyses in multiple human brain samples suggest that lower TRANK1 mRNA expression is a principal BD risk factor explaining its genetic risk signals at 3p22. We also identified another SNP rs4789 in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TRANK1 showing stronger eQTL associations as well as genome-wide significant association with BD. Despite the relatively unclear neuronal function of TRANK1, our mRNA expression analyses in the human brains and in rat primary cortical neurons reveal that genes highly correlated with TRANK1 are significantly enriched in the biological processes related to dendritic spine, synaptic plasticity, axon guidance and circadian entrainment, and are also more likely to exhibit strong associations in psychiatric GWAS (e.g., the CACNA1C gene). Overall, our results support that TRANK1 is a potential BD risk gene. Further studies elucidating its roles in this illness are needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Animais , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L , Citocinas , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Ratos
9.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 131(3): 264-270, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308966

RESUMO

Intermediates such as 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) have extensive clinical applications in the production of steroid pharmaceuticals. The present study explores the effect of two factors in the production of these intermediates in Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12: the precursor, phytosterol and a molecule that increases AD/ADD solubility, hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD). Differentially expressed proteins were separated and identified using 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS). In total, 31 proteins were identified, and improved expression levels of ten proteins involved in metabolism was induced by phytosterol and/or HP-ß-CD, which strengthened the stress resistance of the strain. In the presence of phytosterol and/or HP-ß-CD, five proteins involved in the synthesis of AD/ADD, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (AAT), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), enoyl-CoA hydratase (EH) and short-chain dehydrogenase 1 and 2, increased their expression levels. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to verify the 2-DE results and the transcriptional level of these five proteins. This analysis identified AAT, ADH, EH, and electron transfer flavoprotein subunit α/ß as the possible bottlenecks for AD/ADD synthesis in M. neoaurum JC-12, which therefore are suggested as targets for strain modification.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/metabolismo , Mycobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Proteômica , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo
10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(9): 1918-1928, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164467

RESUMO

2-O-α-D-glu-copyranosyl-sn-glycerol is a high value-added product with prospective application in food, cosmetics, health products and pharmaceutical industries. However, industrial scale of 2-O-α-D-glu-copyranosyl-sn-glycerol has not yet been applied in China, and there are few related reports on 2-O-α-D-glu-copyranosyl-sn-glycerol synthesis. The purpose of this experiment is to develop a method for catalyzing the synthesis of food-grade 2-O-α-D-glu-copyranosyl-sn-glycerol using whole cells of "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS) recombinant Bacillus subtilis. In our work, a recombinant B. subtilis 168/pMA5-gtfA that heterologously expressing Leuconostoc mesenteroides sucrose phosphorylase was constructed and used as a whole-cell catalyst to synthesize 2-O-α-D-glu-copyranosyl-sn-glycerol. Optimizing the culture temperature, time and whole cell transformation conditions has increased the yield of 2-O-α-D-glu-copyranosyl-sn-glycerol. The results showed that 1.43 U/mL of sucrose phosphorylase was achieved in B. subtilis 168/pMA5-gtfA after culturing for 20 h at 30 °C in fermentation medium. The highest conversion rate reached 75.1%, and the yield of 2-O-α-D-glu-copyranosyl-sn-glycerol was 189.3 g/L with an average transformation rate of 15.6 mmol/(L·h) after 48 hours whole-cell transformation with the sucrose concentration of 1 mol/L and the glycerol concentration of 2.5 mol/L at 30 °C, OD600 40 and pH 7.0. This is the highest yield of 2-O-α-D-glu-copyranosyl-sn-glycerol synthesized catalytically by recombinant B. subtilis that was ever reported, and this study provides the theoretical and experimental basis for the industrial production and application of 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Glicerol , Bacillus subtilis/genética , China , Estudos Prospectivos , Sacarose
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 559210, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173509

