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1.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739453

RESUMO

This study explored the antitubercular properties of fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid, against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Two vital enzymes involved in Mtb cell wall biosynthesis, UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) and arylamine-N-acetyltransferase (TBNAT), were selected as drug targets to reveal the mechanism underlying the antitubercular effect of fucoxanthin. The obtained results showed that fucoxanthin showed a clear bacteriostatic action against the all Mtb strains tested, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 2.8 to 4.1 µM, along with a good degree of selectivity index (ranging from 6.1 to 8.9) based on cellular toxicity evaluation compared with standard drug isoniazid (INH). The potent inhibitory actions of fucoxanthin and standard uridine-5'-diphosphate against UGM were recorded to be 98.2% and 99.2%, respectively. TBNAT was potently inactivated by fucoxanthin (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.8 µM; 99.1% inhibition) as compared to INH (IC50 = 5.9 µM; 97.4% inhibition). Further, molecular docking approaches were achieved to endorse and rationalize the biological findings along with envisaging structure-activity relationships. Since the clinical evidence of the last decade has confirmed the correlation between bacterial infections and autoimmune diseases, in this study we have discussed the linkage between infection with Mtb and autoimmune diseases based on previous clinical observations and animal studies. In conclusion, we propose that fucoxanthin could demonstrate great therapeutic value for the treatment of tuberculosis by acting on multiple targets through a bacteriostatic effect as well as by inhibiting UGM and TBNAT. Such outcomes may lead to avoiding or decreasing the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases associated with Mtb infection in a genetically susceptible host.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692437

RESUMO

Nutritional deficiency is a major concern in developing countries resulting in serious health consequences like mental and physical growth retardation. Moringa oleifera(Moringa), a nutritious plantgrowing in tropical regions of developing countries, is a candidate for overcoming nutritional deficiency. Moringa leaves are rich in protein including Sulphur containing amino acids.It contains high amounts of vitamin C than oranges, higher concentration of vitamin A than carrots, higher calcium content than milk and more potassium than bananas. Moreover, there is 9 times more iron in moringa than spinach, 4 times more fiber than oat. This review is enlightening and exploring the nutritional diversification of Moringa oleifera and other benefits which make it a better choice to use in our daily diet to combat the situation of malnutrition.

3.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605258

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a severe neural disorder that affects approximately fifty million individuals globally. Despite the fact that for most of the people with epilepsy, convulsions are better controlled by current accessible antiepileptic medicines, yet there are more than 30% of individuals affected with medically intractable epilepsy and around 30-40% of all patients with epilepsy affected by many adverse reactions and convulsion resistance to the present antiepileptic drugs. Consequently, various scientists attempt to develop new strategies to treat epilepsy, for instance, to find out novel antiepileptic ingredients from traditional medicines. This work aims to present a complete summary of natural medicines prescribed as antiepileptic agents all over the world by ethnic groups and different tribes. We undertook an extensive bibliographic analysis by searching peer reviewed papers and classical textbooks and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We carried out PubMed, EMbase and CENTRAL searches by means of terms such as "antiepileptic" and "anti-convulsant" activity of plants. Medicinal plants have been prescribed to treat epilepsy and have been recognized as antiepileptic medicines. In this review, a variety of herbs have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Cuminum cyminum, Butea monosperma, Solanum americanum, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Leonotis leonurus, Elaeocarpus ganitrus and Angelica archangelica. This paper shows that it was high time experimental studies are increased to obtain novel potential active principles from medicinal plants. Plant extracts and their chemical constituents should be further evaluated to clarify their mechanisms of action. This paper provides a solid base upon which to further investigate the clinical efficacy of medicinal plants that are both currently prescribed by physicians as traditional antiepileptic agents, but also could be effective as an antiepileptic drug with further research and study.

