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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(4): 1103-1109, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the correlation between intraoperative and pathological findings for patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) and to determine their prognostic significance. METHODS: Pathological reports of all colorectal cancer (CRC) patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC between 2009 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Pathological specimens lacking tumor cells were defined as negative pathological specimens (NPS). The intraoperative peritoneal cancer index (PCI) and pathological PCI (excluding NPS) were calculated separately. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to compare the prognostic value of intraoperative and pathological scoring systems. RESULTS: For 108 CRC patients, 113 CRS/HIPEC procedures were performed. Of 959 pathological specimens examined, 178 (18.6%) were NPS. Overall, 78 procedures (69%) showed NPS. In 52 procedures (46%), the pathological PCI differed from the intraoperative PCI (∆PCI > 0). The ROC areas for intraoperative PCI and pathological PCI were similar in predicting 1-year overall survival (OS), 2-year OS, and 1-year disease-free survival (all p values not significant). However, for the patients with NPS, the number of positive specimens (containing tumor tissue) was superior to intraoperative PCI in predicting 2-year OS (ROC under the curve areas, 0.69 vs. 0.58, respectively; p = 0.012). In addition, a subgroup of 15 patients with a high ∆PCI (≥ 3) had a more favorable median OS than a matched group of 30 patients with similar intraoperative PCI and a ∆PCI of 0 (median survival not reached vs. 21.6 months, respectively; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of CRC CRS/HIPEC procedures, NPS may be found. Among patients with NPS, pathological correlation may have a prognostic significance.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
World J Surg ; 42(7): 2036-2042, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Formation of protective stoma as part of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) may be an effective tool in reducing anastomotic leak incidence. Our aim was to evaluate the incidence and implications of stoma formation during CRS-HIPEC and to examine whether a creation of protective stoma reduces the postoperative morbidity. METHODS: A cohort retrospective analysis of all CRS-HIPEC procedures performed between 2004 and 2016 was conducted. Predicting factors for stoma formation were assessed by comparing all patients who underwent stoma formation to those who did not; both groups were then restricted to cases with ≥2 bowel anastomoses and compared in terms of perioperative outcomes in order to determine whether protective stoma confers a morbidity benefit. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-nine CRS-HIPEC procedures were performed on 186 patients. Thirty-four patients (17%) underwent stoma formation, 24 of them as protective stoma. Formation of a stoma was correlated with higher peritoneal carcinomatosis index score (13.6 ± 8 vs. 9.5 ± 7.7, p = 0.007), larger number of organs resected (p < 0.001), greater number of anastomoses (p < 0.001), prolonged operative time (8.1 ± 2.7 vs. 6.6 ± 2.2 h, p = 0.002), and prolonged hospital stay (12 vs. 8.5 days, p = 0.001). In procedures requiring ≥2 anastomoses, formation of protective stoma reduced the anastomotic leak rate (6 vs. 37%, p = 0.025), the morbidity rate (6 vs. 41%, p = 0.017), and reoperation rate (0 vs. 28%, p = 0.03). Overall, 15 patients (44%) underwent stoma reversal, 3 of whom had a complication treated non-operatively. CONCLUSIONS: Protective stoma should be considered in extensive CRS-HIPEC procedures requiring two or more bowel anastomoses in order to reduce the postoperative morbidity rate.


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma/terapia , Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Vet World ; 10(11): 1292-1296, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263587

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize virulent Escherichia coli isolated from different poultry species and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) genotyping. Materials and Methods: Fecal swabs from different poultry species (n=150) and poultry farm workers (n=15) were analyzed for E. coli and screened for virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA) by multiplex PCR. Virulent E. coli was serotyped based on their "O" antigen and then genotyped using ERIC-PCR. Results: A total of 134 E. coli isolates (122/150 from poultry and 12/15 from farm workers) were recovered. Virulence genes were detected in a total of 12 isolates. Serological typing of the 12 virulent E. coli revealed nine different serotypes (O2, O49, O60, O63, O83, O101, O120, UT, and Rough). ERIC-PCR genotyping allowed discrimination of 12 virulent E. coli isolates into 11 ERIC-PCR genotypes. The numerical index of discrimination was 0.999. Conclusion: Our findings provide information about the wide genetic diversity and discrimination of virulent E. coli in apparently healthy poultry and poultry farm workers of Andhra Pradesh (India) based on their genotype.

