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1.
Prostate ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To test for differences in cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rates between radical prostatectomy (RP) vs external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk African American patients, as well as Johns Hopkins University (JHU) high-risk and very high-risk patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2010-2016), we identified 4165 NCCN high-risk patients, of whom 1944 (46.7%) and 2221 (53.3%) patients qualified for JHU high-risk or very high-risk definitions. Of all 4165 patients, 1390 (33.5%) were treated with RP versus 2775 (66.6%) with EBRT. Cumulative incidence plots and competing risks regression models addressed CSM before and after 1:1 propensity score matching between RP and EBRT NCCN high-risk patients. Subsequently, analyses were repeated separately in JHU high-risk and very high-risk subgroups. Finally, all analyses were repeated after landmark analyses were applied. RESULTS: In the NCCN high-risk cohort, 5-year CSM rates for RP versus EBRT were 2.4 versus 5.2%, yielding a multivariable hazard ratio of 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.84, p = 0.009) favoring RP. In JHU very high-risk patients 5-year CSM rates for RP versus EBRT were 3.7 versus 8.4%, respectively, yielding a multivariable hazard ratio of 0.51 (95% CI: 0.28-0.95, p = 0.03) favoring RP. Conversely, in JHU high-risk patients, no significant CSM difference was recorded between RP vs EBRT (5-year CSM rates: 1.3 vs 1.3%; multivariable hazard ratio: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.16-1.90, p = 0.3). Observations were confirmed in propensity score-matched and landmark analyses adjusted cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In JHU very high-risk African American patients, RP may hold a CSM advantage over EBRT, but not in JHU high-risk African American patients.

2.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We relied on the most contemporary Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and tested the hypothesis that chemotherapy may improve survival in metastatic urachal carcinoma (m-UraC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Within the SEER database (2004-2016), we identified m-UraC patients aged ≥ 18 years. Propensity score matching (PSM: cystectomy status, age and sex), Kaplan-Meier plots, cumulative incidence plots, Cox regression models and competing risks regression (CRR) models addressed overall mortality (OM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM). RESULTS: Overall, 274 m-UraC patients were identified with a median age of 70 years. Most were male (66%) and Caucasian (72%). Overall, 32% received chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-exposed patients were younger (62 vs. 73 years, p<0.001) and more frequently underwent cystectomy (19 vs. 8%, P = 0.014). In 274 m-UraC patients, median OM and CSM were 6 (4 -10) months and 8 (6 -14) months, respectively. After 1:1 PSM, chemotherapy-exposed patients exhibited lower OM (median 16 vs. 3 months; multivariable HR 0.38, P <0.001) and lower CSM (median 17 vs. 4 months; multivariable CRR HR 0.52, P = 0.001). The association between chemotherapy and better survival was even stronger in younger (≤70 years) patients (OM HR: 0.23, P <0.001; CSM CRR HR: 0.42, P = 0.001), but not in older (≥71 years) patients (OM HR: 0.61, P = 0.2; CSM CRR HR: 1.02, P = 1), after PSM and multivariable adjustments. CONCLUSION: Overall, we validated the very aggressive nature of UraC, when distant metastases are present, and observed that m-UraC patients exposed to chemotherapy exhibited lower OM and CSM.

3.
World J Urol ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test discontinuation rates during Active Surveillance (AS) in patients diagnosed with incidental prostate cancers (IPCa) vs. tumors diagnosed at prostate biopsies (BxPCa). METHODS: Retrospective single center analysis of 961 vs. 121 BxPCa vs. IPCa patients (2008-2020). Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regression models tested four different outcomes: (1) any-cause discontinuation; (2) discontinuation due to ISUP GG upgrading; (3) biopsy discontinuation due to ISUP GG upgrading or > 3 positive cores; (4) biopsy discontinuation or suspicious extraprostatic extension at surveillance mpMRI. Then, multivariable logistic regression models tested rates of clinically significant PCa (csPCa) (ISUP GG ≥ 3 or pT ≥ 3a or pN1) after radical prostatectomy (RP). RESULTS: Median time follow-up was 35 (19-64) months. IPCa patients were at lower risk of any-cause (3-year survival: 79.3 vs. 66%; HR: 0.5, p = 0.001) and biopsy/MRI AS discontinuation (3-year survival: 82.3 vs. 72.7%; HR: 0.5, p = 0.001), compared to BxPCa patients. Conversely, IPCa patients exhibited same rates of biopsy discontinuation and ISUP GG upgrading over time, relative to BxPCa. In multivariable logistic regression models, IPCa patients were associated with higher rates of csPCa at RP (OR: 1.4, p = 0.03), relative to their BxPCa counterparts. CONCLUSION: AS represents a safe management strategy for IPCa. Compared to BxPCa, IPCa patients are less prone to experience any-cause and biopsy/MRI AS discontinuation. However, the two mentioned groups present similar rates of biopsy discontinuation and ISUP GG upgrading over time. In consequence, tailored AS protocols with scheduled repeated surveillance biopsies should be offered to all newly diagnosed IPCa patients.

