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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in non-invasive ventilation (NIV) use over time in infants born at <32 weeks' gestation and the associated clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using routinely recorded data from the National Neonatal Research Database of infants born at <32 weeks admitted to neonatal units in England and Wales from 2010 to 2017. RESULTS: In 56 537 infants, NIV use increased significantly between 2010 and 2017 (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from 68.5% to 80.2% in 2017 and high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) from 14% to 68%, respectively) (p<0.001)). Use of NIV as the initial mode of respiratory support also increased (CPAP, 21.5%-28.0%; HFNC, 1%-7% (p<0.001)).HFNC was used earlier, and for longer, in those who received CPAP or mechanical ventilation. HFNC use was associated with decreased odds of death before discharge (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.19, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.22). Infants receiving CPAP but no HFNC died at an earlier median chronological age: CPAP group, 22 (IQR 10-39) days; HFNC group 40 (20-76) days (p<0.001). Among survivors, HFNC use was associated with increased odds of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (aOR 2.98, 95% CI 2.81 to 3.15) and other adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: NIV use is increasing, particularly as initial respiratory support. HFNC use has increased significantly with a sevenfold increase soon after birth which was associated with higher rates of BPD. As more infants survive with BPD, we need robust clinical evidence, to improve outcomes with the use of NIV as initial and ongoing respiratory support.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early postnatal transfer (PNT) of extremely preterm infants is associated with adverse outcomes compared with in utero transfer (IUT). We aimed to explore recent national trends of IUT and early PNT. DESIGN: Observational cohort study using the National Neonatal Research Database. SETTING: Neonatal units in England, Scotland and Wales. PATIENTS: Extremely preterm infants 23+0-27+6 weeks' gestation admitted for neonatal care from 2011 to 2016. MAIN OUTCOME: The incidence of IUT or PNT within 72 hours of life. Secondary outcomes included mortality, hospital transfer level between centres and temporal changes across two equal epochs, 2011-2013 (epoch 1 (Ep1)) and 2014-2016 (epoch 2 (Ep2)). RESULTS: 14 719 infants were included (Ep1=7363 and Ep2=7256); 4005 (27%) underwent IUT; and 3042 (20.7%) had PNT. IUTs decreased significantly between epochs from 28.3% (Ep1=2089) to 26.0% (Ep2=1916) (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97, p<0.01). Conversely, PNTs increased from 19.8% (Ep1=1416) to 21.5% (Ep2=1581) (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20, p=0.01). PNTs between intensive care centres increased from 8.1% (Ep1=119) to 10.2% (Ep2=161, p=0.05). Mortality decreased from 21.6% (Ep1=1592) to 19.3% (Ep2=1421) (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.97, p=0.01). Survival to 90 days of age was significantly lower in infants undergoing PNT compared with IUT (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.46), with the greatest differences observed in infants <25 weeks' gestational age. CONCLUSION: In the UK, IUT of extremely preterm infants has significantly decreased over the study period with a parallel increase in early PNT. Strategies to reverse these trends, improve IUT pathways and optimise antenatal steroid use could significantly improve survival and reduce brain injury for these high-risk infants.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), delivered mainly in tertiary cooling centres (CCs), reduces mortality and neurodisability. It is unknown if birth in a non-cooling centre (non-CC), without active TH, impacts short-term outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using National Neonatal Research Database and propensity score-matching. SETTING: UK neonatal units. PATIENTS: Infants ≥36 weeks gestational age with moderate or severe HIE admitted 2011-2016. INTERVENTIONS: Birth in non-CC compared with CC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was survival to discharge without recorded seizures. Secondary outcomes were recorded seizures, mortality and temperature on arrival at CCs following transfer. RESULTS: 5059 infants were included with 2364 (46.7%) born in non-CCs. Birth in a CC was associated with improved survival without seizures (35.1% vs 31.8%; OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31; p=0.02), fewer seizures (60.7% vs 64.6%; OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95, p=0.007) and similar mortality (15.8% vs 14.4%; OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.31, p=0.20) compared with birth in a non-CC. Matched infants from level 2 centres only had similar results, and birth in CCs was associated with greater seizure-free survival compared with non-CCs. Following transfer from a non-CC to a CC (n=2027), 1362 (67.1%) infants arrived with a recorded optimal therapeutic temperature but only 259 (12.7%) of these arrived within 6 hours of birth. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of UK infants with HIE were born in a non-CC, which was associated with suboptimal hypothermic treatment and reduced seizure-free survival. Provision of active TH in non-CC hospitals prior to upward transfer warrants consideration.