RESUMO

Objective: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a common and complex psychiatric disorder that has a significant genetic component. The glutamate hypothesis describes one possible pathogenesis of SZ. The solute carrier family 1 gene (SLC1A1) is one of several genes thought to play a critical role in regulating the glutamatergic system and is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of SZ. In this study, we identify polymorphisms of the SLC1A1 gene that may confer susceptibility to SZ in the Han Chinese population. Methods: We genotyped 36 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Illumina GoldenGate assays on a BeadStation 500G Genotyping System in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 healthy controls. Psychopathology was rated by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Results: Significant associations were found in genotype and allele frequencies for SNPs rs10815017 (p = 0.002, 0.030, respectively) and rs2026828 (p = 0.020, 0.005, respectively) between SZ and healthy controls. There were significant associations in genotype frequency at rs6476875 (p = 0.020) and rs7024664 (p = 0.021) and allele frequency at rs3780412 (p = 0.026) and rs10974573 (p = 0.047) between SZ and healthy controls. Meanwhile, significant differences were found in genotype frequency at rs10815017 (p = 0.015), rs2026828 (p = 0.011), and rs3780411 (p = 0.040) in males, and rs7021569 in females (p = 0.020) between cases and controls when subdivided by gender. Also, significant differences were found in allele frequency at rs2026828 (p = 0.003), and rs7021569 (p = 0.045) in males, and rs10974619 in females (p = 0.044). However, those associations disappeared after Bonferroni's correction (p's > 0.05). Significant associations were found in the frequencies of four haplotypes (AA, CA, AGA, and GG) between SZ and healthy controls (χ 2 = 3.974, 7.433, 4.699, 4.526, p = 0.046, 0.006, 0.030, 0.033, respectively). There were significant associations between rs7032326 genotypes and PANSS total, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology in SZ (p = 0.002, 0.011, 0.028, 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: The present study provides further evidence that SLC1A1 may be not a susceptibility gene for SZ. However, the genetic variations of SLC1A1 may affect psychopathology symptoms.

12.
Eng Life Sci ; 20(1-2): 7-16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32625042

RESUMO

4-Hydroxyisoleucine, a promising drug, has mainly been applied in the clinical treatment of type 2 diabetes in the pharmaceutical industry. l-Isoleucine hydroxylase specifically converts l-Ile to 4-hydroxyisoleucine. However, due to its poor thermostability, the industrial production of 4-hydroxyisoleucine has been largely restricted. In the present study, the disulfide bond in l-isoleucine hydroxylase protein was rationally designed to improve its thermostability to facilitate industrial application. The half-life of variant T181C was 4.03 h at 50°C, 10.27-fold the half-life of wild type (0.39 h). The specific enzyme activity of mutant T181C was 2.42 ± 0.08 U/mg, which was 3.56-fold the specific enzyme activity of wild type 0.68 ± 0.06 U/mg. In addition, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to determine the reason for the improvement of thermostability. Based on five repeated batches of whole-cell biotransformation, Bacillus subtilis 168/pMA5-ido T181C recombinant strain produced a cumulative yield of 856.91 mM (126.11 g/L) 4-hydroxyisoleucine, which is the highest level of productivity reported based on a microbial process. The results could facilitate industrial scale production of 4-hydroxyisoleucine. Rational design of disulfide bond improved l-isoleucine hydroxylase thermostability and may be suitable for protein engineering of other hydroxylases.

13.
ACS Synth Biol ; 9(7): 1855-1863, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551572

RESUMO

l-Proline takes a significant role in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries as well as graziery. Typical biosynthesis of l-proline is from l-glutamate, involving three enzyme reactions as well as a spontaneous cyclization. Alternatively, l-proline can be also synthesized in l-ornithine and/or l-arginine producing strains by an ornithine aminotransferase (OCD). In this study, a strategy of directed evolution combining rare codon selection and pEvolvR was developed to screen OCD with high catalytic efficiency, improving l-proline production from l-arginine chassis cells. The mutations were generated by CRISPR-assisted DNA polymerases and were screened by growth-coupled rare codon selection system. OCDK205G/M86K/T162A from Pseudomonas putida was identified with 2.85-fold increase in catalytic efficiency for the synthesis of l-proline. Furthermore, we designed and optimized RBS for the BaargI and Ppocd coupling cascade using RedLibs, as well as sRNA inhibition of argF to moderate l-proline biosynthesis in l-arginine overproducing Corynebacterium crenatum. The strain PS6 with best performance reached 15.3 g/L l-proline in the shake flask and showed a titer of 38.4 g/L in a 5 L fermenter with relatively low concentration of residual l-ornithine and/or l-arginine.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium/enzimologia , Corynebacterium/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada/métodos , Ornitina-Oxo-Ácido Transaminase/metabolismo , Prolina/biossíntese , Pseudomonas putida/enzimologia , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Amônia-Liases , Arginina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Códon , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação , Ornitina/biossíntese , Ornitina-Oxo-Ácido Transaminase/genética , Plasmídeos/genética
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581860

