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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use drives antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature and estimate associations between prior exposure to antibiotics across World Health Organization's (WHO) AWaRe categories (Access, Watch, Reserve) and isolation of critical and high-priority multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) on the WHO priority pathogen list. DATA SOURCES: Embase, Ovid Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov (from inception to 20/08/2020). STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Case-control, cohort, or experimental studies that assessed the risk of infection/colonization with MDROs. PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients or outpatients of any age and sex. INTERVENTIONS: Prior exposure to antibiotics that could be categorized into the AWaRe framework. DATA ANALYSIS: Tailored design-specific checklists applied to each included study. For each antibiotic/class, crude odds ratios (ORs) were pooled through random-effects meta-analyses, both overall and by MDRO. Heterogeneity was examined. RESULTS: We identified 349 eligible studies. All were observational, prone to bias due to design and lack of adjustment for confounding, and not primarily designed to compare associations across AWaRe categories. We found statistically significant associations between prior exposure to almost all antibiotics/classes across AWaRe categories and colonization/infection with any MDRO. We observed higher ORs for Watch and Reserve antibiotics than with Access antibiotics. First generation cephalosporins (Access) had the least association with any MDRO colonization/infection (58 studies; OR = 1.2 [95% CI: 1.0-1.4]), whereas strongest associations were estimated for linezolid (Reserve) (22 studies; OR = 2.6 [95% CI: 2.1-3.1]), followed by carbapenems (Watch) (237 studies; OR = 2.3 [95% CI: 2.1-2.5]). There was high heterogeneity for all antibiotic/MDRO associations. CONCLUSIONS: Optimising use of Access antibiotics is likely to reduce the selection of MDROs and global antibiotic resistance. Despite data limitations, our study offers a strong rationale for further adoption of AWaRe as an important tool to improve antibiotic use globally.

3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(5): 1334-1343, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a serious bacterial infection of neonates, globally killing up to 680 000 babies annually. It is frequently complicated by antimicrobial resistance, particularly in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings with widespread resistance to the WHO's recommended empirical regimen of ampicillin and gentamicin. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the utility of flomoxef and fosfomycin as a potential alternative empirical regimen for neonatal sepsis in these settings. METHODS: We studied the combination in a 16-arm dose-ranged hollow-fibre infection model (HFIM) experiment and chequerboard assays. We further assessed the combination using clinically relevant regimens in the HFIM with six Enterobacterales strains with a range of flomoxef/fosfomycin MICs. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of the HFIM experimental output, along with data from chequerboard assays, indicated synergy of this regimen in terms of bacterial killing and prevention of emergence of fosfomycin resistance. Flomoxef monotherapy was sufficient to kill 3/3 strains with flomoxef MICs ≤0.5 mg/L to sterility. Three of three strains with flomoxef MICs ≥8 mg/L were not killed by fosfomycin or flomoxef monotherapy; 2/3 of these were killed with the combination of the two agents. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that flomoxef/fosfomycin could be an efficacious and synergistic regimen for the empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis in LMIC settings with prevalent antimicrobial resistance. Our HFIM results warrant further assessment of the flomoxef/fosfomycin combination in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Fosfomicina , Sepse Neonatal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fosfomicina/farmacologia , Fosfomicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(3S): S26-S35, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically suspected and laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality during neonatal care. The most effective infection prevention and control interventions for neonates in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are unknown. AIM: To identify effective interventions in the prevention of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in LMIC neonatal units. METHODS: Medline, PUBMED, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE and PsychInfo (January 2003 to October 2020) were searched to identify studies reporting single or bundled interventions for prevention of bloodstream infections in LMIC neonatal units. RESULTS: Our initial search identified 5206 articles; following application of filters, 27 publications met the inclusion and Integrated Quality Criteria for the Review of Multiple Study Designs assessment criteria and were summarized in the final analysis. No