4.
Life Sci ; 235: 116797, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472146

RESUMO

Chrysin is a promising phytochemical that is categorized under the class of flavonoids based on its chemical structure. Naturally, it is widely present in propolis, honey, passion fruit, and even in mushrooms and other plant sources, whereas its synthetic counterparts are also being employed for pharmacological purposes. It has widely been employed in treatment of various degenerative disorders and provides cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory functions. Its antioxidant and disease preventing abilities are attributed to its structural diversity arising in ring-A and absence of oxygenation in B and C ring. In this review, the scientific studies are being reported emphasizing benefits and its allied health claims on chrysin in numerous metabolic malfunctions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos
5.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 46(12): 1063-1073, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365763

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes the potentially life-threatening and chronic disease called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The main target of this viral disease is to suppress the immune system and make the body unresponsive to external stimuli. According to global health observatory data since epidemic, more than 78 million people were affected by HIV and 39 million people died globally. Until 2017, 36.5 million people were living with HIV. An estimated 0.8% (0.6%-0.9%) of adults aged 15-49 years worldwide is living with HIV. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the African region remains most severely affected, with nearly one in every 25 adults (4.1%) living with HIV and accounting for nearly two-thirds of the people living with HIV worldwide. WHO reported that globally only 21.7 million (19.1 million-22.6 million) people have had access to antiretroviral therapy up to 2017. Currently, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is available for the control of HIV but has serious associated side effects such as lipodystrophy. Because of the limitations, associated with ART, researchers throughout the world are trying to explore and develop more reliable and safe drugs from natural resources to manage HIV infection. A wide range of medicinal plants have been studied and have reported significant potential against HIV. Plants like Rheum palmatum L., Rheum officinale, Trigonostem axyphophylloides, Vatica astrotricha, Vernonia amygdalina, Hypoxias pelargonium, Sidoides hemerocallidea and Sutherlandia frutescens etc. have high efficacy to cure HIV. The exact mechanism of action is still not known but various phytoconstituents isolated from medicinal plants such as alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids, tannins, proteins and coumarins have the potential to interrupt the life cycle of HIV as well as act as immunomodulators to enhance the immune system of infected patients with no well reported side effects. It could be concluded that medicinal plants have potential for the management of HIV/AIDS but more studies are needed to reveal rigorous efficacy and safety concerns by conducting clinical trials at vast level to explore therapeutic impact of medicinal plants.

7.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(6): 1953-1966, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060051

RESUMO

Purpose: Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the earliest subcellular changes in neuro-ophthalmic diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression of key molecules in the ER stress pathways following nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), the most common acute optic neuropathy in adults over 50, and assessed the impact of chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) in vivo. Methods: We induced AION using photochemical thrombosis in adult mice and performed histologic analyses of key molecules in the ER stress pathway in the retina and optic nerve. We also assessed the effects of daily intraperitoneal injections of 4-PBA after AION. Results: In the retina at baseline, there was low proapoptotic transcriptional regulator C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and high prosurvival chaperon glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). One day after AION, there was significantly increased CHOP and reduced GRP78 expressions in the ganglion cell layer. In the optic nerve at baseline, there was little CHOP and high GRP78 expression. One day after AION, there was significantly increased CHOP and no change in GRP78 expression. Treatment immediately after AION using daily intraperitoneal injection of chemical chaperone 4-PBA for 19 days significantly rescued Brn3A+ RGCs and Olig2+ optic nerve oligodendrocytes. Conclusions: We showed for the first time that acute AION resulted in increased ER stress and differential expression of ER stress markers CHOP and GRP78 in the retina and optic nerve. Rescue of RGCs and oligodendrocytes with 4-PBA provides support for ER stress reduction as possible treatment for AION.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Disco Óptico/patologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/patologia , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/biossíntese , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Chaperonas Moleculares , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Disco Óptico/metabolismo , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/genética , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 176: 149-161, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103896