6.
Vet World ; 10(8): 950-954, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919689

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize beta-lactamase antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella and Enterobacter species isolated from healthy and diarrheic dogs in Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 rectal swabs were collected from healthy (92) and diarrheic (44) dogs, bacteriological cultured for Klebsiella and Enterobacter growth and screened for beta-lactamase antimicrobial resistance phenotypically by disc diffusion method and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction targeting blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M Group 1, 2, blaAmpC, blaACC, and blaMOX genes. RESULTS: A total of 33 Klebsiella and 29 Enterobacter isolates were recovered. Phenotypic beta-lactamase resistance was detected in 66.6% and 25% of Klebsiella and Enterobacter isolates, respectively, from healthy dogs and 66.6% and 60% of Klebsiella and Enterobacter isolates, respectively, from diarrheic dogs. Overall, incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was found to be 21.2% (7/33) in Klebsiella isolates, whereas none of the Enterobacter isolates exhibited ESBL phenotype. Predominant beta-lactamase genes detected in Klebsiella species include blaSHV (84.8%), followed by blaTEM (33.3%), blaCTX-M Group 1 (15.1%), and blaOXA (6.1%) gene. Predominant beta-lactamase genes detected in Enterobacter species include blaSHV (48.2%), followed by blaTEM (24.1%), blaAmpC (13.7%), and blaOXA (10.3%) gene. CONCLUSION: The present study highlighted alarming beta-lactamase resistance in Klebsiella and Enterobacter species of canine origin in India with due emphasis as indicators of antimicrobial resistance.

7.
Vet World ; 10(6): 716-720, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717327

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to detect putative virulence genes in Arcobacter species of animal and human origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 Arcobacter isolates (16 Arcobacter butzleri, 13 Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 12 Arcobacter skirrowii) isolated from diverse sources such as fecal swabs of livestock (21), raw foods of animal origin (13), and human stool samples (7) were subjected to a set of six uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Arcobacter putative virulence genes (ciaB, pldA, tlyA, mviN, cadF, and cj1349). RESULTS: All the six virulence genes were detected among all the 16 A. butzleri isolates. Among the 13 A. cryaerophilus isolates, cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, and tlyA genes were detected in 61.5, 84.6, 76.9, 76.9, 61.5, and 61.5% of isolates, respectively. Among the 12 A. skirrowii isolates, cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, and tlyA genes were detected in 50.0, 91.6, 83.3, 66.6, 50, and 50% of isolates, respectively. CONCLUSION: Putative virulence genes were detected in majority of the Arcobacter isolates examined. The results signify the potential of Arcobacter species as an emerging foodborne pathogen.

8.
Indian J Microbiol ; 57(2): 250-252, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611504

RESUMO

Arcobacter is an emerging foodborne pathogen having zoonotic significance. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) analysis of a total of 41 Arcobacter isolates revealed a greater degree of genetic diversity. ERIC-PCR genotyping distinguished 14, 13 and 12 genotypes among 16, 13 and 12 isolates of A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii, respectively. Rep-PCR genotyping distinguished 15, 12 and 11 genotypes among 16, 13 and 12 isolates of A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii, respectively. The discriminatory power for ERIC and rep-PCR was found to be 0.997 and 0.996, respectively. Close clustering between isolates of animal and human origin are indicative of probable zoonotic significance.