4.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations are not well studied compared to their female counterparts. This study evaluates the cancer characteristics, family history of cancer, and outcomes of male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: All men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations who attended genetic assessment between October 1995 and October 2019 at the Medical University of Vienna were identified. Clinicohistopathological features, family history of cancer, and outcomes were assessed by mutation status. RESULTS: Of the 323 men included, 45 (13.9%) had a primary cancer diagnosis, many of whom were BRCA2 carriers (75.5%). Breast cancer (BC) was the most common cancer (57.8%) followed by prostate cancer (15.6%). Invasive ductal carcinoma and hormone receptor positive tumors were the most common. Among 26 BC-affected patients, 42% did not have any relatives with cancer. Parent of origin was only known in half of the 26 men, with 42% of them inherited through the maternal lineage versus 8% through the paternal. BRCA2 carriers and those with a family history of BC had worse overall survival (20 y vs. 23 y BRCA1 carriers; P = 0.007; 19 y vs. 21 y for those without family history of BC; P = 0.036). CONCLUSION: Male BRCA2 carriers were most likely to develop cancer and had worse prognosis. In our dataset, BC was the most common cancer, likely due to referral bias. Not all mutation carriers present with BC or have a family history of cancer to warrant genetic testing.

5.
Mol Carcinog ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587660

RESUMO

Elevated preoperative plasma level of endoglin has been associated with worse oncologic outcomes in various malignancies. The present large-scale study aimed to determine the predictive and prognostic values of preoperative endoglin with regard to clinicopathologic and survival outcomes in patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) for nonmetastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). We prospectively collected preoperative blood samples from 1036 consecutive patients treated with RC for UCB. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were undertaken to assess the correlation of endoglin levels with pathologic and survival outcomes, respectively. The AUC and C-index were used to assess the discrimination. Patients with adverse pathologic features had significantly higher median preoperative endoglin plasma levels than their counterparts. Higher preoperative endoglin level was independently associated with an increased risk for lymph node metastasis, ≥pT3 disease, and nonorgan confined disease (NOCD; all p < 0.001). Plasma endoglin level was also independently associated with cancer-specific and overall survival in both pre- and postoperative models (all p < 0.05), as well as with recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the preoperative model (p < 0.001). The addition of endoglin to the preoperative standard model improved its discrimination for prediction of lymph node metastasis, ≥pT3 disease, NOCD, and RFS (differential increases in C-indices: 10%, 5%, 5.8%, and 4%, respectively). Preoperative plasma endoglin is associated with features of biologically and clinically aggressive UCB as well as survival outcomes. Therefore, it seems to hold the potential of identifying UCB patients who may benefit from intensified therapy in addition to RC such as extended lymphadenectomy or/and preoperative systemic therapy.

6.
Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 3692-3704, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (PSMA-RLT) could affect kidney and salivary gland functions in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, renal, and salivary scintigraphy data and salivary [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 ligand PET scan measures such as metabolic volume and SUVmax values of 27 mCRPC men (mean age 71 ± 7 years) before and 4 weeks after receiving three cycles of PSMA-RLT every 4 weeks. Twenty-two patients additionally obtained renal and salivary scintigraphy prior to each cycle. A one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffé test and Cochran's Q test were applied to assess organ toxicity. RESULTS: In total, 54 PSMA PET scans, 98 kidney, and 98 salivary scintigraphy results were evaluated. There were no significant differences for the ejection fraction, peak time, and residual activity after 5 min for both parotid and submandibular glands prior to each cycle and 4 weeks after the last cycle. Similarly, no significant differences in serum creatinine and renal scintigraphy parameters were observed prior to each cycle and 4 weeks after the last treatment. Despite there being no changes in the metabolic volume of both submandibular glands, SUVmax values dropped significantly (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results evidenced no alterations in renal function and only minimal impairment of salivary function of mCRPC patients who acquired an intense PSMA-RLT regimen every 4 weeks.