4.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 2057-2066, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerosol generating medical procedures (AGMPs) are common during newborn resuscitation. Neonates with respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may pose a risk to healthcare workers. International guidelines differ on methods to minimize the risk due to limited data. OBJECTIVE: We examined the expiratory airflow dispersion during common neonatal resuscitation AGMPs using infant simulators. METHODS: Expiratory airflow dispersion in term and preterm manikins was simulated (n = 288) using fine particle smoke at tidal volumes of 5 ml/kg. Using ImageJ, we quantified dispersion during common airway procedures including endotracheal tube (ETT) and T-piece ventilation. RESULTS: Maximal expiratory dispersion distances for the unsupported airway and disconnected uncuffed ETT scenarios were 30.2 and 22.7 cm (term); 22.1 and 17.2 cm (preterm), respectively. Applying T-piece positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) via an ETT (ETTPEEP ) generated no expiratory dispersion but increased tube leak during term simulation, while ventilation breaths (ETTVENT ) caused significant expiratory dispersion and leak. There was no measurable dispersion during face mask ventilation. For term uncuffed ETT ventilation, the particle filter eliminated expiratory dispersion but increased leak. No expiratory dispersion and negligible leak were observed when combining a cuffed ETT and filter. Angulated T-pieces generated the greatest median dispersion distances of 35.8 cm (ETTPEEP ) and 23.3 cm (ETTVENT ). CONCLUSIONS: Airflow dispersion during neonatal AGMPs is greater than previously postulated and potentially could contaminate healthcare providers during resuscitation of infants infected with contagious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. It is possible to mitigate this risk using particle filters and cuffed ETTs. Applicability in the clinical setting requires further evaluation.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Expiração , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Ressuscitação/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Manequins , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Pressão , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
6.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(5): 529-534, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a leading cause of neonatal mortality and neurodisability. We aimed to determine the incidence of HIE and management patterns against national guidelines. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using the National Neonatal Research Database. SETTING: Neonatal units in England and Wales. PATIENTS: Infants 34-42 weeks gestational age (GA) with a recorded diagnosis of HIE. MAIN OUTCOMES: Incidence of HIE, mortality and treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) were the main outcomes. Temporal changes were compared across two epochs (2011-2013 and 2014-2016). RESULTS: Among 407 462 infants admitted for neonatal care, 12 195 were diagnosed with HIE. 8166 infants ≥36 weeks GA had moderate/severe HIE, 62.1% (n=5069) underwent TH and mortality was 9.3% (n=762). Of infants with mild HIE (n=3394), 30.3% (n=1027) underwent TH and 6 died. In late preterm infants (34-35 weeks GA) with HIE (n=635, 5.2%), 33.1% (n=210) received TH and 13.1% (n=83) died. Between epochs (2011-2013 vs 2014-2016), mortality decreased for infants ≥36 weeks GA with moderate/severe HIE (17.5% vs 12.3%; OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.81, p<0.001). Treatment with TH increased significantly between epochs in infants with mild HIE (24.9% vs 35.8%, p<0.001) and those born late preterm (34.3% vs 46.6%, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality of infants ≥36 weeks GA with moderate/severe HIE has reduced over time, although many infants diagnosed with moderate/severe HIE do not undergo TH. Increasingly, mild HIE and late preterm infants with HIE are undergoing TH, where the evidence base is lacking, highlighting the need for prospective studies to evaluate safety and efficacy in these populations.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , País de Gales/epidemiologia
7.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(5): 501-508, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia is standard of care for babies with moderate/severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and is increasingly used for mild encephalopathy. OBJECTIVE: Describe temporal trends in the clinical condition of babies diagnosed with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database. SETTING: National Health Service neonatal units in England, Wales and Scotland. PATIENTS: Infants born from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2017 with a recorded diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia for at least 3 days or died in this period. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes: recorded clinical characteristics including umbilical cord pH; Apgar score; newborn resuscitation; seizures and treatment on day 1. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: recorded hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy grade. RESULTS: 5201 babies with a diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy received therapeutic hypothermia or died; annual numbers increased over the study period. A decreasing proportion had clinical characteristics of severe hypoxia ischaemia or a diagnosis of moderate or severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, trends were statistically significant and consistent across multiple clinical characteristics used as markers of severity. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy has increased in England, Scotland and Wales. An increasing proportion of treated infants have a diagnosis of mild hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy or have less severe clinical markers of hypoxia. This highlights the importance of determining the role of hypothermia in mild hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Receipt of therapeutic hypothermia is unlikely to be a useful marker for assessing changes in the incidence of brain injury over time.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inglaterra , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Ressuscitação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Padrão de Cuidado/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , País de Gales
8.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; 235(4): 428-436, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427063

