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1.
Energy Environ Sci ; 15(5): 1988-2001, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706421

RESUMO

The operating conditions of low pH and high potential at the anodes of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers restrict the choice of catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to oxides based on the rare metals iridium or ruthenium. In this work, we investigate the stability of both the metal atoms and, by quantitative and highly sensitive 18O isotope labelling experiments, the oxygen atoms in a series of RuO x and IrO x electrocatalysts during the OER in the mechanistically interesting low overpotential regime. We show that materials based on RuO x have a higher dissolution rate than the rate of incorporation of labelled oxygen from the catalyst into the O2 evolved ("labelled OER"), while for IrO x -based catalysts the two rates are comparable. On amorphous RuO x , metal dissolution and labelled OER are found to have distinct Tafel slopes. These observations together lead us to a full mechanistic picture in which dissolution and labelled OER are side processes to the main electrocatalytic cycle. We emphasize the importance of quantitative analysis and point out that since less than 0.2% of evolved oxygen contains an oxygen atom originating from the catalyst itself, lattice oxygen evolution is at most a negligible contribution to overall OER activity for RuO x and IrO x in acidic electrolyte.

2.
Energy Environ Sci ; 15(5): 1977-1987, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706423

RESUMO

The high overpotential required for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) represents a significant barrier for the production of closed-cycle renewable fuels and chemicals. Ruthenium dioxide is among the most active catalysts for OER in acid, but the activity at low overpotentials can be difficult to measure due to high capacitance. In this work, we use electrochemistry - mass spectrometry to obtain accurate OER activity measurements spanning six orders of magnitude on a model series of ruthenium-based catalysts in acidic electrolyte, quantifying electrocatalytic O2 production at potential as low as 1.30 VRHE. We show that the potential-dependent O2 production rate, i.e., the Tafel slope, exhibits three regimes, revealing a previously unobserved Tafel slope of 25 mV decade-1 below 1.4 VRHE. We fit the expanded activity data to a microkinetic model based on potential-dependent coverage of the surface intermediates from which the rate-determining step takes place. Our results demonstrate how the familiar quantities "onset potential" and "exchange current density" are influenced by the sensitivity of the detection method.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3415, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701416

RESUMO

Polymer electrolytes are promising candidates for the next generation lithium-ion battery technology. Large scale screening of polymer electrolytes is hindered by the significant cost of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in amorphous systems: the amorphous structure of polymers requires multiple, repeated sampling to reduce noise and the slow relaxation requires long simulation time for convergence. Here, we accelerate the screening with a multi-task graph neural network that learns from a large amount of noisy, unconverged, short MD data and a small number of converged, long MD data. We achieve accurate predictions of 4 different converged properties and screen a space of 6247 polymers that is orders of magnitude larger than previous computational studies. Further, we extract several design principles for polymer electrolytes and provide an open dataset for the community. Our approach could be applicable to a broad class of material discovery problems that involve the simulation of complex, amorphous materials.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Polímeros , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrólitos/química , Lítio/química , Polímeros/química
4.
Chem Soc Rev ; 51(11): 4583-4762, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575644

RESUMO

Replacing fossil fuels with energy sources and carriers that are sustainable, environmentally benign, and affordable is amongst the most pressing challenges for future socio-economic development. To that goal, hydrogen is presumed to be the most promising energy carrier. Electrocatalytic water splitting, if driven by green electricity, would provide hydrogen with minimal CO2 footprint. The viability of water electrolysis still hinges on the availability of durable earth-abundant electrocatalyst materials and the overall process efficiency. This review spans from the fundamentals of electrocatalytically initiated water splitting to the very latest scientific findings from university and institutional research, also covering specifications and special features of the current industrial processes and those processes currently being tested in large-scale applications. Recently developed strategies are described for the optimisation and discovery of active and durable materials for electrodes that ever-increasingly harness first-principles calculations and machine learning. In addition, a technoeconomic analysis of water electrolysis is included that allows an assessment of the extent to which a large-scale implementation of water splitting can help to combat climate change. This review article is intended to cross-pollinate and strengthen efforts from fundamental understanding to technical implementation and to improve the 'junctions' between the field's physical chemists, materials scientists and engineers, as well as stimulate much-needed exchange among these groups on challenges encountered in the different domains.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Industrial , Água , Eletricidade , Eletrólise , Humanos , Hidrogênio
5.
Adv Mater ; 34(30): e2202072, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580350