studies were carried out in low-income countries, only 1 in Sub-Saharan Africa and just 2 in multiple countries. Of the 18 single-intervention studies, most targeted skin (n = 4) and gastrointestinal mucosal integrity (n = 5). Whereas emollient therapy and lactoferrin achieved significant reductions in proven neonatal infection, glutamine and mixed probiotics showed no benefit. Chlorhexidine gluconate for cord care and kangaroo mother care reduced infection in individual single-center studies. Of the 9 studies evaluating bundles, most focused on prevention of device-associated infections and achieved significant reductions in catheter- and ventilator-associated infections. CONCLUSIONS: There is a limited evidence base for the effectiveness of infection prevention and control interventions in LMIC neonatal units; bundled interventions targeting device-associated infections were most effective. More multisite studies with robust study designs are needed to inform infection prevention and control intervention strategies in low-resource neonatal units.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde do Lactente , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Sepse/terapia
6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(2): 448-456, 2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and gentamicin, currently the WHO standard of care for treating neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic data were collected in 59 neonates receiving ampicillin and gentamicin for suspected or proven sepsis in the NeoFosfo trial (NCT03453177). A panel of 23 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from neonates with sepsis, resistant to either ampicillin, gentamicin or both, were tested for susceptibility using chequerboards. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modelling and simulations were used to compare single-agent (EUCAST MIC) and combination (chequerboard MIC) target attainment with standard dosing regimens. RESULTS: A model was established that simultaneously estimated parameters of a one-compartment ampicillin model and a two-compartment gentamicin model. A common clearance for both drugs was used (6.89 L/h/70 kg) relating to glomerular filtration (CLGFR), with an additional clearance term added for ampicillin (5.3 L/h/70 kg). Covariate modelling included a priori allometric weight and post-menstrual age scaling of clearance. Further covariate relationships on renal clearance were postnatal age and serum creatinine.Simulation-based PKPD assessments suggest good Gram-positive (MIC ≤ 0.25 mg/L) cover. However, less than one-quarter of neonates were predicted to receive efficacious coverage against Enterobacterales (MIC ≤ 2 mg/L). The benefit of the ampicillin/gentamicin combination was limited, with only 2/23 E. coli clinical strains showing FIC index < 0.5 (synergy) and most in the range 0.5-1 (suggesting additivity). Simulations showed that feasible dosing strategies would be insufficient to cover resistant strains. CONCLUSIONS: PKPD simulations showed ampicillin and gentamicin combination therapy was insufficient to cover Enterobacterales, suggesting the need for alternative empirical treatment options for neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess pharmacokinetics and changes to sodium levels in addition to adverse events (AEs) associated with fosfomycin among neonates with clinical sepsis. DESIGN: A single-centre open-label randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya. PATIENTS: 120 neonates aged ≤28 days admitted being treated with standard-of-care (SOC) antibiotics for sepsis: ampicillin and gentamicin between March 2018 and February 2019. INTERVENTION: We randomly assigned half the participants to receive additional intravenous then oral fosfomycin at 100 mg/kg two times per day for up to 7 days (SOC-F) and followed up for 28 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Serum sodium, AEs and fosfomycin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: 61 and 59 infants aged 0-23 days were assigned to SOC-F and SOC, respectively. There was no evidence of impact of fosfomycin on serum sodium or gastrointestinal side effects. We observed 35 AEs among 25 SOC-F participants and 50 AEs among 34 SOC participants during 1560 and 1565 infant-days observation, respectively (2.2 vs 3.2 events/100 infant-days; incidence rate difference -0.95 events/100 infant-days (95% CI -2.1 to 0.20)). Four SOC-F and 3 SOC participants died. From 238 pharmacokinetic samples, modelling suggests an intravenous dose of 150 mg/kg two times per day is required for pharmacodynamic target attainment in most children, reduced to 100 mg/kg two times per day in neonates aged <7 days or weighing <1500 g. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Fosfomycin offers potential as an affordable regimen with a simple dosing schedule for neonatal sepsis. Further research on its safety is needed in larger cohorts of hospitalised neonates, including very preterm neonates or those critically ill. Resistance suppression would only be achieved for the most sensitive of organisms so fosfomycin is recommended to be used in combination with another antimicrobial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03453177.

