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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944535

RESUMO

The incidence of melanoma is rising globally including China. Comparing to Caucasians, the incidence of non-cutaneous melanomas is significantly higher in Chinese. Herein, we performed genomic profiling of 89 Chinese surgically resected primary melanomas, including acral (n = 54), cutaneous (n = 22), and mucosal (n = 13), by hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing. We show that mucosal melanomas tended to harbor more pathogenic mutations than other types of melanoma, though the biological significance of this finding remains uncertain. Chromosomal arm-level alterations including 6q, 9p, and 10p/q loss were highly recurrent in all subtypes, but mucosal melanoma was significantly associated with increased genomic instability. Importantly, 7p gain significantly correlated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in non-cutaneous melanomas, representing an intriguing prognostic biomarker of those subtypes. Furthermore, focal amplification of 4q12 (KIT, KDR, and PDGFRα) and RAD51 deletion were more abundant in mucosal melanoma, while NOTCH2 amplification was enriched in acral melanoma. Additionally, cutaneous melanomas had higher mutation load than acral melanomas, while mucosal melanomas did not differ from other subtypes in mutation burden. Together, our data revealed important features of acral and mucosal melanomas in Chinese including distinctive driver mutation pattern and increased genomic instability. These findings highlight the possibilities of combination therapies in the clinical management of melanoma.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has become an important treatment option for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, none of these existing biomarkers can effectively stratify true responders and there is an urgent need for identifying novel biomarkers. Exosomes derived from the serum of patients with cancer have been proven to be reliable markers for cancer diagnosis. Here, we explored the possibility of using plasma-derived exosomal microRNAs as potential biomarkers for optimal selection of patients with advanced EGFR / ALK negative NSCLC to immunotherapy. METHODS: From June 2017 to February 2019, 30 patients with advanced EGFR / ALK wild-type (WT) NSCLC who received PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors were enrolled. The efficacy evaluation was conducted after every three cycles of treatment according to RECIST 1.1. Plasma samples of these patients were collected before the administration of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as baseline, and after every three cycles if the patients achieved partial response (PR) or complete response. Plasma from seven healthy individuals was also collected as normal control. Exosomes were prepared by ultracentrifugation followed by total RNA extraction, and exosome-derived miRNAs were profiled using small RNA next-generation sequencing followed by differential expression analysis. RESULTS: In order to identify biomarker for better response, all five patients who achieved PR and four patients with progressive disease (PD) at efficacy evaluation were included for differential expression analysis. Based on unsupervised hierarchical clustering, exosomal miRNA expression profile was significantly altered in patients with NSCLC compared with normal controls with a total of 155 differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs. Interestingly, hsa-miR-320d, hsa-miR-320c, and hsa-miR-320b were identified significantly upregulated in the PD groups compared with the PR group at baseline before the treatment. In addition, we identified that hsa-miR-125b-5p, a T-cell suppressor, showed a trend of increased expression in the PD group at baseline and was significantly downregulated in the post-treatment plasma exosomes compared with pre-treatment samples of the PR patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with NSCLC represent unique plasma exosomal miRNA profiles. Hsa-miR-320d, hsa-miR-320c, and hsa-miR-320b were identified as potential biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of immunotherapy in advanced NSCLCs. When T-cell suppressor hsa-miR-125b-5p was downregulated during the treatment, the patients may obtain increased T-cell function and respond well to immunotherapy.