RESUMO

Surface oxygen vacancies have been widely discussed to be crucial for tailoring the activity of various chemical reactions from CO, NO, to water oxidation by using oxide-supported catalysts. However, the real role and potential function of surface oxygen vacancies in the reaction remains unclear because of their very short lifetime. Here, it is reported that surface oxygen vacancies can be well confined electrostatically for a polarization screening near the perimeter interface between Pt {111} nanocrystals and the negative polar surface (001) of ferroelectric PbTiO3. Strikingly, such a catalyst demonstrates a tunable catalytic CO oxidation kinetics from 200 °C to near room temperature by increasing the O2 gas pressure, accompanied by the conversion curve from a hysteresis-free loop to one with hysteresis. The combination of reaction kinetics, electronic energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, indicates that the oxygen vacancies stabilized by the negative polar surface are the active sites for O2 adsorption as a rate-determining step, and then dissociated O moves to the surface of the Pt nanocrystals for oxidizing adsorbed CO. The results open a new pathway for tunable catalytic activity of CO oxidation.

6.
Nat Mater ; 21(6): 673-680, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210585

RESUMO

The oxygen evolution reaction is central to making chemicals and energy carriers using electrons. Combining the great tunability of enzymatic systems with known oxide-based catalysts can create breakthrough opportunities to achieve both high activity and stability. Here we report a series of metal hydroxide-organic frameworks (MHOFs) synthesized by transforming layered hydroxides into two-dimensional sheets crosslinked using aromatic carboxylate linkers. MHOFs act as a tunable catalytic platform for the oxygen evolution reaction, where the π-π interactions between adjacent stacked linkers dictate stability, while the nature of transition metals in the hydroxides modulates catalytic activity. Substituting Ni-based MHOFs with acidic cations or electron-withdrawing linkers enhances oxygen evolution reaction activity by over three orders of magnitude per metal site, with Fe substitution achieving a mass activity of 80 A [Formula: see text] at 0.3 V overpotential for 20 h. Density functional theory calculations correlate the enhanced oxygen evolution reaction activity with the MHOF-based modulation of Ni redox and the optimized binding of oxygenated intermediates.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Oxigênio , Catálise , Hidróxidos
7.
Nat Catal ; 5(1): 30-36, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141468

RESUMO

The surface wettability of catalysts is typically controlled via surface treatments that promote catalytic performance. Here we report on potential-regulated hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity at cobalt-based oxide interfaces with an alkaline solution. The switchable wetting of single particles, directly related to their activity and stability towards the oxygen evolution reaction, was revealed by electrochemical liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the movement of the liquid in real time revealed distinctive wettability behaviour associated with specific potential ranges. At low potentials, an overall reduction of the hydrophobicity of the oxides was probed. Upon reversible reconstruction towards the surface oxyhydroxide phase, electrowetting was found to cause a change in the interfacial capacitance. At high potentials, the evolution of molecular oxygen, confirmed by operando electron energy-loss spectroscopy, was accompanied by a globally thinner liquid layer. This work directly links the physical wetting with the chemical oxygen evolution reaction of single particles, providing fundamental insights into solid-liquid interfacial interactions of oxygen-evolving oxides.

8.
Acc Chem Res ; 55(3): 298-308, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050573

RESUMO

ConspectusThe transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy requires the development of efficient and cost-effective energy storage technologies. A promising way forward is to harness the energy of intermittent renewable sources, such as solar and wind, to perform (electro)catalytic reactions to generate fuels, thus storing energy in the form of chemical bonds. However, current catalysts rely on the use of expensive, rare, or geographically localized elements, such as platinum. Widespread adoption of new (electro)catalytic technologies hinges on the discovery and development of materials containing earth-abundant elements, which can efficiently catalyze an array of (electro)chemical reactions.In the context of catalysis, descriptors provide correlations between fundamental physical properties, such as the electronic structure, and the resulting catalytic activity. The use of easily accessible descriptors has proven to be a powerful method to advance and accelerate discovery and design of new catalyst materials. The position of the oxygen electronic 2p band center has been proposed to capture the basic physical properties of oxides, including oxygen vacancy formation energy, diffusion barrier of oxygen ions, and work function. Moreover, the adsorption strength of relevant reaction intermediates at the surface of oxides can be strongly correlated with the energy of the oxygen 2p states, which affects the catalytic activity of reactions, such as oxygen electrocatalysis, and oxidative dehydrogenation of organic molecules. Such descriptors for catalytic activity can be used to predict the activity of new catalysts and understand trends and behavior among different catalysts.In this Account, we discuss how the energy of the oxygen 2p states can be used as a descriptor for oxide bulk and surface chemical properties. We show how the oxide redox properties vary linearly with the position of the oxygen 2p band center with respect to the Fermi level, and we discuss how this descriptor can be expanded across different materials and structural families, including possible generalizations to compounds outside oxides. We highlight the power of the oxygen 2p band center to predict the catalytic activity of oxides. We conclude with an outlook examining under which conditions this descriptor can be applied to predict oxide properties and possible opportunities for further refining and accelerating property predictions of oxides by leveraging material databases and machine learning.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(5): 6689-6701, 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35099933