9.
Genes Brain Behav ; 16(6): 619-626, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220990

RESUMO

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is an inherited monogenic disorder in which mutations to the 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase (Dhcr7) gene lead to deficits in cholesterol synthesis. As a result, many patients suffer from gross physiological and neurological deficits. The purpose of this study was to identify a potential abnormal behavioral phenotype in a compound mutant mouse model for Smith-Lemli-Opitz disease (Dhcr7 Δ3-5/T93M ) to further validate the model and to provide potential targets for future therapeutic interventions. We also sought to identify some of the underlying changes in brain function that may be responsible for behavioral differences among groups. The Dhcr7 compound mutant mice were smaller than their single mutant littermates. Both single and compound heterozygous mice made fewer ultrasonic vocalizations when separated from the dam, which may suggest a communication deficit in these animals. Striking increases of the highly oxidizable 7-DHC were observed in the compound mutant mice. 7-Dehydrocholesterol is the precursor to cholesterol and builds up because of decreased function of the mutated Dhcr7 enzyme. Additionally, several differences were noted in the serotonergic system including increased expression of the serotonin transporter and increased uptake of serotonin by isolated synaptosomes. We propose that changes to the oxidative environment during development can have a significant impact on the development of serotonergic function and that this contributes to behavioral differences observed in the mutant mice.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Serotonina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Smith-Lemli-Opitz/genética , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Desidrocolesteróis/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Smith-Lemli-Opitz/metabolismo , Síndrome de Smith-Lemli-Opitz/fisiopatologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas
10.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 37(12): 2348-2355, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27609620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rasmussen syndrome, also known as Rasmussen encephalitis, is typically associated with volume loss of the affected hemisphere of the brain. Our aim was to apply automated quantitative volumetric MR imaging analyses to patients diagnosed with Rasmussen encephalitis, to determine the predictive value of lobar volumetric measures and to assess regional atrophy differences as well as monitor disease progression by using these measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients (42 scans) with diagnosed Rasmussen encephalitis were studied. We used 2 control groups: one with 42 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects and the other with 42 epileptic patients without Rasmussen encephalitis with the same disease duration as patients with Rasmussen encephalitis. Volumetric analysis was performed on T1-weighted images by using BrainSuite. Ratios of volumes from the affected hemisphere divided by those from the unaffected hemisphere were used as input to a logistic regression classifier, which was trained to discriminate patients from controls. Using the classifier, we compared the predictive accuracy of all the volumetric measures. These ratios were used to further assess regional atrophy differences and correlate with epilepsy duration. RESULTS: Interhemispheric and frontal lobe ratios had the best prediction accuracy for separating patients with Rasmussen encephalitis from healthy controls and patient controls without Rasmussen encephalitis. The insula showed significantly more atrophy compared with all the other cortical regions. Patients with longitudinal scans showed progressive volume loss in the affected hemisphere. Atrophy of the frontal lobe and insula correlated significantly with epilepsy duration. CONCLUSIONS: Automated quantitative volumetric analysis provides accurate separation of patients with Rasmussen encephalitis from healthy controls and epileptic patients without Rasmussen encephalitis, and thus may assist the diagnosis of Rasmussen encephalitis. Volumetric analysis could also be included as part of follow-up for patients with Rasmussen encephalitis to assess disease progression.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalite/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalite/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
East Mediterr Health J ; 21(11): 791-802, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857716

RESUMO

Guidelines for the care of patients with diabetes mellitus are believed to improve clinical practice and patient care. This study aimed to analyse the pattern of diabetes care by physicians and nurses in primary care clinics in Palestine and their self-reported compliance with the local Palestinian guidelines. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 401 participants in 3 governorates in the West Bank. In total, 46.0% of participants knew about the existence of the Palestinian guidelines and about 60% believed these were partially used; 32.7% had received training on implementation of the guidelines. Multivariate analysis showed that training on the guidelines was the only factor significantly associated with self-reported compliance with guideline use. Respondents reported high commitment to the use of the guidelines, but their attitudes and behaviour varied with time constraints, availability of the guidelines, availability of laboratory tests and training on how to apply the guidelines.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 18(4): 466-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24670704