8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(1): 66-72, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Optimal treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) infections is uncertain because of the lack of good-quality evidence and the limited effectiveness of available antibiotics. The aim of this survey was to investigate clinicians' prescribing strategies for treating CR-GNB infections worldwide. METHODS: A 36-item questionnaire was developed addressing the following aspects of antibiotic prescribing: respondent's background, diagnostic and therapeutic availability, preferred antibiotic strategies and rationale for selecting combination therapy. Prescribers were recruited following the snowball sampling approach, and a post-stratification correction with inverse proportional weights was used to adjust the sample's representativeness. RESULTS: A total of 1012 respondents from 95 countries participated in the survey. Overall, 298 (30%) of the respondents had local guidelines for treating CR-GNB at their facility and 702 (71%) had access to Infectious Diseases consultation, with significant discrepancies according to country economic status: 85% (390/502) in high-income countries versus 59% (194/283) in upper-medium-income countries and 30% (118/196) in lower-middle-income countries/lower-income-countries). Targeted regimens varied widely, ranging from 40 regimens for CR-Acinetobacter spp. to more than 100 regimens for CR-Enterobacteriaceae. Although the majority of respondents acknowledged the lack of evidence behind this choice, dual combination was the preferred treatment scheme and carbapenem-polymyxin was the most prescribed regimen, irrespective of pathogen and infection source. Respondents noticeably disagreed around the meaning of 'combination therapy' with 20% (150/783) indicating the simple addition of multiple compounds, 42% (321/783) requiring the presence of in vitro activity and 38% (290/783) requiring in vitro synergism. CONCLUSIONS: Management of CR-GNB infections is far from being standardized. Strategic public health focused randomized controlled trials are urgently required to inform evidence-based treatment guidelines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Carbapenêmicos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
9.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(3): 445-456, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance to WHO-recommended first- and second-line treatments of pediatric sepsis requires adaptation of prescribing guidelines. We discuss the potential and limitations of a weighted-incidence syndromic combination antibiogram (WISCA) as a practical tool for incorporating local microbiology data when assessing empiric coverage of commonly used antibiotics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A brief questionnaire of 18 clinically significant isolates from pediatric blood cultures (Jan-Dec 2018) was sent to a global network of pediatric hospitals in July 2019. Weighted coverage estimates of non-antipseudomonal third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) and meropenem were estimated using Monte-Carlo simulation for each site reporting >100 isolates. RESULTS: 52 hospitals in 23 countries in 5 WHO regions responded to the questionnaire; 13 sites met the sample size requirement. The most common isolates were S. aureus, Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Enterococcus spp. Coverage of 3GC ranged from 39% [95%CrI: 34-43%] to 73% (two sites: [95%CrI: 65-80%]; [95%CrI: 68-86%]) and meropenem coverage ranged from 54% [95%CrI: 47-60%] to 88% [95%CrI:84-91%]. CONCLUSIONS: A WISCA is a data-driven, clinically intuitive tool that can be used to compare empiric antibiotic regimens for pediatric sepsis using existing large datasets. The estimates can be further refined using more complex meta-analytical methods and patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Sepse , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Incidência , Meropeném , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus
10.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(60): 1-72, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding the optimal dose and duration of amoxicillin treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in children. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy, safety and impact on antimicrobial resistance of shorter (3-day) and longer (7-day) treatment with amoxicillin at both a lower and a higher dose at hospital discharge in children with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: A multicentre randomised double-blind 2 × 2 factorial non-inferiority trial in secondary care in the UK and Ireland. SETTING: Paediatric emergency departments, paediatric assessment/observation units and inpatient wards. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged > 6 months, weighing 6-24 kg, with a clinical diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, in whom treatment with amoxicillin as the sole antibiotic was planned on discharge. INTERVENTIONS: Oral amoxicillin syrup at a dose of 35-50 mg/kg/day compared with a dose of 70-90 mg/kg/day, and 3 compared with 7 days' duration. Children were randomised simultaneously to each of the two factorial arms in a 1 : 1 ratio. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was clinically indicated systemic antibacterial treatment prescribed for respiratory tract infection (including community-acquired pneumonia), other than trial medication, up to 28 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes included severity and duration of parent/guardian-reported community-acquired pneumonia symptoms, drug-related adverse events (including thrush, skin rashes and diarrhoea), antimicrobial resistance and adherence to trial medication. RESULTS: A total of 824 children were recruited from 29 hospitals. Ten participants received no trial medication and were excluded. Participants [median age 2.5 (interquartile range 1.6-2.7) years; 52% male] were randomised to either 3 (n = 413) or 7 days (n = 401) of trial medication at either lower (n = 410) or higher (n = 404) doses. There were 51 (12.5%) and 49 (12.5%) primary end points in the 3- and 7-day arms, respectively (difference 0.1%, 90% confidence interval -3.8% to 3.9%) and 51 (12.6%) and 49 (12.4%) primary end points in the low- and high-dose arms, respectively (difference 0.2%, 90% confidence interval -3.7% to 4.0%), both demonstrating non-inferiority. Resolution of cough was faster in the 7-day arm than in the 3-day arm for cough (10 days vs. 12 days) (p = 0.040), with no difference in time to resolution of other symptoms. The type and frequency of adverse events and rate of colonisation by penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci were comparable between arms. LIMITATIONS: End-of-treatment swabs were not taken, and 28-day swabs were collected in only 53% of children. We focused on phenotypic penicillin resistance testing in pneumococci in the nasopharynx, which does not describe the global impact on the microflora. Although 21% of children did not attend the final 28-day visit, we obtained data from general practitioners for the primary end point on all but 3% of children. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic retreatment, adverse events and nasopharyngeal colonisation by penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci were similar with the higher and lower amoxicillin doses and the 3- and 7-day treatments. Time to resolution of cough and sleep disturbance was slightly longer in children taking 3 days' amoxicillin, but time to resolution of all other symptoms was similar in both arms. FUTURE WORK: Antimicrobial resistance genotypic studies are ongoing, including whole-genome sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, to fully characterise the effect of amoxicillin dose and duration on antimicrobial resistance. The analysis of a randomised substudy comparing parental electronic and paper diary entry is also ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76888927, EudraCT 2016-000809-36 and CTA 00316/0246/001-0006. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 60. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Pneumonia (an acute lung infection) is a common diagnosis in young children worldwide. To cure this, some children are given antibiotics, but we do not currently know the best amount (dose) to give and the ideal number of days (duration) of treatment. Taking antibiotics causes changes in bacteria, making them more resistant to treatment. This may be affected by the dose and duration, and is important because resistant bacteria are harder to treat and could spread to other people. Amoxicillin is the most common antibiotic treatment for children with pneumonia. CAP-IT (Community-Acquired Pneumonia: a protocol for a randomIsed controlled Trial) tested if lower doses and shorter durations of amoxicillin are as good as higher doses and longer durations, and whether or not these affect the presence of resistant bacteria. In total, 824 children in the UK and Ireland with pneumonia participated. They received either high- or low-dose amoxicillin for 3 or 7 days following discharge from hospital. To ensure that neither doctors nor parents were influenced by knowing which group a child was in, we included dummy drugs (placebo). We measured how often children were given more antibiotics for respiratory infections in the 4 weeks after starting the trial medicine. To check for resistant bacteria, a nose swab was collected before starting treatment and again after 4 weeks. One in every eight participating children was given additional antibiotics. We found no important difference in this proportion between 3 days and 7 days of amoxicillin treatment, or between lower or higher doses. Although children's coughs took slightly longer to go away when they received only 3 days of antibiotics, rash was reported slightly more often in children taking 7 days of antibiotics. There was no effect of dose of amoxicillin on any of the symptom measurements. No effect of duration of treatment or dose was observed for antibiotic resistance in bacteria living in the nose and throat.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Pneumonia , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
11.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1713-1724, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726708

RESUMO