RESUMO

Li-O2 batteries can provide significantly higher gravimetric energy density than Li-ion batteries, but their practical use is limited by a number of fundamental issues associated with oxidizing discharge products such as Li2O2 and LiOH during charging. Soluble inorganic redox mediators (RMs) like LiI and LiBr have been shown to enhance round-trip efficiency where different solvents can greatly shift the redox potential of the RMs, significantly altering the overpotential during charging, as well as their oxidizing power against the discharge product. Unfortunately, other design requirements like (electro)chemical stability with the electrode as well as reactive discharge products greatly constrain the selection of solvent, making it impractical to additionally design the solvent to provide optimal RM performance. In this work, we demonstrate that interhalide RMs based on LiI/LiBr and LiI/LiCl mixtures can enable tuning of the oxidizing power of the RM in a given solvent. I-Br interhalides I2Br- to IBr2- showed increasing chemical oxidizing power toward Li2O2 and LiOH with increasing Br, and DEMS measurements during charging of Li-O2 cells demonstrated that these I-Br interhalide RMs led to increased O2 evolution with respect to LiI and reduced charging potential and CO2 evolution with respect to LiBr.

10.
JACS Au ; 1(11): 1904-1914, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841409

RESUMO

Understanding and broad screening Li interaction energetics with surfaces are key to the development of materials for a wide range of applications including Li-based electrochemical capacitors, Li sensors, Li separation membranes, and Li-ion batteries. In this work, we build a high-throughput screening scheme to screen Li adsorption energetics on 2D metallic materials. First, density functional theory and graph convolution networks are utilized to calculate the minimum Li adsorption energies for some 2D metallic materials. The data is then used to find a dependence of the minimum Li adsorption energies on the sum of ionization potential, work function of the 2D metal, and coupling energy between Li+ and substrate, and the dependence is used to screen all 2D metallic materials. Physics-simplified learning by splitting the property into different contributions and learning or calculating each component is shown to have higher accuracy and transferability for machine learning of complex materials properties.

11.
JACS Au ; 1(10): 1674-1687, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723270

RESUMO

The production of molecular hydrogen by catalyzing water splitting is central to achieving the decarbonization of sustainable fuels and chemical transformations. In this work, a series of structure-making/breaking cations in the electrolyte were investigated as spectator cations in hydrogen evolution and oxidation reactions (HER/HOR) in the pH range of 1 to 14, whose kinetics was found to be altered by up to 2 orders of magnitude by these cations. The exchange current density of HER/HOR was shown to increase with greater structure-making tendency of cations in the order of Cs+ < Rb+ < K+ < Na+ < Li+, which was accompanied by decreasing reorganization energy from the Marcus-Hush-Chidsey formalism and increasing reaction entropy. Invoking the Born model of reorganization energy and reaction entropy, the static dielectric constant of the electrolyte at the electrified interface was found to be significantly lower than that of bulk, decreasing with the structure-making tendency of cations at the negatively charged Pt surface. The physical origin of cation-dependent HER/HOR kinetics can be rationalized by an increase in concentration of cations on the negatively charged Pt surface, altering the interfacial water structure and the H-bonding network, which is supported by classical molecular dynamics simulation and surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy. This work highlights immense opportunities to control the reaction rates by tuning interfacial structures of cation and solvents.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(42): 24396-24402, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693410

RESUMO

We present a scheme to extract the adsorption energy, adsorbate interaction parameter and the saturation coverage from temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. We propose that the coverage dependent adsorption energy can be fit using a functional form including the configurational entropy and linear adsorbate-adsorbate interaction terms. As one example of this scheme, we analyze TPD of CO desorption on Au(211) and Au(310) surfaces. We determine that under atmospheric CO pressure, the steps of both facets adsorb between 0.4-0.9 ML coverage of CO*. We compare this result against energies obtained from five density functionals, RPBE, PBE, PBE-D3, RPBE-D3 and BEEF-vdW. We find that the energies and equilibrium coverages from RPBE-D3 and PBE are closest to the values determined from the TPD.