7.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563481

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The choice of the most efficacious drug for patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (IOAB) remains challenging. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this network meta-analysis was to determine the most efficacious oral antimuscarinic or ß-adrenoceptor agonist accounting for adverse events for the management of IOAB. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive electronic search was done in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, and Ovid for studies in any language in February 2021 considering the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. We included all randomized controlled trials assessing oral antimuscarinics or ß-adrenoceptor agonists for the treatment of IOAB. We determined the effect of specific bothersome symptoms separately. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Fifty-four articles were included in our analysis. The most efficacious agents considering the evaluated outcomes were oxybutynin 15 mg/d in reducing incontinence episodes, imidafenacin 0.5 mg/d together with solifenacin 10 and 5 mg/d in reducing micturition episodes, fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg/d as well as solifenacin 10 mg/d in reducing urgency episodes, imidafenacin 0.5 mg/d and solifenacin 10 mg/d in reducing urgency urinary incontinence episodes, and solifenacin 10 mg/d, vibegron 50 mg/d, and fesoterodine 8 mg/d in improving the voided volume. Gastrointestinal problems, especially due to antimuscarinic agents, were the most prevalent adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, there is only minimal difference between the efficacy of oral antimuscarinics and that of ß-adrenoceptor agonists. Although finding the best medication for all is impossible, finding the best treatment for every individual patient can be done by considering the efficacy of a medicine for the most bothersome symptom(s) in balance with drug-specific adverse events. PATIENT SUMMARY: This study aimed to find the most efficient oral medication to treat overactive bladder, taking into consideration the adverse events. Based on our study, there is a minimal difference in the efficacy between the two major drug classes used to treat overactive bladder. Gastrointestinal problems were the most common adverse events in medical treatment of overactive bladder. Selection of the best treatment is possible through shared decision-making between the doctor and the patient based on the patient's most bothersome symptom. We provide a framework for physicians to facilitate shared decision-making with each individual patient.

9.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511303

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The European Association of Urology (EAU) has released an updated version of the guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). OBJECTIVE: To present the 2021 EAU guidelines on NMIBC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A broad and comprehensive scoping exercise covering all areas of the NMIBC guidelines since the 2020 version was performed. Databases covered by the search included Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Libraries. Previous guidelines were updated, and the level of evidence and grade of recommendation were assigned. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Tumours staged as Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ (CIS) are grouped under the heading of NMIBC. Diagnosis depends on cystoscopy and histological evaluation of tissue obtained via transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) for papillary tumours or via multiple bladder biopsies for CIS. For papillary lesions, a complete TURB is essential for the patient's prognosis and correct diagnosis. In cases for which the initial resection is incomplete, there is no muscle in the specimen, or a T1 tumour is detected, a second TURB should be performed within 2-6 wk. The risk of progression may be estimated for individual patients using the 2021 EAU scoring model. On the basis of their individual risk of progression, patients are stratified as having low, intermediate, high, or very high risk, which is pivotal to recommending adjuvant treatment. For patients with tumours presumed to be at low risk and for small papillary recurrences detected more than 1 yr after a previous TURB, one immediate chemotherapy instillation is recommended. Patients with an intermediate-risk tumour should receive 1 yr of full-dose intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy or instillations of chemotherapy for a maximum of 1 yr. For patients with high-risk tumours, full-dose intravesical BCG for 1-3 yr is indicated. For patients at very high risk of tumour progression, immediate radical cystectomy should be considered. Cystectomy is also recommended for BCG-unresponsive tumours. The extended version of the guidelines is available on the EAU website at https://uroweb.org/guideline/non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer/. CONCLUSIONS: These abridged EAU guidelines present updated information on the diagnosis and treatment of NMIBC for incorporation into clinical practice. PATIENT SUMMARY: The European Association of Urology has released updated guidelines on the classification, risk factors, diagnosis, prognostic factors, and treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recommendations are based on the literature up to 2020, with emphasis on the highest level of evidence. Classification of patients as having low, intermediate, or and high risk is essential in deciding on suitable treatment. Surgical removal of the bladder should be considered for tumours that do not respond to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment and tumours with the highest risk of progression.