Importance: The optimal dose and duration of oral amoxicillin for children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are unclear. Objective: To determine whether lower-dose amoxicillin is noninferior to higher dose and whether 3-day treatment is noninferior to 7 days. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized, 2 × 2 factorial noninferiority trial enrolling 824 children, aged 6 months and older, with clinically diagnosed CAP, treated with amoxicillin on discharge from emergency departments and inpatient wards of 28 hospitals in the UK and 1 in Ireland between February 2017 and April 2019, with last trial visit on May 21, 2019. Interventions: Children were randomized 1:1 to receive oral amoxicillin at a lower dose (35-50 mg/kg/d; n = 410) or higher dose (70-90 mg/kg/d; n = 404), for a shorter duration (3 days; n = 413) or a longer duration (7 days; n = 401). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was clinically indicated antibiotic re-treatment for respiratory infection within 28 days after randomization. The noninferiority margin was 8%. Secondary outcomes included severity/duration of 9 parent-reported CAP symptoms, 3 antibiotic-related adverse events, and phenotypic resistance in colonizing Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Results: Of 824 participants randomized into 1 of the 4 groups, 814 received at least 1 dose of trial medication (median [IQR] age, 2.5 years [1.6-2.7]; 421 [52%] males and 393 [48%] females), and the primary outcome was available for 789 (97%). For lower vs higher dose, the primary outcome occurred in 12.6% with lower dose vs 12.4% with higher dose (difference, 0.2% [1-sided 95% CI -∞ to 4.0%]), and in 12.5% with 3-day treatment vs 12.5% with 7-day treatment (difference, 0.1% [1-sided 95% CI -∞ to 3.9]). Both groups demonstrated noninferiority with no significant interaction between dose and duration (P = .63). Of the 14 prespecified secondary end points, the only significant differences were 3-day vs 7-day treatment for cough duration (median 12 days vs 10 days; hazard ratio [HR], 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4]; P = .04) and sleep disturbed by cough (median, 4 days vs 4 days; HR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4]; P = .03). Among the subgroup of children with severe CAP, the primary end point occurred in 17.3% of lower-dose recipients vs 13.5% of higher-dose recipients (difference, 3.8% [1-sided 95% CI, -∞ to10%]; P value for interaction = .18) and in 16.0% with 3-day treatment vs 14.8% with 7-day treatment (difference, 1.2% [1-sided 95% CI, -∞ to 7.4%]; P value for interaction = .73). Conclusions and Relevance: Among children with CAP discharged from an emergency department or hospital ward (within 48 hours), lower-dose outpatient oral amoxicillin was noninferior to higher dose, and 3-day duration was noninferior to 7 days, with regard to need for antibiotic re-treatment. However, disease severity, treatment setting, prior antibiotics received, and acceptability of the noninferiority margin require consideration when interpreting the findings. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Identifier: ISRCTN76888927.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208220

RESUMO

Mortality in neonates with Gram-negative bloodstream infections has remained unacceptably high. Very few data are available on the impact of resistance profiles, virulence factors, appropriateness of empirical treatment and clinical characteristics on patients' mortality. A survival analysis to investigate 28-day mortality probability and predictors was performed including (I) infants <90 days (II) with an available Enterobacterales blood isolate with (III) clinical, treatment and 28-day outcome data. Eighty-seven patients were included. Overall, 299 virulence genes were identified among all the pathogens. Escherichia coli had significantly more virulence genes identified compared with other species. A strong positive correlation between the number of resistance and virulence genes carried by each isolate was found. The cumulative probability of death obtained by the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was 19.5%. In the descriptive analysis, early age at onset, gestational age at onset, culture positive for E. coli and number of classes of virulence genes carried by each isolate were significantly associated with mortality. By Cox multivariate regression, none of the investigated variables was significant. This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of investigating the association between neonatal sepsis mortality and the causative Enterobacterales isolates virulome. This relationship needs further exploration in larger studies, ideally including host immunopathological response, in order to develop a tailor-made therapeutic strategy.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric global antibiotic guidelines are inconsistent, most likely due to the limited pharmacokinetic and efficacy data in this population. We investigated factors underlying variation in antibiotic dosing using data from five global point prevalence surveys. METHODS & FINDINGS: Data from 3,367 doses of the 16 most frequent intravenous antibiotics administered to children 1 month-12 years across 23 countries were analysed. For each antibiotic, we identified standard doses given as either weight-based doses (in mg/kg/day) or fixed daily doses (in mg/day), and investigated the pattern of dosing using each strategy. Factors underlying observed variation in weight-based doses were investigated using linear mixed effects models. Weight-based dosing (in mg/kg/day) clustered around a small number of peaks, and all antibiotics had 1-3 standard weight-based doses used in 5%-48% of doses. Dosing strategy was more often weight-based than fixed daily dosing for all antibiotics apart from teicoplanin, which had approximately equal proportions of dosing attributable to each strategy. No strong consistent patterns emerged to explain the historical variation in actual weight-based doses used apart from higher dosing seen in central nervous system infections, and lower in skin and soft tissue infections compared to lower respiratory tract infections. Higher dosing was noted in the Americas compared to the European region. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic dosing in children clusters around a small number of doses, although variation remains. There is a clear opportunity for the clinical, scientific and public health communities to consolidate behind a consistent set of global antibiotic dosing guidelines to harmonise current practice and prioritise future research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(7): e0029321, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972238

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (particularly through extended-spectrum ß-lactamase and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme production) in neonatal sepsis is a global problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, with significant mortality rates. High rates of resistance are reported for the current WHO-recommended first-line antibiotic regimen for neonatal sepsis, i.e., ampicillin and gentamicin. We assessed the utility of fosfomycin and amikacin as a potential alternative regimen to be used in settings of increasingly prevalent antimicrobial resistance. The combination was studied in a 16-arm dose-ranged hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) experiment. The combination of amikacin and fosfomycin enhanced bactericidal activity and prevented the emergence of resistance, compared to monotherapy with either antibiotic. Modeling of the experimental quantitative outputs and data from checkerboard assays indicated synergy. We further assessed the combination regimen at clinically relevant doses in the HFIM with nine Enterobacterales strains with high fosfomycin and amikacin MICs and demonstrated successful kill to sterilization for 6/9 strains. From these data, we propose a novel combination breakpoint threshold for microbiological success for this antimicrobial combination against Enterobacterales strains, i.e., MICF × MICA < 256 (where MICF and MICA are the fosfomycin and amikacin MICs, respectively). Monte Carlo simulations predict that a standard fosfomycin-amikacin neonatal regimen would achieve >99% probability of pharmacodynamic success for strains with MICs below this threshold. We conclude that the combination of fosfomycin with amikacin is a viable regimen for the empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis and is suitable for further clinical assessment in a randomized controlled trial.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Fosfomicina , Sepse Neonatal , Amicacina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fosfomicina/farmacologia , Fosfomicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(7): 1855-1864, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fosfomycin has the potential to be re-purposed as part of a combination therapy to treat neonatal sepsis where resistance to current standard of care (SOC) is common. Limited data exist on neonatal fosfomycin pharmacokinetics and estimates of bioavailability and CSF/plasma ratio in this vulnerable population are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To generate data informing the appropriate dosing of IV and oral fosfomycin in neonates using a population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma and CSF data. METHODS: The NeoFosfo study (NCT03453177) was a randomized trial that examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of fosfomycin comparing SOC versus SOC plus fosfomycin. Sixty-one neonates received fosfomycin (100 mg/kg IV q12h for 48 h) and then they converted to oral therapy at the same dose. Two plasma pharmacokinetic samples were taken following the first IV and oral doses, sample times were randomized to cover the whole pharmacokinetic profile and opportunistic CSF pharmacokinetic samples were collected. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed in NONMEM and simulations were performed. RESULTS: In total, 238 plasma and 15 CSF concentrations were collected. A two-compartment disposition model, with an additional CSF compartment and first-order absorption, best described the data. Bioavailability was estimated as 0.48 (95% CI = 0.347-0.775) and the CSF/plasma ratio as 0.32 (95% CI = 0.272-0.409). Allometric weight and postmenstrual age (PMA) scaling was applied; additional covariates included postnatal age (PNA) on clearance and CSF protein on CSF/plasma ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Through this analysis a population pharmacokinetic model has been developed that can be used alongside currently available pharmacodynamic targets to select a neonatal fosfomycin dose based on an infant's PMA, PNA and weight.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Fosfomicina , Sepse Neonatal , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(6): e175-e181, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894130