13.
iScience ; 24(10): 103105, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622158

RESUMO

Green synthesis of ammonia by electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) shows great potential as an alternative to the Haber-Bosch process but is hampered by sluggish production rate and low Faradaic efficiency. Recently, lithium-mediated electrochemical NRR has received renewed attention due to its reproducibility. However, further improvement of the system is restricted by limited recognition of its mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate that lithium-mediated NRR began with electrochemical deposition of lithium, followed by two chemical processes of dinitrogen splitting and protonation to ammonia. Furthermore, we quantified the extent to which the freshly deposited active lithium lost its activity toward NRR due to a parasitic reaction between lithium and electrolyte. A high ammonia yield of 0.410 ± 0.038 µg s-1 cm-2 geo and Faradaic efficiency of 39.5 ± 1.7% were achieved at 20 mA cm-2 geo and 10 mA cm-2 geo, respectively, which can be attributed to fresher lithium obtained at high current density.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(29): 6861-6866, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279943

RESUMO

Ammonia synthesis by electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) is a promising alternative to the Haber-Bosch process. Accurate measurement of produced ammonia requires rigorous criteria, which rely on a deeper understanding of ammonia characteristics. Herein, we systematically investigated the interaction of ammonia with Nafion membrane and electrolyte to reveal factors that may induce deviation in ammonia measurements. We demonstrated desirable characteristics of Nafion membrane as a separator in view of the low adsorption rate and low diffusion rate for ammonia. But one should be aware of the possible contaminants pre-existing in the membrane. It was also observed that the acid electrolyte had a much greater affinity for ammonia compared with base electrolyte. Specifically, the acid electrolyte is more vulnerable to potential ammonia contaminant in the feeding gas, whereas base electrolyte is inclined to lose produced ammonia under a continuous nitrogen flow. The findings provide a deeper understanding of ammonia's behavior in NRR test and help obtain accurate and credible ammonia measurements.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(24): 28583-28592, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110139

RESUMO

Bundling of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) significantly undermines their superior thermal and electrical properties. Realizing stable, homogeneous, and surfactant-free dispersion of SWCNTs in solvents and composites has long been regarded as a key challenge. Here, we report amine-containing aromatic and cyclohexane molecules, which are common chain extenders (CEs) for epoxy curing in industry, can be used to effectively disperse CNTs. We achieve single-tube-level dispersion of SWCNTs in CE solvents, as demonstrated by the strong chirality-dependent absorption and photoluminescence emission. The SWCNT-CE dispersion remains stable under ambient conditions for months. The excellent dispersibility and stability are attributed to the formation of an n-type charge-transfer complex through the NH-π interaction between the amine group of CEs and the delocalized π bond of SWCNTs, which is confirmed by the negative Seebeck coefficient of the CE-functionalized SWCNT films, the red shift of the G band in the Raman spectra, and the NH-π peak in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The high dispersibility of CEs significantly improves the electrical and thermal transport of macroscale CNT assemblies. The sheet resistance of the CE-dispersed SWCNT thin films reaches 161 Ω sq-1 at 80.8% optical transmittance after functional modification by HNO3. Moreover, the CEs cross-link CNTs and epoxy molecules, forming a pathway for phonon transport in CNT/epoxy nanocomposites. The thermal conductivity of the CE-CNT-epoxy composite is enhanced by 1850% compared with the original epoxy, which is the highest enhancement reported to date for CNT/epoxy nanocomposites. The CE-based NH-π interaction provides a new paradigm for the effective and stable dispersion of SWCNTs in a facile and scalable process.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(50): 55865-55875, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283495

RESUMO

Layered lithium nickel, manganese, and cobalt oxides (NMC) are among the most promising commercial positive electrodes in the past decades. Understanding the detailed surface and bulk redox processes of Ni-rich NMC can provide useful insights into material design options to boost reversible capacity and cycle life. Both hard X-ray absorption (XAS) of metal K-edges and soft XAS of metal L-edges collected from charged LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622) and LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) showed that the charge capacity up to removing ∼0.7 Li/f.u. was accompanied with Ni oxidation in bulk and near the surface (up to 100 nm). Of significance to note is that nickel oxidation is primarily responsible for the charge capacity of NMC622 and 811 up to similar lithium removal (∼0.7 Li/f.u.) albeit charged to different potentials, beyond which was followed by Ni reduction near the surface (up to 100 nm) due to oxygen release and electrolyte parasitic reactions. This observation points toward several new strategies to enhance reversible redox capacities of Ni-rich and/or Co-free electrodes for high-energy Li-ion batteries.