RESUMO

Plants are vital for the wellbeing of humankind in a variety of ways. Some plant extracts contain antimicrobial properties that can treat different pathogens. Most of the world's population relies on medicinal plants and natural products for their primary health care needs. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural products, medicinal plants, and traditional medicine along with a desire to design and develop novel plant-based pharmaceuticals. These plant-based pharmaceuticals may address the concerns of reduced efficacy of synthetic antibiotics due to the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. In this regard, some plant extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) with antimicrobial properties, including piperine, have the potential to be used as natural dietary supplements together with modern therapeutic approaches. This review highlights possible applications of piperine as the active compound in the fields of rational drug design and discovery, pharmaceutical chemistry, and biomedicine. We discuss different extraction methods and pharmacological effects of the analyzed substance to pave the way for further research strategies and perspectives towards the development of novel herbal products for better healthcare solutions.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Piper nigrum/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/síntese química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Benzodioxóis/análise , Benzodioxóis/síntese química , Benzodioxóis/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Piperidinas/análise , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/isolamento & purificação , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/análise , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/síntese química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/isolamento & purificação
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 112: 108612, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798142

RESUMO

Many food-derived phytochemicals and their derivatives represent a cornucopia of new anti-cancer compounds. Luteolin (3,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy flavone) is a flavonoid found in different plants such as vegetables, medicinal herbs, and fruits. It acts as an anticancer agent against various types of human malignancies such as lung, breast, glioblastoma, prostate, colon, and pancreatic cancers. It also blocks cancer development in vitro and in vivo by inhibition of proliferation of tumor cells, protection from carcinogenic stimuli, and activation of cell cycle arrest, and by inducing apoptosis through different signaling pathways. Luteolin can additionally reverse epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through a mechanism that involves cytoskeleton shrinkage, induction of the epithelial biomarker E-cadherin expression, and by down-regulation of the mesenchymal biomarkers N-cadherin, snail, and vimentin. Furthermore, luteolin increases levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activation of lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress response and mitochondrial dysfunction in glioblastoma cells, and by activation of ER stress-associated proteins expressions, including phosphorylation of eIF2α, PERK, CHOP, ATF4, and cleaved-caspase 12. Accordingly, the present review article summarizes the progress of recent research on luteolin against several human cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Luteolina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Luteolina/química , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
10.
Clin Nutr ; 38(6): 2499-2503, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, cancer ranks among the most common causes of death. Multiple experimental and clinical studies have investigated anticancer effects of honey with promising results. This study focused on potential background mechanisms of this effect. METHODS: The current literature was reviewed for potential anticancer pathways which are suggested for honey and its ingredients. RESULTS: Flavonoids (kaempferol, catechin, and quercetin) and phenolic acids (caffeic acid and gallic acid) are the most important ingredients of honey with known anti-cancer activity. The main suggested mechanisms for anti-cancer activity of honey and its ingredients are antioxidant, apoptotic, tumor necrosis factor inhibiting, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects. CONCLUSION: This review collates the current scientific understanding on the mechanism of anti-cancer activity of honey.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0203924, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403759

RESUMO

Cerebellar ataxia is a neurological disorder due to dysfunction of the cerebellum that affects coordination of fine movement, gait, and balance. Although ataxic patients commonly exhibit abnormal eye movement and have difficulties with saccadic reading, quantification of ocular motor abilities during reading in the clinical setting is rarely done. In this study, we assess visual performance with simple reading tests that can be used in the clinical setting and performed video infrared oculography in 11 patients with hereditary or acquired cerebellar ataxia and 11 age-matched controls. We found that compared with controls, ataxic patients read significantly slower on regularly and irregularly spaced 120 single-digit number reading tasks (read aloud) (p = 0.02 for both) but not on a word reading task (read silently), although there was large variability on the word reading task. Among the 3 reading tasks, the regularly spaced number reading task had the greatest difference (44%) between ataxic patients and controls. Analysis of oculography revealed that ataxic patients had slower reading speeds on the regularly spaced number reading task because of significantly higher saccade and fixation counts, impairment of small amplitude progressive saccades as well as large amplitude, line-changing saccades, greater fixation dispersion, and irregularity of scan paths and staircase gaze patterns. Our findings show that infrared oculography remains the gold standard in assessment of ocular motor difficulties during reading in ataxic patients. In the absence of this capability in the clinical setting, a simple 120 regularly spaced single-digit saccadic number reading test, which most patients can perform in less than 2 minutes, can be a possible biomarker for ocular motor abilities necessary for reading.