RESUMO

Objectives: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a strong genetic basis. Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) is one of the genes thought to be pivotal in regulating the glutamatergic system. Studies have suggested that variations in DTNBP1 confer susceptibility to SZ and clinical symptoms. Here, we performed a two-stage independent verification study to identify polymorphisms of the DTNBP1 gene that might be associated with SZ in the Han Chinese population. Methods: In stage 1, 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 healthy controls (HCs) using the Illumina GoldenGate assays on a BeadStation 500G Genotyping System. In stage 2, ten SNPs were genotyped in an independent sample of 1,031 SZ patients and 621 HCs using the Illumina 660k Genotyping System. Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results: There was a significant association related to allele frequency, and a trend association in relation to genotype between SZ patients and HCs at rs4712253 (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively). These associations were not evident following Bonferroni correction (p > 0.05 for both). Haplotype association analysis revealed that only two haplotypes (GAG and GAA; rs16876575-rs9464793-rs4712253) were significantly different between SZ patients and HCs (χ2 = 4.24, 6.37, p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). In addition, in SZ patients there was a significant association in the rs4964793 genotype for positive symptoms, and in the rs1011313 genotype for excitement/hostility symptoms (p = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). We found a significant association in the baseline symbol digital modalities test (SDMT), forward-digital span (DS), backward-DS, and semantic fluency between SZ patients and HCs (p < 0.05 for all). Finally, the SNP rs1011313 genotypes were associated with SDMT in SZ patients (p = 0.04). Conclusion: This study provides further evidence that SNP rs4712253 of DTNBP1 has a nominal association with SZ in the Han Chinese population. Such a genotype variation may play a role in psychopathology and cognitive function.

15.
J Sep Sci ; 43(14): 2936-2948, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386338

RESUMO

l-Arginine has many special physiological and biochemical functions, with wide applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Few studies on the purification of l-arginine from fermentation broth have been conducted; however, none of them were systematic enough for industrial scale-up. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a highly efficient and systematic process for the purification of l-arginine from fermentation broth. In this study, we screened out a cation exchange resin, D155, having high exchange capacity, high selectivity, and easy elution capacity, and analyzed its adsorption isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetics using different models. Further, the process parameters of fixed-bed ion exchange adsorption and elution were optimized, and the penetration curve during the operation was modeled. Based on the fixed-bed ion-exchange parameters, a 30-column continuous ion-exchange system was designed, and the flow velocity in each zone was optimized. Finally, to obtain a high purity of l-arginine, the purification tests were conducted using anion exchange resin 711, and an l-arginine yield of 99.1% and purity of 98.5% was obtained. This effective and economical method also provides a promising strategy for separation of other amino acids from the fermentation broth, which is of great significance to the l-arginine fermentation industry.