3.
Cancer Lett ; 472: 108-118, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837443

RESUMO

Despite the common application and considerable efforts to achieve precision radiotherapy (RT) in several types of cancer, RT has not yet entered the era of precision medicine; the ability to predict radiosensitivity and treatment responses in tumors and normal tissues is lacking. Therefore, development of genome-based methods for individual prognosis in radiation oncology is urgently required. Traditional DNA sequencing requires tissue samples collected during invasive operations; therefore, repeated tests are nearly impossible. Intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity may undermine the predictive power of a single assay from tumor samples. In contrast, analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) allows for non-invasive and near real-time sampling of tumors. By investigating the genetic composition of tumors and monitoring dynamic changes during treatment, ctDNA analysis may potentially be clinically valuable in prediction of treatment responses prior to RT, surveillance of responses during RT, and evaluation of residual disease following RT. As a biomarker for RT response, ctDNA profiling may guide personalized treatments. In this review, we will discuss approaches of tissue DNA sequencing and ctDNA detection and summarize their clinical applications in both traditional RT and in combination with immunotherapy.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(2): e1079, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in managing invasive breast cancer (BC) is the lack of reliable biomarkers to track response. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from liquid biopsy, as a candidate biomarker, provides a valuable assessment of BC patients. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the utility of ctDNA to reflect the efficacy of treatment and to monitor resistance mechanisms. METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-relevant genes was performed on 41 plasma biopsy samples of 19 HER2+ and 12 HER2- BC patients. Longitudinal ctDNA samples were analyzed in three BC patients over the treatment course for detecting acquired mutations. RESULTS: In HER2+ BC patients, ERBB2 somatic copy numbers in ctDNA samples were significantly higher in patients progressed on HER2-targeted therapy than those who were still responding to the treatment. Recurrent acquired mutations were detected in genes including ERBB2, TP53, EGFR, NF1, and SETD2, which may contribute to trastuzumab resistance. In longitudinal analyses, the observed mutation allele frequencies were tracked closely in concordance with treatment responses. A novel ERBB2 p.(Leu869Arg) mutation was acquired in one patient upon resistant to trastuzumab therapy, which was further validated as an oncogenic mutation in vitro and contributed to resistance. In HER2- BC patients with chemotherapy resistance, genetic alterations on TP53, PIK3CA, and DNA damage repair genes were frequently observed. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, ctDNA monitoring, particularly longitudinal analyses, provides valuable insights into the assessment of targeted therapy efficacy and gene alterations underlying trastuzumab resistance and chemotherapy resistance in HER2+ and HER2- BC patients, respectively.

5.
Oncogene ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831835

RESUMO

The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements: Professor Stebbing sits on SABs for Celltrion, Singapore Biotech, Vor Biopharma, TLC Biopharmaceuticals and Benevolent AI, has consulted with Lansdowne partners, Vitruvian and Social Impact Capital and Chairs the Board of Directors for BB Biotech Healthcare Trust and Xerion Healthcare. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

6.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Definitive chemoradiation therapy (dCRT) is the standard treatment for patients with nonsurgical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), yet patients have demonstrated great variations in their responses to dCRT and inevitably progressed following treatment. METHODS: To identify prognostic biomarkers, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing of 416 cancer-related genes on primary tumors from 47 nonsurgical ESCC patients prior to dCRT treatment. The association between genetic alterations and patients' local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) was analyzed. RESULTS: TP53 (78% of patients), NOTCH1 (32%), ARID1A (13%), FAT1 (13%), and CDKN2A (13%) were commonly mutated in ESCC patients, while gene amplifications frequently occurred in MCL1 (36%), FGF19 (34%), MYC (32%), CCND1 (27%), ZNF217 (15%), CDKN2A (13%), and YAP1 (11%). Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical factors and genetic alterations indicated that sex is an independent prognostic factor, with males tending to have better LRFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.25; 95%CI, 0.08-0.77, P = .015) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 0.35; 95%CI, 0.13-0.93, P = .030) following dCRT. Meanwhile, YAP1 amplification (n = 7) was an adverse prognostic factor, and patients with this alteration demonstrated a tendency toward worse outcomes with shorter LRFS (HR, 4.06; 95%CI, 1.26-13.14, P = .019) and OS (HR, 2.78; 95%CI, 0.95-8.17, P = .062). In a subgroup analysis, while sex and M-stage were controlled, a much stronger negative effect of YAP1 amplification vs wild-type in LRFS was observed (log-rank P = .0067). CONCLUSION: The results suggested that YAP1 amplification is a potentially useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes and identifying patients with a high risk of relapse who should be closely monitored.