RESUMO

Transferring sick premature infants between hospitals increases the risk of severe brain injury, potentially linked to the excessive exposure to noise, vibration and driving-related accelerations. One method of reducing these levels may be to travel along smoother and quieter roads at an optimal speed, however this requires mass data on the effect of roads on the environment within ambulances. An app for the Android operating system has been developed for the purpose of recording vibration, noise levels, location and speed data during ambulance journeys. Smartphone accelerometers were calibrated using sinusoidal excitation and the microphones using calibrated pink noise. Four smartphones were provided to the local neonatal transport team and mounted on their neonatal transport systems to collect data. Repeatability of app recordings was assessed by comparing 37 journeys, made during the study period, along an 8.5 km single carriageway. The smartphones were found to have an accelerometer accurate to 5% up to 55 Hz and microphone accurate to 0.8 dB up to 80 dB. Use of the app was readily adopted by the neonatal transport team, recording more than 97,000 km of journeys in 1 year. To enable comparison between journeys, the 8.5 km route was split into 10 m segments. Interquartile ranges for vehicle speed, vertical acceleration and maximum noise level were consistent across all segments (within 0.99 m . s-1, 0.13 m · s-2 and 1.4 dB, respectively). Vertical accelerations registered were representative of the road surface. Noise levels correlated with vehicle speed. Android smartphones are a viable method of accurate mass data collection for this application. We now propose to utilise this approach to reduce potential harmful exposure, from vibration and noise, by routing ambulances along the most comfortable roads.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , Smartphone , Aceleração , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ruído , Vibração
10.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 113-121, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Babies differ from older children with regard to their exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, data describing the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this group are scarce, and guidance is variable. We aimed to describe the incidence, characteristics, transmission, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates who received inpatient hospital care in the UK. METHODS: We carried out a prospective UK population-based cohort study of babies with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 28 days of life who received inpatient care between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Infected babies were identified through active national surveillance via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, with linkage to national testing, paediatric intensive care audit, and obstetric surveillance data. Outcomes included incidence (per 10 000 livebirths) of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease, proportions of babies with suspected vertically and nosocomially acquired infection, and clinical outcomes. FINDINGS: We identified 66 babies with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence 5·6 [95% CI 4·3-7·1] per 10 000 livebirths), of whom 28 (42%) had severe neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence 2·4 [1·6-3·4] per 10 000 livebirths). 16 (24%) of these babies were born preterm. 36 (55%) babies were from white ethnic groups (SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence 4·6 [3·2-6·4] per 10 000 livebirths), 14 (21%) were from Asian ethnic groups (15·2 [8·3-25·5] per 10 000 livebirths), eight (12%) were from Black ethnic groups (18·0 [7·8-35·5] per 10 000 livebirths), and seven (11%) were from mixed or other ethnic groups (5·6 [2·2-11·5] per 10 000 livebirths). 17 (26%) babies with confirmed infection were born to mothers with known perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, two (3%) were considered to have possible vertically acquired infection (SARS-CoV-2-positive sample within 12 h of birth where the mother was also positive). Eight (12%) babies had suspected nosocomially acquired infection. As of July 28, 2020, 58 (88%) babies had been discharged home, seven (11%) were still admitted, and one (2%) had died of a cause unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncommon in babies admitted to hospital. Infection with neonatal admission following birth to a mother with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was unlikely, and possible vertical transmission rare, supporting international guidance to avoid separation of mother and baby. The high proportion of babies from Black, Asian, or minority ethnic groups requires investigation. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Policy Research Programme.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção Hospitalar , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(1): 72-78, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281685