RESUMO

Serum levels of the inflammatory C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) are raised in tuberculosis (TB). CXCL10 gene expression is downregulated in monocytes by metabolically active vitamin D3 (1,25dihydroxy vitamin D). Stratification of patients by serum 25hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels at baseline showed that treatment-induced decrease in CXCL10 occurred in those with 'insufficient' and 'deficient' but not in those with 'optimal' levels. In the deficient group, 25(OH)D showed an inverse correlation with CXCL10 levels. CXCL10 may thus be a useful biomarker for the follow-up of response to treatment. However, CXCL10 levels should be interpreted taking into account the baseline serum vitamin D levels of the TB patients.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
13.
Mol Vis ; 17: 1877-90, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21850162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The outflow facility for aqueous humor across the trabecular meshwork (TM) is enhanced by agents that oppose the actomyosin contraction of its resident cells. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin light chain [MLC] phosphatase complex of Type 1) at Thr853 and Thr696 inhibits dephosphorylation of MLC, leading to an increase in actomyosin contraction. In this study, we examined the effects of Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors on the relative dephosphorylation of the two sites of MYPT1 using human TM cells (GTM3). METHODS: Dephosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr853 and Thr696 was determined by western blot analysis following exposure to selective inhibitors of ROCK, namely Y-27632 and Y-39983. Consequent dephosphorylation of MLC and decreases in actomyosin contraction were assessed by western blot analysis and collagen gel contraction assay, respectively. Changes in the cell-matrix adhesion were measured in real time by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing and also assessed by staining for paxillin, vinculin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). RESULTS: Both ROCK inhibitors produced a concentration-dependent dephosphorylation at Thr853 and Thr696 of MYPT1 in adherent GTM3 cells. IC50 values for Y-39983 were 15 nM and 177 nM for dephosphorylation at Thr853 and Thr696, respectively. Corresponding values for Y-27632 were 658 nM and 2270 nM. Analysis of the same samples showed a decrease in MLC phosphorylation with IC50 values of 14 nM and 1065 nM for Y-39983 and Y-27632, respectively. Consistent with these changes, both inhibitors opposed contraction of collagen gels induced by TM cells. Exposure of cells to the inhibitors led to a decrease in the electrical cell-substrate resistance, with the effect of Y-39983 being more pronounced than Y-27632. Treatment with these ROCK inhibitors also showed a loss of stress fibers and a concomitant decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK. CONCLUSIONS: Y-39983 and Y-27632 oppose ROCK-dependent phosphorylation of MYPT1 predominantly at Thr853 with a corresponding decrease in MLC phosphorylation. A relatively low effect of both ROCK inhibitors at Thr696 suggests a role for other Ser/Thr kinases at this site. Y-39983 was several-fold more potent when compared with Y-27632 at inhibiting the phosphorylation of MYPT1 at either Thr853 or Thr696 commensurate with its greater potency at inhibiting the activity of human ROCK-I and ROCK-II enzymes.