7.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurotrophin receptor kinase (NTRK) gene fusions (NTRK+) are rare but actionable oncogenic drivers present in a wide variety of solid tumors. However, the clinicopathologic characteristics of NTRK1 fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer are largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung cancer tissue specimens and/or circulating cell-free DNA from patients with lung cancer who had undergone molecular profiling at a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified genomics laboratory in China were retrospectively reviewed. The laboratory performed NTRK1 fusion detection using hybridization-based targeted next-generation sequencing. The patients' clinical characteristics and treatment history were retrieved from the database for further evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 21,155 Chinese lung cancer cases had undergone molecular profiling from April 2016 to March 2019, including 13,630 adenocarcinoma cases. Of these cases, 12 were positive for NTRK1 fusion, including 10 cases of adenocarcinoma (0.073%), 1 primary sarcomatoid carcinoma, and 1 with an unknown histologic classification. Seven fusion partners (CD74, interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 [IRF2BP2], lamin A/C [LMNA], PHD finger protein 20 [PHF20], sequestosome 1 [SQSTM1], tropomyosin 3 [TPM3], TPR) were identified. Additionally, 1 unique rearrangement occurred upstream of the transcription start site of BCL9 fused to exon 12 of NTRK1 (intragenic region, BCL9-NTRK1). Of the 12 cases of NTRK1+ lung cancer, 6 had had concurrent activating EGFR mutations and/or had received previous treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with 2 having concurrent EGFR T790M and 1 additional EGFR C797S. CONCLUSIONS: NTRK1+ lung cancer cases are extremely rare with multiple fusion partners. Additionally, emergence of NTRK1+ fusion might act as a resistance mechanism to EGFR TKIs. When performing comprehensive analysis of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, the ability to detect NTRK1 fusions will be important.

8.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754213

RESUMO

EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients inevitably develop drug resistance when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Systematic genetic analysis is important to understand drug-resistant mechanisms; however, the clinical significance of co-occurring genetic alterations at baseline, co-acquired mutations at progressive disease (PD), and the clonal evolution remain underinvestigated. We performed targeted sequencing of pre-treatment and PD tumor samples from 54 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. Ten additional patients were sequenced using whole-exome sequencing to infer the clonal evolution patterns. We observed a domain-dependent effect of PIK3CA mutation at baseline on patient progression-free survival (PFS). In addition, at baseline, 9q34.3/19p13.3 (NOTCH1/STK11/GNA11) showed a co-deletion pattern, which was associated with a significantly worse PFS (p = 0.00079). T790M-postive patients with other concurrent acquired oncogenic mutations had a significantly shorter PFS (p = 0.005). Besides acquired T790M mutation, chromosomal instability (CIN) related genes, including AURKA and TP53 alterations, were the most frequently acquired events. CIN significantly increased during TKI treatment in T790M-negative patients and is a candidate resistance mechanism to the first-generation TKIs. Clonal evolution analyses suggest that the composition and relationship among resistant subclones, particularly relationship with T790M subclone, affect patients' outcomes. Overall, our findings of novel co-occurring alterations and clonal evolution patterns can be served as predictive biomarkers to stratify patients and help to better understand the drug-resistant mechanism to TKIs.

9.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 8(4): 392-400, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555514

RESUMO

Background: Recently, plasma-derived exosomal DNA (exoDNA) has been successfully used in clinical genetic testing. However, the clinical utility of pleural effusion-derived exoDNA (PE-exoDNA) was still unknown. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using PE-exoDNA for genetic testing in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Twenty PE-exoDNA samples and 18 pleural effusion-derived cell-free DNA (PE-cfDNA) samples were obtained from 20 stage IV lung adenocarcinoma patients. Using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-relevant genes, the genomic alterations between PE-exoDNA and PE-cfDNA were identified and compared. Results: NGS results showed highly similar mutation profiles between exoDNA and cfDNA, with TP53, EGFR, PKD1, and ALK as the top 4 mutated genes in both samples. A total of 304 genetic mutations were identified in 18 cfDNA samples and 276 genetic mutations were identified in 20 exoDNA samples. Forty-seven mutations from 8 genes (EGFR, ALK, KARS, BRAF, MET, PTEN, TP53, and RB1) were identified in 18 patients who had both exoDNA and cfDNA samples. Of the 47 mutations, 43 were shared between the two types of samples, yielding a concordance rate of 89.6%. Collectively, 78% of the mutations were shared between exoDNA and cfDNA samples, and this frequency increased to 94.2% when copy number variations (CNVs) were excluded from the analysis. Conclusions: In patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, the genetic profile of PE-exoDNA and PE-cfDNA were comparable, except for CNVs that had lower similarities between these two samples. Our findings support the clinical utility of exoDNA and could motivate further exploration of using exoDNA as an alternative source for genetic testing.