17.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(12): 7255-7266, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180490

RESUMO

We examine the effect of equilibration methodology and sampling on ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of systems of common solvents and salts found in lithium-oxygen batteries. We compare two equilibration methods: (1) using an AIMD temperature ramp and (2) using a classical MD simulation followed by a short AIMD simulation both at the target simulation temperature of 300 K. We also compare two different classical all-atom force fields: PCFF+ and OPLS. By comparing the simulated association/dissociation behavior of lithium salts in different solvents with the experimental behavior, we find that equilibration with the classical force field that produces more physically accurate behavior in the classical MD simulations, namely, OPLS, also results in more physically accurate behavior in the AIMD runs compared to equilibration with PCFF+ or with the AIMD temperature ramp. Equilibration with OPLS outperforms even the pure AIMD equilibration because the classical MD equilibration is much longer than the AIMD equilibration (nanosecond vs picosecond timescales). These longer classical simulations allow the systems to find a more physically accurate initial configuration, and in the short simulation times available for the AIMD production runs, the initial configuration has a large impact on the system behavior. We also demonstrate the importance of averaging coordination number over multiple starting configurations and Li+ ions, as the majority of Li+ ions do not undergo a single association or dissociation event even in an ∼40 ps long simulation and thus do not sample a statistically significant portion of the phase space. These results show the importance of both equilibration method and sufficient independent sampling for extracting experimentally relevant quantities from AIMD simulations.

18.
Adv Mater ; 32(49): e2004971, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145832

RESUMO

Supercapacitor fibers, with short charging times, long cycle lifespans, and high power densities, hold promise for powering flexible fabric-based electronics. To date, however, only short lengths of functioning fiber supercapacitors have been produced. The primary goal of this study is to introduce a supercapacitor fiber that addresses the remaining challenges of scalability, flexibility, cladding impermeability, and performance at length. This is achieved through a top-down fabrication method in which a macroscale preform is thermally drawn into a fully functional energy-storage fiber. The preform consists of five components: thermally reversible porous electrode and electrolyte gels; conductive polymer and copper microwire current collectors; and an encapsulating hermetic cladding. This process produces 100 m of continuous functional supercapacitor fiber, orders of magnitude longer than any previously reported. In addition to flexibility (5 mm radius of curvature), moisture resistance (100 washing cycles), and strength (68 MPa), these fibers have an energy density of 306 µWh cm-2 at 3.0 V and ≈100% capacitance retention over 13 000 cycles at 1.6 V. To demonstrate the utility of this fiber, it is machine-woven and used as filament for 3D printing.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(37): 15876-15883, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809812

RESUMO

Among the perovskites used to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) exhibits excellent activity which is thought to be related to dynamic reconstruction at the flexible perovskite surface due to accommodation of large amount of oxygen vacancies. By studying the local structure and chemistry of BSCF surfaces, in detail, via a range of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods, we show that the surfaces of the as-synthesized BSCF particles are Co/Fe rich, and remarkably, adopt a spinel-like structure with a reduced valence of Co ions. Post-mortem and identical location TEM analyses reveal that the Co/Fe spinel-like surface retains a stable chemical environment of the Co/Fe ions, although its structure weakens after electrochemical processing. Further, it is verified that prior to the onset of OER, the Co/Fe spinel-like surface promotes the formation of the highly active Co(Fe)OOH phase, which enhances the OER electrocatalytic properties of the underlying conductive BSCF perovskite. This study provides a detailed understanding of the fundamental transformations that oxide catalysts undergo during electrochemical processes and can aid in the development of novel oxide catalysts with enhanced activity.

20.
ACS Cent Sci ; 6(7): 1115-1128, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724846

RESUMO

Molecular details often dictate the macroscopic properties of materials, yet due to their vastly different length scales, relationships between molecular structure and bulk properties can be difficult to predict a priori, requiring Edisonian optimizations and preventing rational design. Here, we introduce an easy-to-execute strategy based on linear free energy relationships (LFERs) that enables quantitative correlation and prediction of how molecular modifications, i.e., substituents, impact the ensemble properties of materials. First, we developed substituent parameters based on inexpensive, DFT-computed energetics of elementary pairwise interactions between a given substituent and other constant components of the material. These substituent parameters were then used as inputs to regression analyses of experimentally measured bulk properties, generating a predictive statistical model. We applied this approach to a widely studied class of electrolyte materials: oligo-ethylene glycol (OEG)-LiTFSI mixtures; the resulting model enables elucidation of fundamental physical principles that govern the properties of these electrolytes and also enables prediction of the properties of novel, improved OEG-LiTFSI-based electrolytes. The framework presented here for using context-specific substituent parameters will potentially enhance the throughput of screening new molecular designs for next-generation energy storage devices and other materials-oriented contexts where classical substituent parameters (e.g., Hammett parameters) may not be available or effective.

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