10.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000002250, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555930

RESUMO

AIM: To compare cancer specific mortality (CSM) rates between radical prostatectomy (RP) vs. external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high risk (HR) patients, as well as in Johns Hopkins University (JH) high-risk (HR) and very high risk (VHR) subgroups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2010-2016), we identified 24,407 NCCN HR patients, of whom 10,300 (42%) vs 14,107 (58%) patients that qualified for JH HR and VHR, respectively. Overall, 9,823 (40%) underwent RP vs 14,584 (60%) EBRT. Cumulative incidence plots and competing-risks regression addressed CSM after 1:1 propensity score matching (according to age, PSA, clinical T and N stages and biopsy Gleason score) between RP and EBRT patients. All analyses addressed the combined NCCN HR cohort, as well as in JH HR and JH VHR subgroups. RESULTS: In the combined NCCN HR cohort, 5-year CSM rates were 2.3% for RP vs 4.1% for EBRT and yielded a multivariate hazard ratio (HR) of 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.54-0.86, p <0.001) favoring RP. In VHR patients 5-year CSM rates were 3.5% for RP vs 6.0% for EBRT, yielding a multivariate HR of 0.58 (95% CI 0.44-0.77, p <0.001) favoring RP. Conversely, in HR patients, no significant difference was recorded between RP vs EBRT (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.39-1.25, p=0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that RP holds a CSM advantage over EBRT in the combined NCCN HR cohort, and in its subgroup of JH VHR patients.

11.
Int J Urol ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the effect of race/ethnicity on cancer-specific mortality after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy in localized prostate cancer patients. METHODS: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database 2004-2016, we identified intermediate-risk and high-risk white (n = 151 632), Asian (n = 11 189), Hispanic/Latino (n = 20 077) and African American (n = 32 550) localized prostate cancer patients, treated with external beam radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy. Race/ethnicity-stratified cancer-specific mortality analyses relied on competing risks regression, after propensity score matching for patient and cancer characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with white patients, Asian intermediate- and high-risk external beam radiotherapy patients showed lower cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 0.58 and 0.70, respectively, both P ≤ 0.02). Additionally, Asian high-risk radical prostatectomy patients also showed lower cancer-specific mortality than white patients (hazard ratio 0.72, P = 0.04), but not Asian intermediate-risk radical prostatectomy patients (P = 0.08). Conversely, compared with white patients, African American intermediate-risk radical prostatectomy patients showed higher cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 1.36, P = 0.01), but not African American high-risk radical prostatectomy or intermediate- and high-risk external beam radiotherapy patients (all P ≥ 0.2). Finally, compared with white people, no cancer-specific mortality differences were recorded for Hispanic/Latino patients after external beam radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy, in both risk levels (P ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Relative to white patients, an important cancer-specific mortality advantage applies to intermediate-risk and high-risk Asian prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy, and to high-risk Asian patients treated with radical prostatectomy. These observations should be considered in pretreatment risk stratification and decision-making.

12.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000002252, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546767

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Four recent first-line clinical trials leveraging immune-oncology agents demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit relative to sunitinib. We aimed to provide formal comparisons among immune-oncology combinations in terms of OS, progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rates (ORR) and treatment-related adverse events (AEs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed® database was searched for studies indexed from January 1, 2016 through March 6, 2021. Only phase III randomized clinical trials with proven OS benefit relative to sunitinib were included: CheckMate 214 (nivolumab plus ipilimumab [N+I]), KEYNOTE-426 (pembrolizumab plus axitinib [P+A]), CheckMate 9ER (nivolumab plus cabozantinib [N+C]) and KEYNOTE-581 (lenvatinib plus permbrolizumab [L+P]). OS represented the primary outcome. PFS, ORR and AEs represented secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 3,320 patients were included. Regarding OS, N+C ranked first, followed by L+P, P+A and N+I. Regarding PFS and ORR, L+P ranked first, followed by N+C, P+A and N+I. Finally, N+I ranked first with respect to lowest grade 3+ AEs, followed by P+A, N+C and L+P. Differences in followup duration, risk grouping and nephrectomy rates distinguish the studies. CONCLUSIONS: N+C may provide the most favorable OS, L+P the most favorable PFS and ORRs, and N+I the lowest toxicity. Population differences may potentially undermine the generalizability and the robustness of findings of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