11.
Theranostics ; 9(19): 5532-5541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534501

RESUMO

Pleural effusion (PE) is commonly observed in advanced lung cancer and was suggested to contain both cell-free tumor DNA and tumor cells. Molecular profiling of PE represents a minimally invasive approach of detecting tumor driver mutations for clinical decision making, especially when tumor tissues are not available. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy and precision of detecting gene alterations in PE samples to address the feasibility in clinical use. Methods: Sixty-three metastatic lung cancer patients with (n=30, cohort 1) or without (n=33, cohort 2) matched tumor tissues were enrolled in this study. PE and plasma samples of each patient were collected simultaneously. Supernatant and cell precipitate of PE were processed separately to extract cfDNA (PE-cfDNA) and sediment DNA (sDNA). All samples were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-related genes. Results: PE supernatants contain more abundant tumor DNA than PE sediments and plasma samples, suggested by higher mutant allele frequencies (MAF) and elevated mutation detection rate in PE-cfDNA (98.4% vs. 90.5% in PE sDNA vs. 87% in plasma cfDNA). In Cohort 1 with matched tumor tissue, tumor mutational burden (TMB) of PE-cfDNA was similar as tumor tissues (6.4 vs. 5.6), but significantly higher than PE sDNA (median TMB: 3.3) and plasma cfDNA (median TMB: 3.4). Ninety-three percent (27 out of 29) of tissue-determined driver mutations were detected in PE-cfDNA, including alterations in ALK, BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, KRAS, NF1, PIK3CA, and RET, while only 62% were captured in plasma cfDNA. PE-cfDNA also has the highest detection rate of EGFR driver mutations in the full cohort (71% vs. 68% in PE sDNA vs. 59% in plasma cfDNA). Mutation detection from cytological negative and hemorrhagic PE is challenging. Comparatively, PE-cfDNA demonstrated absolute superiority than PE sDNA in such a scenario, suggesting that it is an independent source of tumor DNA and therefore less influenced by the abundance of tumor cells. Conclusion: Genomic profiling of PE-cfDNA offers an alternative, and potentially more meticulous approach in assessing tumor genomics in advanced lung cancer when tumor tissue is not available. Our data further demonstrate that in hemorrhagic or cytologically negative PE samples, PE-cfDNA has higher mutation detection sensitivity than sDNA and plasma cfDNA, and therefore is a more reliable source for genetic testing.

14.
Future Oncol ; 15(22): 2585-2593, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339066

RESUMO

Aim: Crizotinib has been used to counter MET amplification in different human malignancies. However, transient responses were observed in some patients with rapid acquisition of resistant mutations in MET. Materials & methods: MET mutations stably expressed Ba/F3 cell lines were used for IC50 detection. Signaling pathway analysis was done using 293T cell line. Results: Four MET mutations conferred resistance to crizotinib with sustained activation of downstream signaling pathways of MET. On the other hand, the four MET mutations displayed different response to type II tyrosine kinase inhibitors with variable deterioration of the downstream signals. Conclusion: This study suggested that patients carrying MET V1092L, D1228G or Y1230H mutations could benefit from type II tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment, but not patients with G1163R or D1228Y/N mutations.