12.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301185

RESUMO

Milk-derived antibacterial peptides (ABPs) are protein fragments with a positive influence on the functions and conditions of a living organism. Milk-derived ABPs have several useful properties important for human health, comprising a significant antibacterial effect against various pathogens, but contain toxic side-effects. These compounds are mainly produced from milk proteins via fermentation and protein hydrolysis. However, they can also be produced using recombinant DNA techniques or organic synthesis. This review describes the role of milk-derived ABPs in modern food biotechnology with an emphasis on their synthesis and applications. Additionally, we also discuss the mechanisms of action and the main bioproperties of ABPs. Finally, we explore future perspectives for improving ABP physicochemical properties and diminishing their toxic side-effects.

13.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 64(8): 27-34, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981688

RESUMO

Medicinal and food plants as well as their bioactive fractions have been used by diverse human cultures since ancient times. These plants provide multiple health benefits because of the presence of a plethora of phytochemicals including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids, alkaloids, sulphated compounds, peptides and polysaccharides that are responsible for various biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-dysenteric, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anti-hypertensive and anticoagulant properties. The genus Rumex includes edible and medicinal herbs belonging to buckwheat (Polygonaceae) family, consisting of about 200 species rich in phenylpropanoids and anthraquinones. Some Rumex species have exhibited health-promoting effects and have been used as traditional foods and herbal remedies, though a limited information has been documented on their specific biological properties. Therefore, this survey aimed at reviewing the Rumex species with documented biological activity, focusing on preclinical evidences on their efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rumex/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoterapia
14.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191005, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364897

RESUMO

Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic and other neurons, leading to motor and non-motor deficits. Abnormal eye movements in PD, including fixations, saccades, and convergence, are well described. However, saccadic reading, which requires serial and alternating saccades and fixations, is not well studied, despite its obvious impact on the quality of life. In this study, we assessed saccadic reading using variations of the King-Devick (KD) test, a rapid single digit number naming test, as a way to assess the ability to make serial left-to-right ocular motor movements necessary for reading. We recruited 42 treated PD patients and 80 age-matched controls and compared their reading times with a variety of measures, including age, duration of disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25), and Montreal Cognitive assessment (MoCA) test. The subjects performed 4 trials of reading 120 single digit numbers aloud as fast as possible without making errors. In each trial, they read 3 pages (KD1, KD2, and KD3), and each page contained 40 numbers per page in 8 lines with 5 numbers/line. We found that PD patients read about 20% slower than controls on all tests (KD1, 2, and 3 tests) (p < 0.02), and both groups read irregularly spaced numbers slower than regularly spaced numbers. Having lines between numbers to guide reading (KD1 tests) did not impact reading time in both PD and controls, but increased visual crowding as a result of decreased spacing between numbers (KD3 tests) was associated with significantly slower reading times in both PD and control groups. Our study revealed that saccadic reading is slower in PD, but controls and PD patients are both impacted by visuospatial planning challenges posed by increased visual crowding and irregularity of number spacing. Reading time did not correlate with UPDRS or MoCA scores in PD patients but significantly correlated with age, duration of disease, and VFQ-25 scores. The presence of convergence insufficiency did not significantly correlate with reading time in PD patients, although on average there was slower reading time in those with convergence insufficiency by 8 s (p = 0.2613). We propose that a simple reading task using 120 single-digit numbers can be used as a screening tool in the clinical setting to assess functional ocular motor difficulties in Parkinson's disease that can have a profound impact on quality of life.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Movimentos Sacádicos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Plants (Basel) ; 6(4)2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953235