13.
Prostate ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the last decade, multiple clinical trials demonstrated improved survival after chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). However, real-world data validating this effect within large-scale epidemiological data sets are scarce. We addressed this void. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men with de novo mPCa were identified and systemic chemotherapy status was ascertained within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2016). Patients were divided between historical (2004-2013) versus contemporary (2014-2016). Chemotherapy rates were plotted over time. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression models with additional multivariable adjustments addressed overall and cancer-specific mortality. All tests were repeated in propensity-matched analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 19,913 patients had de novo mPCa between 2004 and 2016. Of those, 1838 patients received chemotherapy. Of 1838 chemotherapy-exposed patients, 903 were historical, whereas 905 were contemporary. Chemotherapy rates increased from 5% to 25% over time. Median overall survival was not reached in contemporary patients versus was 24 months in historical patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.55, p < 0.001). After propensity score matching and additional multivariable adjustment (age, prostate-specific antigen, GGG, cT-stage, cN-stage, cM-stage, and local treatment) a HR of 0.55 (p < 0.001) was recorded. Analyses were repeated for cancer-specific mortality after adjustment for other cause mortality in competing risks regression models and recorded virtually the same findings before and after propensity score matching (HR: 0.55, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In mPCa patients, chemotherapy rates increased over time. A concomitant increase in survival was also recorded.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare Cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients with Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) vs. non-SCC penile cancer, since survival outcomes may differ between histological subtypes. METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2004-2016), penile cancer patients of all stages were identified. Temporal trend analyses, cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier plots, multivariable Cox regression and Fine and Gray competing-risks regression analyses tested for CSM differences between non-SCC vs. SCC penile cancer patients. RESULTS: Of 4,120 eligible penile cancer patients, 123 (3%) harbored non-SCC vs. 4,027 (97%) SCC. Of all non-SCC patients, 51 (41%) harbored melanomas, 42 (34%) basal cell carcinomas, 10 (8%) adenocarcinomas, eight (6.5%) skin appendage malignancies, six (5%) epithelial cell neoplasms, two (1.5%) neuroendocrine tumors, two (1.5%) lymphomas, two (1.5%) sarcomas. Stage at presentation differed between non-SCC vs. SCC. In temporal trend analyses, non-SCC diagnoses neither decreased nor increased over time (p > 0.05). After stratification according to localized, locally advanced, and metastatic stage, no CSM differences were observed between non-SCC vs. SCC, with 5-year survival rates of 11 vs 11% (p = 0.9) for localized, 33 vs. 37% (p = 0.4) for locally advanced, and 1-year survival rates of 37 vs. 53% (p = 0.9) for metastatic penile cancer, respectively. After propensity score matching for patient and tumor characteristics and additional multivariable adjustment, no CSM differences between non-SCC vs. SCC were observed. CONCLUSION: Non-SCC penile cancer is rare. Although exceptions exist, on average, non-SCC penile cancer has comparable CSM as SCC penile cancer patients, after stratification for localized, locally invasive, and metastatic disease.

15.
Int J Urol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of specific Asian ethnic subgroups on stage at presentation and cancer-specific mortality in non-metastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma among North American upper tract urothelial carcinoma Asian patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy. METHODS: We relied on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, from 2004 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regression models predicting cancer-specific mortality were used. RESULTS: Of 584 upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients, 173 (29.6%) were Chinese versus 130 (22.3%) Japanese versus 68 (11.6%) Korean versus 64 (11.0%) Filipino versus 40 (6.8%) Vietnamese versus 109 (18.7%) other. Vietnamese and Chinese patients showed the highest rates of T4 N0 M0 and/or T1-4 N1-2 M0 (25.0% and 18.5%, respectively), relative to other Asian ethnic subgroups. In Kaplan-Meier plots, Vietnamese patients showed the highest cancer-specific mortality rate. In multivariable models, Vietnamese ethnicity also independently predicted higher cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 2.15, P = 0.02 and hazard ratio 1.96, P = 0.03), relative to Japanese and Chinese patients. All other Asian ethnic subgroups showed similar cancer-specific mortality patterns. CONCLUSION: Vietnamese and Chinese patients are at a stage disadvantage at upper tract urothelial carcinoma diagnosis, relative to all other Asian ethnicities. After adjustment for stage, only Vietnamese patients showed a survival disadvantage relative to all other Asian ethnic subgroups. As a result, it appears that Vietnamese patients not only present at a higher upper tract urothelial carcinoma stage, but additionally appear to harbor upper tract urothelial carcinoma that progresses at a faster rate than in other Asian ethnic subgroups.