Assuntos
Actomiosina/metabolismo , Junções Célula-Matriz/metabolismo , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fibras de Estresse/efeitos dos fármacos , Malha Trabecular , Amidas/farmacologia , Humor Aquoso/fisiologia , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Colágeno/análise , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/análise , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/biossíntese , Géis/análise , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/antagonistas & inibidores , Paxilina/análise , Paxilina/biossíntese , Fosforilação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais , Malha Trabecular/citologia , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Vinculina/análise , Vinculina/biossíntese
14.
Br J Dermatol ; 161(4): 846-53, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19485999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Questionnaires are widely used in epidemiological studies to measure eczema symptom prevalence, but there are concerns regarding their accuracy if used as a diagnostic tool. OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of a validated eczema symptom questionnaire and a standardized skin examination protocol employed in the second phase of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). METHODS: A total of 30,358 schoolchildren aged 8-12 years from 18 countries were examined for flexural eczema. Parents also completed an eczema symptom questionnaire. We compared prevalence estimates at the population level based on the questionnaire vs. physical examination. We also compared the skin examination and the ISAAC questionnaire in making a diagnosis of flexural eczema. RESULTS: The point prevalences for flexural eczema at centre level based on a single examination were lower than the questionnaire-based 12-month period prevalences (mean centre prevalence 3.9% vs. 9.4%). Correlation between prevalences of both outcome measures was high (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). At the individual level, questionnaire-derived symptoms of 'persistent flexural eczema in the past 12 months' missed < 10% of cases of flexural eczema detected on physical examination. However, between 33% and 100% of questionnaire-based symptoms of 'persistent flexural eczema in the past 12 months' were not confirmed on examination. CONCLUSIONS: ISAAC questionnaire-derived symptom prevalences are sufficiently precise for comparisons between populations. Where diagnostic precision at the individual level is important, questionnaires should be validated and potentially modified in those populations beforehand, or a standardized skin examination protocol should be used.


Assuntos
Eczema/diagnóstico , Exame Físico/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Criança , Eczema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 39(12): 1875-88, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20085599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common polymorphisms have been identified in genes suspected to play a role in asthma. We investigated their associations with wheeze and allergy in a case-control sample from Phase 2 of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. METHODS: We compared 1105 wheezing and 3137 non-wheezing children aged 8-12 years from 17 study centres in 13 countries. Genotyping of 55 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes was performed using the Sequenom System. Logistic regression models were fitted separately for each centre and each SNP. A combined per allele odds ratio and measures of heterogeneity between centres were derived by random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Significant associations with wheeze in the past year were detected in only four genes (IL4R, TLR4, MS4A2, TLR9, P<0.05), with per allele odds ratios generally <1.3. Variants in IL4R and TLR4 were also related to allergen-specific IgE, while polymorphisms in FCER1B (MS4A2) and TLR9 were not. There were also highly significant associations (P<0.001) between SPINK5 variants and visible eczema (but not IgE levels) and between IL13 variants and total IgE. Heterogeneity of effects across centres was rare, despite differences in allele frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the biological plausibility of IgE-related mechanisms in asthma, very few of the tested candidates showed evidence of association with both wheeze and increased IgE levels. We were unable to confirm associations of the positional candidates DPP10 and PHF11 with wheeze, although our study had ample power to detect the expected associations of IL13 variants with IgE and SPINK5 variants with eczema.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Sons Respiratórios/genética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Ásia , Asma/genética , Criança , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/genética , Equador , Eczema/genética , Europa (Continente) , Frequência do Gene/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/sangue , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Interleucina-13/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-4/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Nova Zelândia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/genética , Receptores de IgE/genética , Sons Respiratórios/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Perene/genética , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Inibidor de Serinopeptidase do Tipo Kazal 5 , Testes Cutâneos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
16.
Analyst ; 133(11): 1573-80, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18936835