Assuntos
Arginina/isolamento & purificação , Corynebacterium/metabolismo , Fermentação , Adsorção , Resinas de Troca Aniônica/química , Arginina/química , Arginina/metabolismo , Resinas de Troca de Cátion/química , Corynebacterium/química , Cinética , Termodinâmica
16.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(7): 1196-1206, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193514

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported substantial single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), but the underlying functional variations in the GWAS risk loci are unclear. Here we show that the European MDD genome-wide risk-associated allele of rs12129573 at 1p31.1 is associated with MDD in Han Chinese, and this SNP is in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a human-unique Alu insertion polymorphism (rs70959274) in the 5' flanking region of a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) LINC01360 (Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 1360), which is preferably expressed in human testis in the currently available expression datasets. The risk allele at rs12129573 is almost completely linked with the absence of this Alu insertion. The Alu insertion polymorphism (rs70959274) is significantly associated with a lower RNA level of LINC01360 and acts as a transcription silencer likely through modulating the methylation of its internal CpG sites. Luciferase assays confirm that the presence of Alu insertion at rs70959274 suppresses transcriptional activities in human cells, and deletion of the Alu insertion through CRISPR/Cas9-directed genome editing increases RNA expression of LINC01360. Deletion of the Alu insertion in human cells also leads to dysregulation of gene expression, biological processes and pathways relevant to MDD, such as the alterations of mRNA levels of DRD2 and FLOT1, transcription of genes involved in synaptic transmission, neurogenesis, learning or memory, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In summary, we identify a human-unique DNA repetitive polymorphism in robust LD with the MDD risk-associated SNP at the prominent 1p31.1 GWAS loci, and offer insights into the molecular basis of the illness.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(8)2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060028

RESUMO

PII signal transduction proteins are ubiquitous and highly conserved in bacteria, archaea, and plants and play key roles in controlling nitrogen metabolism. However, research on biological functions and regulatory targets of PII proteins remains limited. Here, we illustrated experimentally that the PII protein Corynebacterium glutamicum GlnK (CgGlnK) increased l-arginine yield when glnK was overexpressed in Corynebacterium glutamicum Data showed that CgGlnK regulated l-arginine biosynthesis by upregulating the expression of genes of the l-arginine metabolic pathway and interacting with N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase (CgNAGK), the rate-limiting enzyme in l-arginine biosynthesis. Further assays indicated that CgGlnK contributed to alleviation of the feedback inhibition of CgNAGK caused by l-arginine. In silico analysis of the binding interface of CgGlnK-CgNAGK suggested that the B and T loops of CgGlnK mainly interacted with C and N domains of CgNAGK. Moreover, F11, R47, and K85 of CgGlnK were identified as crucial binding sites that interact with CgNAGK via hydrophobic interaction and H bonds, and these interactions probably had a positive effect on maintaining the stability of the complex. Collectively, this study reveals PII-NAGK interaction in nonphotosynthetic microorganisms and further provides insights into the regulatory mechanism of PII on amino acid biosynthesis in corynebacteria.IMPORTANCE Corynebacteria are safe industrial producers of diverse amino acids, including l-glutamic acid and l-arginine. In this study, we showed that PII protein GlnK played an important role in l-glutamic acid and l-arginine biosynthesis in C. glutamicum Through clarifying the molecular mechanism of CgGlnK in l-arginine biosynthesis, the novel interaction between CgGlnK and CgNAGK was revealed. The alleviation of l-arginine inhibition of CgNAGK reached approximately 48.21% by CgGlnK addition, and the semi-inhibition constant of CgNAGK increased 1.4-fold. Furthermore, overexpression of glnK in a high-yield l-arginine-producing strain and fermentation of the recombinant strain in a 5-liter bioreactor led to a remarkably increased production of l-arginine, 49.978 g/liter, which was about 22.61% higher than that of the initial strain. In conclusion, this study provides a new strategy for modifying amino acid biosynthesis in C. glutamicum.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Proteínas PII Reguladoras de Nitrogênio/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Carboxila)/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Corynebacterium glutamicum/química , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolismo , Proteínas PII Reguladoras de Nitrogênio/química , Proteínas PII Reguladoras de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Carboxila)/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
18.
Physiol Behav ; 217: 112805, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954148