16.
World J Urol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Androgen-regulated enzymes such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection process. The expression of TMPRSS2 and its fusion gene, which are increased in the epithelium of the human prostate gland during prostate carcinogenesis, are regulated by androgens. Our goal was to assess the risk of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of the disease in PCa patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines. We queried PubMed and Web of Science databases on 1 July 2021. We used random- and/or fixed-effects meta-analytic models in the presence or absence of heterogeneity according to Cochrane's Q test and I2 statistic, respectively. RESULTS: Six retrospective studies (n = 50,220 patients) were selected after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria for qualitative evidence synthesis. Four retrospective studies were included to assess the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in PCa patients under ADT vs. no ADT and the summarized risk ratio (RR) was 0.8 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.44-1.47). Five retrospective studies were included to assess the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in PCa patients under ADT versus no ADT and the summarized RR was 1.23 (95% CI 0.9-1.68). CONCLUSION: We found a non-significant association between the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity in PCa patients treated with ADT. However, our results suggest that during the COVID-19 pandemic PCa patients can safely undergo ADT as a cancer therapy without worsening COVID-19 risk and trajectory.

17.
Prostate ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze postoperative, in-hospital, complication rates in patients with organ transplantation before radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: From National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2000-2015) prostate cancer patients treated with RP were abstracted and stratified according to prior organ transplant versus nontransplant. Multivariable logistic regression models predicted in-hospital complications. RESULTS: Of all eligible 202,419 RP patients, 216 (0.1%) underwent RP after prior organ transplantation. Transplant RP patients exhibited higher proportions of Charlson comorbidity index ≥2 (13.0% vs. 3.0%), obesity (9.3% vs. 5.6%, both p < 0.05), versus to nontransplant RP. Of transplant RP patients, 96 underwent kidney (44.4%), 44 heart (20.4%), 40 liver (18.5%), 30 (13.9%) bone marrow, <11 lung (<5%), and <11 pancreatic (<5%) transplantation before RP. Within transplant RP patients, rates of lymph node dissection ranged from 37.5% (kidney transplant) to 60.0% (bone marrow transplant, p < 0.01) versus 51% in nontransplant patients. Regarding in-hospital complications, transplant patients more frequently exhibited, diabetic (31.5% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001), major (7.9% vs. 2.9%) cardiac complications (3.2% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.01), and acute kidney failure (5.1% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.001), versus nontransplant RP. In multivariable logistic regression models, transplant RP patients were at higher risk of acute kidney failure (odds ratio [OR]: 4.83), diabetic (OR: 2.81), major (OR: 2.39), intraoperative (OR: 2.38), cardiac (OR: 2.16), transfusion (OR: 1.37), and overall complications (1.36, all p < 0.001). No in-hospital mortalities were recorded in transplant patients after RP. CONCLUSIONS: Of all transplants before RP, kidney ranks first. RP patients with prior transplantation have an increased risk of in-hospital complications. The highest risk, relative to nontransplant RP patients appears to acute kidney failure.