RESUMO

Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals can be dispersed in aqueous media by shaking or stirring their solutions in organic solvents (DMSO, ether, THF) with excess water. THF is the most straightforward choice with which to prepare stable aqueous dispersions, because the nanocrystals are very soluble in THF and it is also miscible with water. As little as 0.01% v/v tetrahydrofuran is sufficient. DMSO and ether were the preferred choices for subsequent staining of live cells because THF shows some acute toxicity even when very dilute. The luminescence intensity of the aqueous dispersions is linear in particle concentration and independent of pH over the range 5-9. The sols retain their photoluminescence and are stable against flocculation for at least 6 months.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Silício , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Éter , Furanos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Luminescência , Nanotecnologia , Polimetil Metacrilato , Solventes , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 38(12): 1911-20, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18771486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have consistently reported inverse associations between exposure to endotoxin in house dust and atopy. With regard to the association between house dust endotoxin and asthma, the results are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between house dust endotoxin levels and respiratory symptoms and atopy in populations from largely different countries. METHODS: Data were collected within the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Two, a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 840 children aged 9-12 years from six centres in the five countries of Albania, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Living room floor dust was collected and analysed for endotoxin. Health end-points and demographics were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Atopy was assessed by measurements of allergen-specific IgE against a panel of inhalant allergens. Associations between house dust endotoxin and health outcomes were analysed by logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) were presented for an overall interquartile range increase in exposure. RESULTS: Many associations between house dust endotoxin in living room floor dust and health outcomes varied between countries. Combined across countries, endotoxin levels were inversely associated with asthma ever [adjusted OR (95% confidence interval (CI)) 0.53 (0.29-0.96) for endotoxin levels per m(2) of living room floor] and current wheeze [adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.93) for endotoxin levels per gram of living room floor dust]. There were inverse associations between endotoxin concentrations and atopy, which were statistically significant in unadjusted analyses, but not after adjustment for gender, parental allergies, cat and house dust mite allergens. No associations were found with dust quantity and between endotoxin exposure and hayfever. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an inverse association between endotoxin levels in living room floor dust and asthma in children.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Poeira/imunologia , Endotoxinas/imunologia , Albânia/epidemiologia , Alérgenos/análise , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Asma/imunologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Poeira/análise , Endotoxinas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Sons Respiratórios/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 12(1): 13-8, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18173871

RESUMO

SETTING: Emergency rooms. OBJECTIVE: To assess quality of care and its determinants for asthma patients before emergency room treatment. DESIGN: Consecutive patients with acute severe asthma attending emergency rooms were questioned about the severity of their disease and treatment in the previous 4 weeks. Prescriptions of inhaled corticosteroids were recorded. Other outcomes included self-reported adherence to treatment and loss of work. RESULTS: Thirteen centres in 11 countries recruited 1156 patients. Only 36% of patients with persistent asthma had been prescribed an adequate dose of inhaled corticosteroids. This percentage improved in those receiving regular care from the same doctor (OR 2.86, 95%CI 1.38-5.96), and was at least as good for the 10% of patients receiving 'private' health care (OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.69-5.62). Forty-four per cent of patients had health insurance covering some asthma medications. These patients were more likely to be receiving adequate inhaled corticosteroids (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.17-2.58), and reported better adherence than those without insurance (OR 3.00, 95%CI 1.64-5.50). Of those on adequate inhaled corticosteroids, 18% had lost work in each of the 4 previous weeks compared with 59% among those more than one treatment step below the recommended dose. CONCLUSIONS: Access to adequate treatment is critical for better management of asthma.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Absenteísmo , Doença Aguda , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/epidemiologia , Comissão Para Atividades Profissionais e Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Falha de Tratamento
20.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 11(8): 920-7, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17705961

RESUMO

SETTING: The emergency room (ER) of Alia Governmental Hospital in Hebron city, in the southern part of the West Bank. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of asthma severity, health services utilisation and medication use in frequent ER attendance for asthmatics in Palestine. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using a previously developed questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 121 asthma patients, 73.5% were frequent ER attendees during the previous year, with a mean 6.7 visits (standard error 0.75). Moderate/severe asthma and hospital admissions in the previous year due to asthma were the strongest predictors for frequent attendees (adjusted OR [aOR] 6.92, 95%CI 2.44-19.62 and 11.16, 95%CI 4.37-28, respectively). Frequent attendees reported more difficulties in using asthma inhalers compared to one-time ER attendees (aOR 2.49, 95%CI 1.04-5.99). Inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists were reported to be used regularly, on most days, by frequent attendees (>or=1 canister/month) compared to one-time attendees (aOR 4.4, 95%CI 1.28-15 and 4.05, 95%CI 1.33-12, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of proper use of inhalers and an over-reliance on reliever therapy contributes to asthma morbidity in Palestine. We recommend an intervention programme at the professional and patient levels.


Assuntos
Asma , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores
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