Assuntos
Crizotinibe/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Crizotinibe/efeitos adversos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mutação , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
15.
Target Oncol ; 14(4): 369-374, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) osimertinib has demonstrated significant clinical benefit in EGFR T790M-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, with extensive research focusing on the mechanisms of acquired resistance. However, there are limited studies on second-line treatment options for EGFR T790M-negative patients and their clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to osimertinib treatment as well as the therapeutic options for T790M-negative NSCLC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this case study, a patient was admitted and diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. Tissue specimen and blood samples collected from baseline and during the course of treatment were subjected to genomic profiling of 416 cancer-related genes using hybridization capture-based targeted next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Following progression on initial chemoradiotherapy, the patient received EGFR TKI treatment with icotinib upon the confirmation of carrying an EGFR L858R mutation. However, the patient was negative for the EGFR T790M mutation when he became resistant to icotinib. The patient received subsequent osimertinib treatment and achieved a progression-free survival (PFS) of 10.4 months. Upon disease progression, an acquired L718V mutation within the EGFR kinase domain was found, which may interfere with the binding of osimertinib to the kinase domain and confer resistance regardless of T790M status. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first clinical evidence of EGFR L718V giving rise to osimertinib resistance in a T790M-negative context, which provides valuable information for the discovery of resistance mechanisms to osimertinib and guidance for personalized NSCLC treatment in such patients.

16.
Oncol Lett ; 18(1): 449-455, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289516

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has been found to be efficient in a variety of cancers and, therefore, may be a promising strategy for breast cancer (BC), particularly due to the limited therapeutic options currently available for triple-negative BC (TNBC). However, heterogeneity of tumor mutation burden (TMB), immune gene expression and mismatch repair (MMR) gene activity across BC subtypes has not been well characterized. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of TMB, expression levels of immune cell type marker genes, and expression levels of MMR-associated genes was performed. A total of 5 MMR-associated genes, including MLH1, MLH3, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2, were analyzed. Patients that harbored at least two MMR genes with expression levels in the lower 10% percentile across the cohort were considered as potentially aberrant (lost expression). Hormone receptor (HR)-negative BC is associated with a higher TMB and immune gene expression compared with HR-positive BC [TMB, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative vs. ER-negative, 55 vs. 32, respectively; P=4.1×10-13; progesterone receptor (PR)-negative vs. PR-positive, 53 vs. 31, respectively; P<2.2×10-16]. By contrast, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative BC tended to have a lower TMB and decreased immune gene expression compared with HER2-positive BC (TMB, HER2-negative vs. HER2-positive, 36 vs. 48, respectively; P=0.02). Furthermore, aberrant expression of MMR genes was found to be more common in HR-negative compared with HR-positive BC (P<0.001). Significantly higher expression levels of each immune marker gene of four major immune cell types were found in patients who were HR-negative compared with patients who were HR-positive (P<0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that HR-negative or HER2-positive BC exhibits elevated TMB and immunogenic activity, and immunotherapeutic options are recommended.

17.
Cancer ; 125(20): 3535-3544, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with brain metastases (BMs) have a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Lung cancer is the most common primary malignancy giving rise to BMs; thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms behind increased BM risk is essential for identifying therapeutic targets and developing effective interventions. METHODS: Sixty-one patients who underwent surgical resection of primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and BMs were retrospectively studied. Comprehensive genomic profiling of primary NSCLC and matched BMs was performed with next-generation sequencing targeting 416 cancer-relevant genes. RESULTS: Mutations of major drivers, including EGFR, KRAS, TP53, and ALK, were highly concordant between primary NSCLC and matched BMs (>80%), whereas discordance suggested the unique genomic evolution and oncogenic mechanisms of NSCLC BMs. BMs also demonstrated higher levels of copy number variations in comparison with primary NSCLC. Furthermore, the alterations of genes encoding CDK4/CCND1, CDKN2A/2B, and PI3K signaling pathways were enriched in BMs, and this suggested their correlation with increased metastatic risk. Indeed, patients with activated PI3K signaling in their primary NSCLC had significantly shorter BM-free survival (hazard ratio, 8.49; P = .0005). In addition, mutated TP53 or an activated WNT pathway via CTNNB1, APC, and AXIN2 mutations trended toward shorter BM-free intervals but not significantly so. CONCLUSIONS: These findings yield detailed insights into the genomic complexity and heterogeneity of primary NSCLC and matched BMs. This study highlights the significant correlation of PI3K signaling with increased metastatic risk in patients with NSCLC and identifies genomic alterations enriched in NSCLC BMs that could serve as prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets for treating patients with NSCLC BMs.