18.
Urol Oncol ; 39(11): 764-773, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been widely used in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the use of systemic therapies in the adjuvant setting of localized and locally advanced RCC has shown conflicting results across the literature. Therefore, we aimed to conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of TKIs in the adjuvant setting for patients with localized and locally advanced RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched in December 2020 to identify phase III randomized controlled trials of patients receiving adjuvant therapies with TKI for RCC. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were the primary endpoints. The secondary endpoints included treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) of high and any grade. RESULTS: Five trials (S-TRAC, ASSURE, PROTECT, ATLAS, and SORCE) were included in our meta-analysis comprising 6,531 patients. The forest plot revealed that TKI therapy was associated with a significantly longer DFS compared to placebo (pooled HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96, P= 0.004). The Cochrane's Q test (P = 0.51) and I2 test (I2 = 0%) revealed no significant heterogeneity. Adjuvant TKI was not associated with improved OS compared to placebo (pooled HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83-1.04, P= 0.23). The Cochrane's Q test (P = 0.74) and I2 test (I2 = 0%) revealed no significant heterogeneity. The forest plot revealed that TKI therapy, compared to placebo, was associated with higher rates of high grade TRAEs (OR: 5.20, 95% CI: 4.10-6.59, P< 0.00001) as well as any grade TRAEs (OR: 3.85, 95% CI: 1.22-12.17, P= 0.02). The Cochrane's Q tests (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.00001, respectively) and I2 tests (I2 = 79% and I2 = 90%, respectively) revealed significant heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our analyses suggest an improved DFS in patients with localized and locally advanced RCC receiving adjuvant TKI as compared to placebo; however, this did not translate into any significant OS benefit. Additionally, TKI therapy led to significant toxicity. Adjuvant TKI does not seem to offer a satisfactory risk and/orbenefit balance for all patients. Select patients with very poor prognosis may be considered in a shared decision-making process with the patient. With the successful arrival of immune-based therapies in RCC, these may allow a more favorable risk/benefit profile.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 245-255, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-based therapy after previous immuno-oncology therapy (IO) failure has been addressed before. However, summary efficacy estimates have never been generated in these reports. We addressed this void. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically examined TKI efficacy after IO-failure and generated weighted median progression-free survival (PFS) estimates for Pazopanib, Axitinib, Cabozantinib, Sunitinib. A systematic review according to PRISMA was conducted. PubMed and abstracts were queried. Only studies proving median PFS were included. Weighted medians were computed for each TKI alternative. RESULTS: Of 245 articles, nine eligible studies were included in the current study with 952 analysed patients. Weighted PFS medians after any previous IO-based therapy were respectively 13.7 (range from 4.6 to 24.4), 8.1 (range from 4.7 to 13.2), 8.5 (range from 4.7 to 15.2) and 6.9 months (range from 2.9 to 11.6) for Pazopanib, Axitinib, Cabozantinib, Sunitinib. Specific second-line weighted PFS median was 14.8 months (range from 5.6 to 24.4), 10.1 months (range from 6.4 to 13.2), 8.7 months (range from 4.7 to 15.2) and 6.0 months (range from 2.9 to 8.0) for Pazopanib, Axitinib, Cabozantinib, Sunitinib, respectively, after first-line IO. CONCLUSION: Pazopanib results in the longest weighted median PFS, after previous IO-failure, regardless of treatment line, as well as in specific second-line, post-first-line IO failure settings. Pending novel studies, Pazopanib appears to represent the most promising treatment option after prior IO.

20.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000002190, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445891

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the pathological response rates and survival associated with 3 vs 4 cycles of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with cT2-4N0M0 muscle invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cohort study we analyzed clinical data of 828 patients treated with NAC and radical cystectomy between 2000 and 2020. A total of 384 and 444 patients were treated with 3 and 4 cycles of NAC, respectively. Pathological objective response (pOR; ypT0-Ta-Tis-T1 N0), pathological complete response (pCR; ypT0 N0), cancer-specific survival and overall survival were investigated. RESULTS: pOR and pCR were achieved in 378 (45%; 95% CI 42, 49) and 207 (25%; 95% CI 22, 28) patients, respectively. Patients treated with 4 cycles of NAC had higher pOR (49% vs 42%, p=0.03) and pCR (28% vs 21%, p=0.02) rates compared to those treated with 3 cycles. This effect was confirmed on multivariable logistic regression analysis (pOR OR 1.46 p=0.008, pCR OR 1.57, p=0.007). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, 4 cycles of NAC were significantly associated with overall survival (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.49, 0.94; p=0.02) but not with cancer-specific survival (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.50, 1.04; p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Four cycles of NAC achieved better pathological response and survival compared to 3 cycles. These findings may aid clinicians in counseling patients and serve as a benchmark for prospective trials. Prospective validation of these findings and assessment of cumulative toxicity derived from an increased number of cycles are needed.

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