RESUMO

The in vitro antioxidant potential assay between ethanolic extracts of two species from the genus Vitex (Vitex negundo L. and Vitex trifolia L.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family were evaluated. The antioxidant properties of different extracts prepared from both plant species were evaluated by different methods. DPPH scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, and ß-carotene-linoleic acid and ferrous ion chelation methods were applied. The antioxidant activities of these two species were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, and Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). Both species of Vitex showed significant antioxidant activity in all of the tested methods. As compared to V. trifolia L. (60.87-89.99%; 40.0-226.7 µg/mL), V. negundo has been found to hold higher antioxidant activity (62.6-94.22%; IC50 = 23.5-208.3 µg/mL) in all assays. In accordance with antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents in V. negundo possessed greater phenolic (89.71 mg GAE/g dry weight of extract) and flavonoid content (63.11 mg QE/g dry weight of extract) as compared to that of V. trifolia (77.20 mg GAE/g and 57.41 mg QE/g dry weight of extract respectively). Our study revealed the significant correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of both plant species.

16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(4): 2296-2305, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431433

RESUMO

Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important risk factors for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). In this study, we investigated for the first time the impact of experimental AION in a DM model. Methods: We induced a photochemical thrombosis model of AION after streptozotocin-induced DM and performed serial optical coherence tomography (OCT), morphometric analyses, and VEGF levels in the retina and sera. Results: Compared with non-DM animals, experimental AION in DM mice led to significantly greater retinal swelling on day 1 and worse thinning at week 3 on OCT measurements. Greater retinal swelling on OCT in DM-AION eyes was associated with significantly increased loss of brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A (Brn3A+) retinal ganglion cells at week 3. In acute AION, there was greater inflammation as seen by an increase in ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1+)-activated microglia. On day 1, there was increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in nondiabetic AION retinae and sera, but the VEGF level was the highest in the diabetic AION group, which decreased to nondiabetic levels after insulin treatment. The decrease in retinal and serum VEGF levels after insulin treatment correlated with a reduction in retinal swelling. Conclusions: In the setting of hyperglycemia, AION led to greater acute, postischemic microglial activation and elevation of VEGF levels, which likely contributed to greater retinal swelling acutely and worse retinal thinning and loss of retinal ganglion cells chronically. Treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin reduced VEGF levels and retinal swelling, consistent with the idea that VEGF is an important factor in postischemic swelling and that good glycemic control following AION may lead to better visual outcome.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Disco Óptico/patologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/etiologia , Papiledema/etiologia , Retina/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Acuidade Visual , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Disco Óptico/irrigação sanguínea , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/diagnóstico , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/metabolismo , Papiledema/diagnóstico , Papiledema/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 56(5): 2790-7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25414186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Age-related thinning of the retinal ganglion cell axons in the nerve fiber layer has been measured in humans using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, we used OCT to measure inner retinal changes in 3-month-, 1-year-, and 2-year-old mice and after experimental anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). METHODS: We used OCT to quantify retinal thickness in over 200 eyes at different ages before and after a photochemical thrombosis model of AION. The scans were manually or automatically segmented. RESULTS: In normal aging, there was 1.3-µm thinning of the ganglion cell complex (GCC) between 3 months and 1 year (P < 0.0001) and no further thinning at 2 years. In studying age-related inner retinal changes, measurement of the GCC (circular scan) was superior to that of the total retinal thickness (posterior pole scan) despite the need for manual segmentation because it was not contaminated by outer retinal changes. Three weeks after AION, there was 8.9-µm thinning of the GCC (circular scan; P < 0.0001), 50-µm thinning of the optic disc (posterior pole scan; P < 0.0001), and 17-µm thinning of the retina (posterior pole scan; P < 0.0001) in the 3-month-old group. Changes in the older eyes after AION were similar to those of the 3-month-old group. CONCLUSIONS: Optical coherence tomography imaging of a large number of eyes showed that, like humans, mice exhibited small, age-related inner retinal thinning. Measurement of the GCC was superior to total retinal thickness in quantifying age-related changes, and both circular and posterior pole scans were useful to track short-term changes after AION.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/patologia , Retina/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Disco Óptico/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
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