RESUMO

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction is known to be associated with neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation and as such may be related to the synaptic plasticity associated with cognitive function. Although antipsychotic drug studies have suggested a potential role for the ERK cascade in schizophrenia, the mechanistic basis is unknown. The maternal immune activation (MIA) rat model is a well-known to simulate many of the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, including cognitive deficits, but a role in this model for dynamic changes in ERK has not been established. In this study, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid was administered to rats intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/kg on embryonic day 9.5 to produce MIA. The effect of MIA on behavior and ERK phosphorylation within the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus of adolescent and adult offspring were explored. We also examined neurofilaments, a marker of neurogenesis, which have been reported to be modulated by ERK signaling. The results demonstrate an age- and region-specific profile of ERK expression and phosphorylation and suggest possible relationships among ERK, neurofilament expression, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular , Feminino , Hipocampo , Neurogênese , Fosforilação , Gravidez , Ratos
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(4)2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791952

RESUMO

Prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite produced by Serratia marcescens, has attracted attention due to its immunosuppressive, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. However, information on the regulatory mechanism behind prodigiosin biosynthesis in S. marcescens remains limited. In this work, a prodigiosin-hyperproducing strain with the BVG90_22495 gene disrupted (ZK66) was selected from a collection of Tn5G transposon insertion mutants. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis, ß-galactosidase assays, transcriptomics analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), the LysR-type regulator MetR encoded by the BVG90_22495 gene was found to affect prodigiosin synthesis, and this correlated with MetR directly binding to the promoter region of the prodigiosin-synthesis positive regulator PigP and hence negatively regulated the expression of the prodigiosin-associated pig operon. More analyses revealed that MetR regulated some other important cellular processes, including methionine biosynthesis, cell motility, H2O2 tolerance, heat tolerance, exopolysaccharide synthesis, and biofilm formation in S. marcescens Although MetR protein is highly conserved in many bacteria, we report here on the LysR-type regulator MetR exhibiting novel roles in negatively regulating prodigiosin synthesis and positively regulating heat tolerance, exopolysaccharide synthesis, and biofilm formation.IMPORTANCE Serratia marcescens, a Gram-negative bacterium, is found in a wide range of ecological niches and can produce several secondary metabolites, including prodigiosin, althiomycin, and serratamolide. Among them, prodigiosin shows diverse functions as an immunosuppressant, antimicrobial, and anticancer agent. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind prodigiosin synthesis in S. marcescens are not completely understood. Here, we adapted a transposon mutant library to identify the genes related to prodigiosin synthesis, and the BVG90_22495 gene encoding the LysR-type regulator MetR was found to negatively regulate prodigiosin synthesis. The molecular mechanism of the metR mutant hyperproducing prodigiosin was investigated. Additionally, we provided evidence supporting new roles for MetR in regulating methionine biosynthesis, cell motility, heat tolerance, H2O2 tolerance, and exopolysaccharide synthesis in S. marcescens Collectively, this work provides novel insight into regulatory mechanisms of prodigiosin synthesis and uncovers novel roles for the highly conserved MetR protein in regulating prodigiosin synthesis, heat tolerance, exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, and biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metionina/biossíntese , Prodigiosina/biossíntese , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Transativadores/genética , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Serratia marcescens/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
20.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731395

RESUMO

As one of the most significant steroid hormone precursors, androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) could be used to synthesize many valuable hormone drugs. The microbial transformation of sterols to ADD has received extensive attention in recent years. In a previous study, Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12 was isolated and converted sterols to the major product, ADD. In this work, we enhanced ADD yield by improving the cell intracellular environment. First, we introduced a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase from Bacillus subtilis to balance the intracellular NAD+ availability in order to strengthen the ADD yield. Then, the catalase gene from M. neoaurum was also over-expressed to simultaneously scavenge the generated H2O2 and eliminate its toxic effects on cell growth and sterol transformation. Finally, using a 5 L fermentor, the recombinant strain JC-12yodC-katA produced 9.66 g/L ADD, which increased by 80% when compared with the parent strain. This work shows a promising way to increase the sterol transformation efficiency by regulating the intracellular environment.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Esteroides/biossíntese , Androstadienos/química , Androstadienos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/química , Catalase/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Celular , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Engenharia Metabólica , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Mycobacteriaceae/genética , Mycobacteriaceae/metabolismo , NAD/química , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo
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