RESUMO

AIM: A device for newborn heart rate (HR) monitoring at birth that is compatible with delayed cord clamping and minimises hypothermia risk could have advantages over current approaches. We evaluated a wireless, cap mounted device (fhPPG) for monitoring neonatal HR. METHODS: A total of 52 infants on the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and immediately following birth by elective caesarean section (ECS) were recruited. HR was monitored by electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse oximetry (PO) and the fhPPG device. Success rate, accuracy and time to output HR were compared with ECG as the gold standard. Standardised simulated data assessed the fhPPG algorithm accuracy. RESULTS: Compared to ECG HR, the median bias (and 95% limits of agreement) for the NICU was fhPPG -0.6 (-5.6, 4.9) vs PO -0.3 (-6.3, 6.2) bpm, and ECS phase fhPPG -0.5 (-8.7, 7.7) vs PO -0.1 (-7.6, 7.1) bpm. In both settings, fhPPG and PO correlated with paired ECG HRs (both R2  = 0.89). The fhPPG HR algorithm during simulations demonstrated a near-linear correlation (n = 1266, R2  = 0.99). CONCLUSION: Monitoring infants in the NICU and following ECS using a wireless, cap mounted device provides accurate HR measurements. This alternative approach could confer advantages compared with current methods of HR assessment and warrants further evaluation at birth.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oximetria , Gravidez
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5905-5908, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019318

RESUMO

Early inter-hospital ambulance transport of premature babies is associated with more severe brain injury. The mechanism is unclear, but they are exposed to excessive noise and vibration. Smart-routing may help minimise these exposure levels and potentially improve outcomes.An app for Android smartphones was developed to collect vibration, noise and location data during ambulance journeys. Four smartphones, with the app installed, were provided to the local neonatal transport group to attach to their incubator trolleys. An example of route comparison was performed on the roads used between Nottingham City Hospital (NCH) and Leicester Royal Infirmary (LRI).Almost 1,700 journeys were recorded over the space of a year. 39 of these journeys travelled from NCH to LRI, comprising of 9 different routes. Analysis was performed on all recorded data which travelled along each road. For routes from NCH to LRI, the route with least vibration was also the quickest. Noise levels, however, were found to increase with vehicle speed. Ambulance drivers in the study did not tend to take the quickest, smoothest or quietest route.Android smartphones are a practical method of gathering information about the in-ambulance environment. Routes were found to vary in vibration, noise and speed, suggesting these could be minimised. The next step is to combine recorded and clinical data to try and define an ideal neonatal comfort metric which can then be fed into the routing. Roll-out of the app around the UK is also planned.Clinical relevance-Transferring preterm neonatal infants to specialist units lead to worse outcomes. By reducing the levels of vibration and noise the infants are exposed to during transport, we hope to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , Macas (Leitos) , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Ruído , Vibração
14.
Eur Respir J ; 56(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to increase in preterm infants. Recent studies exploring subsequent early childhood respiratory morbidity have been small or focused on hospital admissions. AIMS: To examine early childhood rates of primary care consultations for respiratory tract infections (RTI), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), wheeze and antibiotic prescriptions in ex-preterm and term children. A secondary aim was to examine differences between preterm infants discharged home with or without oxygen. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using linked electronic primary care and hospital databases of children born between 1997 and 2014. We included 253 277 eligible children, with 1666 born preterm at <32 weeks' gestation, followed-up from primary care registration to age 5 years. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) were calculated. RESULTS: Ex-preterm infants had higher rates of morbidity across all respiratory outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, aIRRs for RTI (1.37, 95% CI 1.33-1.42), LRTI (2.79, 95% CI 2.59-3.01), wheeze (3.05, 95% CI 2.64-3.52) and antibiotic prescriptions (1.49, 95% CI 1.44-1.55) were higher for ex-preterm infants. Ex-preterm infants discharged home on oxygen had significantly greater morbidity across all respiratory diagnoses and antibiotic prescriptions compared to those without home oxygen. The highest rates of respiratory morbidity were observed in children from the most deprived socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSION: Ex-preterm infants, particularly those with BPD requiring home oxygen, have significant respiratory morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions in early childhood. With the increasing prevalence of BPD, further research should focus on strategies to reduce the burden of respiratory morbidity in these high-risk infants after hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Displasia Broncopulmonar , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 4(1): e000638, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420457

