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2.
Intensive Care Med ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Corticosteroids are now recommended for patients with severe COVID-19 including those with COVID-related ARDS. This has generated renewed interest regarding whether corticosteroids should be used in non-COVID ARDS as well. The objective of this study was to summarize all RCTs examining the use of corticosteroids in ARDS. METHODS: The protocol of this study was pre-registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020200659). We searched online databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDC library of COVID research, CINAHL, and COCHRANE. We included RCTs that compared the effect of corticosteroids to placebo or usual care in adult patients with ARDS, including patients with COVID-19. Three reviewers abstracted data independently and in duplicate using a pre-specified standardized form. We assessed individual study risk of bias using the revised Cochrane ROB-2 tool and rated certainty in outcomes using GRADE methodology. We pooled data using a random effects model. The main outcome for this review was 28-day-mortality. RESULTS: We included 18 RCTs enrolling 2826 patients. The use of corticosteroids probably reduced mortality in patients with ARDS of any etiology (2740 patients in 16 trials, RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.95, ARR 8.0%, 95% CI 2.2-12.5%, moderate certainty). Patients who received a longer course of corticosteroids (over 7 days) had higher rates of survival compared to a shorter course. CONCLUSION: The use of corticosteroids probably reduces mortality in patients with ARDS. This effect was consistent between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, corticosteroid types, and dosage.

6.
Intensive Care Med ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079217

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the publication of a large randomized-controlled trial (RCT) suggesting that tranexamic acid (TXA) may improve head-injury-related deaths, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of TXA in acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINHAL, ACPJC, Google Scholar, and unpublished sources from inception until June 24, 2020 for randomized-controlled trials comparing TXA and placebo in adults and adolescents (≥ 15 years of age) with acute TBI. We screened studies and extracted summary estimates independently and in duplicate. We assessed the quality of evidence using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation approach. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020164232). RESULTS: Nine RCTs enrolled 14,747 patients. Compared to placebo, TXA had no effect on mortality (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.88-1.02; RD 1.0% reduction; 95% CI 2.5% reduction to 0.4% increase, moderate certainty) or disability assessed by the Disability Rating Scale (MD, - 0.18 points; 95% CI - 0.43 to 0.08; moderate certainty). TXA may reduce hematoma expansion on subsequent imaging (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.58-1.03, RD 3.6%, 95% CI 6.6% reduction to 0.5% increase, low certainty). Risks of adverse events (all moderate, low, or very low certainty) were similar between placebo and TXA. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute TBI, TXA probably has no effect on mortality or disability. TXA may decrease hematoma expansion on subsequent imaging; however, this outcome is likely of less importance to patients. The use of TXA probably does not increase the risk of adverse events.

7.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 8(1): 61, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Existing clinical practice guidelines support the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, a recent large randomized clinical trial (RCT) has questioned this practice. Therefore, we updated a previous systematic review to determine the efficacy and safety of NMBAs in ARDS. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE (October 2012 to July 2019), the Cochrane (Central) database, and clinical trial registries ( ClinicalTrials.gov , ISRCTN Register, and WHO ICTRP) for RCTs comparing the effects of NMBA as a continuous infusion versus placebo or no NMBA infusion (but allowing intermittent NMBA boluses) on patient-important outcomes for adults with ARDS. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodologic quality of the primary studies and abstracted data. RESULTS: Seven RCTs, including four new RCTs, met eligibility criteria for this review. These trials enrolled 1598 patients with moderate to severe ARDS at centers in the USA, France, and China. All trials assessed short-term continuous infusions of cisatracurium or vecuronium. The pooled estimate for mortality outcomes showed significant statistical heterogeneity, which was only explained by a subgroup analysis by depth of sedation in the control arm. A continuous NMBA infusion did not improve mortality when compared to a light sedation strategy with no NMBA infusion (relative risk [RR] 0.99; 95% CI 0.86-1.15; moderate certainty; P = 0.93). On the other hand, continuous NMBA infusion reduced mortality when compared to deep sedation with as needed NMBA boluses (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.57-0.89; low certainty; P = 0.003). Continuous NMBA infusion reduced the rate of barotrauma (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.35-0.85, moderate certainty; P = 0.008) across eligible trials, but the effect on ventilator-free days, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU-acquired weakness was uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistency in study methods and findings precluded the pooling of all trials for mortality. In a pre-planned sensitivity analysis, the impact of NMBA infusion on mortality depends on the strategy used in the control arm, showing reduced mortality when compared to deep sedation, but no effect on mortality when compared to lighter sedation. In both situations, a continuous NMBA infusion may reduce the risk of barotrauma, but the effects on other patient-important outcomes remain unclear. Future research, including an individual patient data meta-analysis, could help clarify some of the observed findings in this updated systematic review.

