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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) provides an effective method for clearing deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Unfortunately, CDT is associated with hemorrhagic complications. This study evaluated the technical success of the various endovascular therapies including a new mechanical aspiration thrombectomy (AT) device for the treatment of acute upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT). METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective review of patients with acute symptomatic proximal UEDVT secondary to venous thoracic outlet syndrome. Undergoing endovascular therapy from December 2013 to June 2019. Patients were treated with a variety of methods including CDT, ultrasound assisted thrombolysis (USAT), rheolytic thrombectomy (RT) and aspiration thrombectomy (AT). We evaluated outcomes for patients undergoing AT compared to non-aspiration thrombectomy (NAT) techniques. The primary outcome was technical success, defined as resolution of >70% of thrombus. The secondary endpoint was the ability to complete the therapy in a single session. RESULTS: There were 22 patients who had endovascular management of their symptomatic proximal UEDVT. All 22 (100%) patients were successfully treated with greater than 70% thrombus resolution. 10 patients underwent AT, of which 50% (5/10) had single session therapies. 12 patients underwent NAT (3 had CDT or USAT alone; 3 had USAT with RT; and 6 had CDT followed by RT), with single session therapy occurring in only 8.3% (1/12) of the NAT group. The average total dose of thrombolytics was 12.6mg (SD= 9.65) in the AT group compared to 19.0mg (SD= 5.78) in the NAT group (mean difference -6.4; 95% CI -1.1, 13.9). All but one of the patients in the AT group went on to have successful first rib resections. All NAT patients had successful first rib resections. Venogram was not performed at the time of decompression. All patients except one underwent resection via the infraclavicular approach, with rib removal posterior to the brachial plexus, a median of 8.0 [IQR 6.0, 12.0] days following DVT therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, technical success of 100% was achieved for acute symptomatic proximal UEDVT therapies. AT technology allows for higher rates of treatment in a single session thereby minimizing a patient's risks of bleeding complications. Further research is needed to further define the role of this new technology in the treatment paradigm of UEDVT management.

3.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 1032-1035, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoendoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy (THE) provides advantages over traditional THE by not only avoiding laparotomy but by also allowing more precise esophageal mobilization. Occasionally, the length of the gastric conduit is insufficient to allow delivery into the neck after laparoscopic mobilization and requires laparotomy to complete the procedure. We hypothesize that the need for laparotomy will correlate with the measurement of mediastinal height (distance from thoracic vertebrae T1-T12) on chest CT. METHODS: Medical records of all patients who underwent attempted laparoendoscopic-assisted THE at a tertiary referral center between March 1, 2003 and January 31, 2019 were reviewed. Patients' mediastinal height was measured using computed tomography (CT) imaging of the chest by investigators and analyzed for correlation between mediastinal height and successful completion of a totally laparoendoscopic procedure. RESULTS: A total of 21 cases met inclusion criteria: 9 successful laparoendoscopic THE procedures and 12 failed laparoendoscopic THE procedures (those requiring addition of a mini-laparotomy or thoracotomy). The mean mediastinal length for successful laparoendoscopic surgery was 23.5 cm, whereas the mean mediastinal length for failed laparoscopic surgeries was 24.8 cm (P = .03). Patient's overall height was not found to correlate with the need for conversion. CONCLUSIONS: Shorter mediastinal length is associated with successful laparoendoscopic or laparoscopic THE. This information is readily available to clinicians from routine preoperative staging studies (chest CT) and may be used to potentially predict the success rate of a totally laparoendoscopic approach and aid in patient selection. Further prospective evaluation of these findings is warranted.


Assuntos
Regras de Decisão Clínica , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta , Esofagectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Laparotomia , Mediastino/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Sci Adv ; 6(30): eabb5824, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832674

RESUMO

We study how easy it is to distinguish influence operations from organic social media activity by assessing the performance of a platform-agnostic machine learning approach. Our method uses public activity to detect content that is part of coordinated influence operations based on human-interpretable features derived solely from content. We test this method on publicly available Twitter data on Chinese, Russian, and Venezuelan troll activity targeting the United States, as well as the Reddit dataset of Russian influence efforts. To assess how well content-based features distinguish these influence operations from random samples of general and political American users, we train and test classifiers on a monthly basis for each campaign across five prediction tasks. Content-based features perform well across period, country, platform, and prediction task. Industrialized production of influence campaign content leaves a distinctive signal in user-generated content that allows tracking of campaigns from month to month and across different accounts.

5.
Am J Surg ; 219(6): 952-957, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564408

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is known to increase risk for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis due to hyperoxaluria; however, nephrolithiasis rates after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are not well described. Our objective was to determine the rate of nephrolithiasis after LRYGB versus LSG. METHODS: The electronic medical records of patients who underwent LRYGB or LSG between 2001 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: 1,802 patients were included. Postoperative nephrolithiasis was observed in 133 (7.4%) patients, overall, and 8.12% of LRYGB (122/1503) vs. 3.68% of LSG (11/299) patients (P < 0.001). Mean time to stone formation was 2.97 ±â€¯2.96 years. Patients with a history of UTI (OR = 2.12, 95%CI 1.41-3.18; P < 0.001) or nephrolithiasis (OR = 8.81, 95%CI 4.93-15.72; P < 0.001) were more likely to have postoperative nephrolithiasis. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic nephrolithiasis after bariatric surgery was 7.4%. Patients who underwent LRYGB had a higher incidence of nephrolithiasis versus LSG. Patients with a history of stones had the highest risk of postoperative nephrolithiasis.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia , Nefrolitíase/epidemiologia , Nefrolitíase/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Energy Res Soc Sci ; 44: 411-418, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467534

RESUMO

As the world's most traded commodity, oil production is typically well monitored and analyzed. It also has established links to geopolitics, international relations, and security. Despite this attention, the illicit production, refining, and trade of oil and derivative products occur all over the world and provide significant revenues outside of the oversight and regulation of governments. A prominent manifestation of this phenomenon is how terrorist and insurgent organizations-including the Islamic State group, also known as ISIL/ISIS or Daesh-use oil as a revenue source. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in production can help determine the scale of operations, technical capacity, and revenue streams. This information, in turn, can inform both security and reconstruction strategies. To this end, we use satellite multi-spectral imaging and ground-truth pre-war output data to effectively construct a real-time census of oil production in areas controlled by the ISIL terrorist group. More broadly, remotely measuring the activity of extractive industries in conflict-affected areas without reliable administrative data can support a broad range of public policy and decisions and military operations.

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