RESUMO

Objective: Newborn resuscitation relies on accurate heart rate (HR) assessment, which, during auscultation, is prone to error. We investigated if a 6 s visual timer (VT) could improve HR assessment accuracy during newborn simulation. Design: Prospective observational study of newborn healthcare professionals. Setting: Three-phase developmental approach: phase I: HR auscultation during newborn simulation using a standard clock timer (CT) or the VT; phase II: repeat phase I after using a bespoke training app (NeoRate); phase III: following the Newborn Life Support course, participants assessed random HRs using the CT or VT. Main outcome measures: HR accuracy (within ±10 beats/min, correct HR category, i.e. <60, 60-100 and >100 beats/min), assessment time and error-free rates were compared. Results: Overall, 1974 HR assessments were performed with participants more accurate using the VT for ±10 beats/min (70% CT vs 86% VT, p<0.001) and correct HR category (78% CT vs 84% VT, p<0.01). The VT improved accuracy across all three phases. Additionally, following app training in phase II, the HR accuracy of both the CT and VT improved. The VT resulted in faster HR assessment times of 11 s (IQR 9-13) compared with the CT at 15 s (IQR 9-23, p<0.001). Error-free scenarios increased from 24% using the CT to 57% using the VT (p<0.001), with a shorter assessment time (CT 116 s (IQR 65-156) vs VT 53 s (IQR 50-64), p<0.001). Conclusion: Using a VT to assess simulated newborn HR combined with a training app significantly improves accuracy and reduces assessment time compared with standard methods. Evaluation in the clinical setting is required to determine potential benefits.

16.
Neonatology ; 117(4): 513-516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal patients. This includes escalation of respiratory support, increased length of hospital stay, and need for home oxygen, as well as higher healthcare costs. To date, no studies have compared population rates of VRTIs across age groups. AIM: Quantify the rates of hospital-acquired VRTIs in our neonatal population compared with other inpatient age groups in Nottinghamshire, UK. METHODS: We compared all hospital inpatient PCR-positive viral respiratory samples between 2007 and 2013 and calculated age-stratified rates based on population estimates. RESULTS: From a population of 4,707,217, we identified a previously unrecognised burden of VRTI in neonatal patients, only second to the 0-1-year-old group. Although only accounting for 1.3% of the population, half of the infections were in infants <1 year old and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Human rhinovirus was the most dominant virus across the inpatient group, particularly in neonatal patients. Despite a two- to three-fold increase in the rate of positive samples in all groups during the colder months (1.1/1,000 October-March vs. 0.4/1,000 April-September), rates in the NICU did not change throughout the year at 4.3/1,000. Pandemic H1N1 influenza rates were 20 times higher in neonatal patients and infants <1 year old. CONCLUSION: Good epidemiological and interventional data are needed to help inform visiting and infection control policies to reduce transmission of hospital-acquired viral infections to this vulnerable population, particularly during pandemic seasons.