8.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(5): 1045.e3-1045.e6, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884026

RESUMO

Influenza is an illness that affects individuals of all ages but its severity varies immensely: from the symptoms of a common cold to the deadly outbreak of the pandemic H1N1 strain in 2009. This case report describes the circumstances surrounding the critical illness of a healthy 7-year-old child who developed a massive air leak syndrome secondary to influenza B. She required the emergent insertion of a chest tube as well as intubation and mechanical ventilation. She developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and was strongly considered for being placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She was treated with ceftriaxone and oseltamivir and slowly improved over the course of 20 days. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the severity of influenza with an emphasis on prevention with vaccination.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Influenza Humana/complicações , /terapia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Radiografia Torácica , Respiração Artificial , /virologia
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(11): 2118.e5-2118.e7, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474378

RESUMO

Isolated motor disturbances in the paediatric population are uncommon presentations to the emergency department. Choreiform movements have a broad differential diagnosis and may present insidiously with progressive worsening of asymmetric clumsiness, hypotonia and dysarthria. The incidence of Sydenham's chorea (SC) caused by acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is very rare in developed countries. We report a previously healthy, vaccinated 9-year old male who presented to our ED with intermittent and progressive right sided clumsiness for four weeks. Physical examination findings showed dysdiadokinesis and dysmetric movements of the right side, which varied in intensity and were less pronounced on serial re-examination during the same ED visit. Basic bloodwork, MRI and MRA/V showed no abnormalities, and the patient was discharged home with urgent neurology follow-up. He re-presented to our ED four days later with worsening gait and inability to hold a pencil at school. He was subsequently diagnosed with chorea by the neurology team. The cause of chorea was later determined to be SC, and the patient's throat swab came back positive for group A-beta hemolytic strep (GAS) infection. We explore current literature regarding the various presentations of ARF, differential considerations in acute chorea, and diagnostic studies needed to determine the etiology of acute chorea. With the low incidence of chorea in developed nations, this diagnosis can be easily overlooked. We highlight the importance of this diagnosis, as well as primary and secondary treatment in ARF.


Assuntos
Coreia/microbiologia , Febre Reumática/diagnóstico , Criança , Coreia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Febre Reumática/complicações
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(5): 845-850, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) in the emergency department (ED) can be challenging because its signs and symptoms are non-specific. OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy and safety of using age-adjusted D-dimer interpretation, clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer interpretation and standard D-dimer approach to exclude PE in ED patients. DESIGN/METHODS: We performed a health records review at two emergency departments over a two-year period. We reviewed all cases where patients had a D-dimer ordered to test for PE or underwent CT or VQ scanning for PE. PE was considered to be present during the emergency department visit if PE was diagnosed on CT or VQ (subsegmental level or above), or if the patient was subsequently found to have PE or deep vein thrombosis during the next 30 days. We applied the three D-dimer approaches to the low and moderate probability patients. The primary outcome was exclusion of PE with each rule. Secondary objective was to estimate the negative predictive value (NPV) for each rule. RESULTS: 1163 emergency patients were tested for PE and 1075 patients were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. PE was excluded in 70.4% (95% CI 67.6-73.0%), 80.3% (95% CI 77.9-82.6%) and 68.9%; (95% CI 65.7-71.3%) with the age-adjusted, clinical probability-adjusted and standard D-dimer approach. The NPVs were 99.7% (95% CI 99.0-99.9%), 99.1% (95% CI 98.3-99.5%) and 100% (95% CI 99.4-100.0%) respectively. CONCLUSION: The clinical probability-adjusted rule appears to exclude PE in a greater proportion of patients, with a very small reduction in the negative predictive value.


Assuntos
Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cintilografia de Ventilação/Perfusão
11.
CJEM ; 20(5): 732-735, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Appendicitis is a common surgical condition that frequently requires diagnostic imaging. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for diagnosing appendicitis. Ultrasound offers a radiation-free modality; however, its availability outside business hours is limited in many emergency departments (EDs). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the test characteristics of emergency physician-performed point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to diagnose appendicitis in a Canadian ED. METHODS: A health records review was performed on all ED patients who underwent POCUS to diagnose appendicitis from December 1, 2010 to December 4, 2015. The sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated. The gold standard used for diagnosis was pathology, laparoscopy, CT scans, and a radiologist-performed ultrasound. RESULTS: Ninety patients were included in the study, and 24 were diagnosed with appendicitis on POCUS. Ultimately, 18 were confirmed to have appendicitis through radiologist-performed imaging, laparoscopy, and pathology. The sensitivity and specificity of POCUS to diagnose appendicitis were 69.2% (95% CI, 48.1%-84.9%) and 90.6% (95% CI, 80.0%-96.1%), respectively. CONCLUSION: POCUS has a high specificity for diagnosing acute appendicitis and has very similar characteristics to those of a radiologist-performed ultrasound. These findings are consistent with the current literature and have the potential to decrease patient morbidity, diagnostic delays, ED length of stay, and need for additional imaging.


Assuntos
Apendicite/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 34(2): 292-4, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26612702

RESUMO

Emergency medicine practitioners around the world have been confronted with the increasing challenge of managing patients in severe sepsis and septic shock. Introduction of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) revolutionized sepsis care and was adopted worldwide. Since then, multiple randomized controlled trials have been published questioning the superiority of EGDT. The purpose of this article is to review and provide clinical commentary on the ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISE trials, which address whether invasive, expensive interventions are needed to achieve mortality reduction goals in septic patients. This article discusses that EGDT bundled care is not necessary to achieve mortality reduction goals.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Sepse/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Objetivos , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Séptico/terapia
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