18.
Oncol Lett ; 17(6): 5219-5223, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186738

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (non-SCLC) benefits from first-line treatment with first generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, drug resistance is inevitable through different mechanisms and is dominated by the acquisition of the T790M mutation within EGFR, which occurs in ~50% of cases. The present study reports the case of a patient originally diagnosed with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma, with a recurrent tumor lesion in each side of the lungs following the surgical removal of the primary tumor. Erlotinib treatment of the recurrent tumors eliminated the tumor on the right side of the lung and resulted in the histological transformation of the tumor on the left side to SCLC following 6 years of treatment. Genetic profiling of the SCLC lesions using targeted next-generation sequencing identified different genetic alterations from the primary tumor, characterized by the newly acquired copy number loss of tumor protein p53 and transcriptional coreceptor 1, and the copy number gain of SRY-box 2. Continuation of treatment with chemotherapy and erlotinib demonstrated moderate disease control for ~1 year prior to the outbreak of a new lung lesion. Liquid biopsy profiling of circulating tumor DNA revealed the acquisition of KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS) p.G12C mutation, indicating the occurrence of another resistance mechanism to erlotinib. During erlotinib treatment, the lung adenocarcinoma progressed through two atypical mechanisms, notably from the transformation to SCLC and the acquisition of the KRAS mutation to surpass EGFR inhibition. However, the combinational and interchanging usage of chemotherapy and TKI resulted in persistent and effective disease control.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 592, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) consists of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous tumors with high degree of malignancy, rapid progression, and poor prognosis. However, little is known regarding how pulmonary SC develops and progresses. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old male was initially diagnosed with stage IIIa lung cancer containing both adenocarcinoma (ADC) and SC. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated post-surgery, however, recurrence with SC only soon followed. Mutation profiling of the patient's microdissected ADC and SC components of the primary lesion and recurrent tumor was performed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-relevant genes. Our data showed that primary SC/ADC and the recurrent SC shared multiple gene mutations including EGFR, NF1, TP53, CDKN2B, and SMARCA4, while both primary and recurrent SCs had a unique TP53 exon 4 splicing mutation frequently observed in sarcoma. Interestingly, a novel PHF20-NTRK1 fusion was acquired in the recurrent SC, which may be a potential driver for SC recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular genetic characteristics of tumor tissues at different stages reveals a linear tumor evolution model in this case, and support that the primary SC derived from the original lung ADC during the evolution of the tumor. We also identified a novel PHF20-NTRK1 fusion, which may contribute to the disease recurrence, and that can be potentially targeted with NTRK1 inhibitors for treatment.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/complicações , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinossarcoma/etiologia , Fusão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Doenças Raras/etiologia , Receptor trkA/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/radioterapia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinogênese , Carcinossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinossarcoma/radioterapia , Carcinossarcoma/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Éxons/genética , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Raras/radioterapia , Doenças Raras/cirurgia
20.
J Int Med Res ; 47(6): 2768-2777, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106632

RESUMO

Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. Early diagnosis is challenging, which results in a poor prognosis using systemic therapy. Recent studies have identified a subset of GBC patients with HER2 gene (ERBB2) amplification that could benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. Here, we report one patient with recurrent metachronous GBC with metastasis, who received the combination of trastuzumab and lapatinib. This approach achieved a partial response for both the brain and the lung metastases. This study demonstrated that HER2 inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for GBC with HER2 amplification and, combined with lapatinib, it can effectively target brain metastasis.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Amplificação de Genes , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Humanos , Lapatinib/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem
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