18.
Image Vis Comput ; 83-84: 87-99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762527

RESUMO

A baby's gestational age determines whether or not they are premature, which helps clinicians decide on suitable post-natal treatment. The most accurate dating methods use Ultrasound Scan (USS) machines, but these are expensive, require trained personnel and cannot always be deployed to remote areas. In the absence of USS, the Ballard Score, a postnatal clinical examination, can be used. However, this method is highly subjective and results vary widely depending on the experience of the examiner. Our main contribution is a novel system for automatic postnatal gestational age estimation using small sets of images of a newborn's face, foot and ear. Our two-stage architecture makes the most out of Convolutional Neural Networks trained on small sets of images to predict broad classes of gestational age, and then fuses the outputs of these discrete classes with a baby's weight to make fine-grained predictions of gestational age using Support Vector Regression. On a purpose-collected dataset of 130 babies, experiments show that our approach surpasses current automatic state-of-the-art postnatal methods and attains an expected error of 6 days. It is three times more accurate than the Ballard method. Making use of images improves predictions by 33% compared to using weight only. This indicates that even with a very small set of data, our method is a viable candidate for postnatal gestational age estimation in areas were USS is not available.

19.
Acta Paediatr ; 108(11): 1965-1971, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321815

RESUMO

The centralisation of neonatal intensive care in recent years has improved mortality, particularly of extremely preterm infants, but similar improvements in morbidity, such as neurodevelopmental impairment, have not been seen. Integral to the success of centralisation are specialised neonatal transport teams who provide intensive care prior to and during retrieval of high-risk neonates when in-utero transfer has not been possible. Neonatal retrieval aims to stabilise the clinical condition and then transfer the neonate during a high-risk period for patient. Transport introduces the hazards of noise and vibration; acceleration and deceleration forces; additional handling and temperature fluctuations. The transport team must stabilise the infant fully prior to transport as when on the move they are limited by space and movement to effectively attend to clinical deterioration. Inborn infants have better neurodevelopmental outcome compared with the outborn and aetiology of this seems to be multifactorial with the impact of transport itself during critical illness, remaining unclear. To improve the neurological outcomes for transported infants, it seems imperative to integrate the advancing intensive care neuromonitoring tools into the transport milieu. This review examines current inter-hospital transport neuromonitoring and how new modalities might be applied to the neurocritical care delivered by specialist transport teams.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Transporte de Pacientes , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 6(2): e12055, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel medical device has been developed to address an unmet need of standardizing and facilitating heart rate recording during neonatal resuscitation. In a time-critical emergency resuscitation, where failure can mean death of an infant, it is vital that clinicians are provided with information in a timely, precise, and clear manner to capacitate appropriate decision making. This new technology provides a hands-free, wireless heart rate monitoring solution that easily fits the clinical pathway and procedure for neonatal resuscitation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the requirements of the interface design for a new device by using a human factors approach. This approach combined a traditional user-centered design approach with an applied cognitive task analysis to understand the tasks involved, the cognitive requirements, and the potential for error during a neonatal resuscitation scenario. METHODS: Fourteen clinical staff were involved in producing the final design requirements. Two pediatric doctors supported the development of a visual representation of the activities associated with neonatal resuscitation. This design was used to develop a scenario-based workshop. Two workshops were carried out in parallel and involved three pediatric doctors, three neonatal nurses, two advance neonatal practitioners, and four midwives. Both groups came together at the end to reflect on the findings from the separate sessions. RESULTS: The outputs of this study have provided a comprehensive description of information requirements during neonatal resuscitation and enabled product developers to understand the preferred requirements of the user interface design for the device. The study raised three key areas for the designers to consider, which had not previously been highlighted: (1) interface layout and information priority, as heart rate should be central and occupy two-thirds of the screen; (2) size and portability, to enable positioning of the product local to the baby's head and allow visibility from all angles; and (3) auditory feedback, to support visual information on heart rate rhythm and reliability of the trace with an early alert for intervention while avoiding parental distress. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the application of human factors and the applied cognitive task analysis method, which identified previously unidentified user requirements. This methodology provides a useful approach to aid development of the clinical interface for medical devices.

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