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is impacting treatment decisions for, and patient outcomes from, bacterial infections worldwide, with particular threats from infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumanii, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Numerous areas of clinical uncertainty surround the treatment of these highly resistant infections, yet substantial obstacles exist to the design and conduct of treatment trials for carbapenem-resistant bacterial infections. These include the lack of a widely acceptable optimised standard of care and control regimens, varying antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical contraindications making specific intervention regimens infeasible, and diagnostic and recruitment challenges. The current single comparator trials are not designed to answer the urgent public health question, identified as a high priority by WHO, of what are the best regimens out of the available options that will significantly reduce morbidity, costs, and mortality. This scenario has an analogy in network meta-analysis, which compares multiple treatments in an evidence synthesis to rank the best of a set of available treatments. To address these obstacles, we propose extending the network meta-analysis approach to individual randomisation of patients. We refer to this approach as a Personalised RAndomised Controlled Trial (PRACTical) design that compares multiple treatments in an evidence synthesis, to identify, overall, which is the best treatment out of a set of available treatments to recommend, or how these different treatments rank against each other. In this Personal View, we summarise the design principles of personalised randomised controlled trial designs. Specifically, of a network of different potential regimens for life-threatening carbapenem-resistant infections, each patient would be randomly assigned only to regimens considered clinically reasonable for that patient at that time, incorporating antimicrobial susceptibility, toxicity profile, pharmacometric properties, availability, and physician assessment. Analysis can use both direct and indirect comparisons across the network, analogous to network meta-analysis. This new trial design will maximise the relevance of the findings to each individual patient, and enable the top-ranked regimens from any personalised randomisation list to be identified, in terms of both efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos
18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672363

RESUMO

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) belongs to the WHO Essential Medicines List for children, but for optimal antimicrobial effectiveness, reconstituted dry powder suspensions need to be stored in a refrigerated environment. Many patients in low- and middle-income countries who are sold AMC suspensions would be expected not to keep to the specified storage conditions. We aimed to assess the stability of both ingredients in liquid formulations and dispersible tablets, combined with nationally representative data on access to appropriate storage. Degradation of amoxicillin (AMX) and clavulanic-acid (CLA) was measured in suspensions and dispersible tablets commercially available in Switzerland at different ambient temperatures (8 °C vs. 28 °C over 7 days, and 23 °C vs. 28 °C over 24 h, respectively). Data on access to refrigeration and electricity were assessed from the USAID-funded Demographic and Health Survey program. In suspensions, CLA degraded to a maximum of 12.9% (95% CI -55.7%, +29.9%) at 8°C and 72.3% (95% CI -82.8%, -61.8%) at a 28 °C ambient temperature during an observation period of 7 days. Dispersible tablets were observed during 24 h and CLA degraded to 15.4% (95% CI -51.9%, +21.2%) at 23 °C and 21.7% (-28.2%, -15.1%) at a 28 °C ambient temperature. There is relevant degradation of CLA in suspensions during a 7-day course. To overcome the stability challenges for all active components, durable child-appropriate formulations are needed. Until then, prescribers of AMC suspensions or pharmacists who sell the drug need to create awareness for the importance of proper storage conditions regarding effectiveness of both antibiotics and this recommendation should be reflected in the WHO Essential Medicines List for children.

19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(4): 327-332, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have a significant impact in human health. With an increasing pediatric population at risk of IFD, effective antifungal drugs access and affordability should be ensured universally. The aim of our study was to characterize the global antifungal drug use in neonates and children and its variability between countries in different income groups. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing and Efficacy in Neonates and Children Point Prevalence Survey project, consisting in 1 pilot and four 1-day Point Prevalence Survey between 2015 and 2017. The data had been entered through a study-specific web-based data collection tool. RESULTS: From a total of 13,410 children included, 7.8% (1048/13,410) received at least 1 systemic antifungal drug: 9.5% (95% confidence interval: 8.9%-10.1%) in high income countries (HIC) versus 5.0% (95% confidence interval: 4.4%-5.6%) in low-middle income countries (LMIC) (P < 0.01). A significant proportion of patients on antifungals belonged to high-risk group for IFD (67.4%; 706/1048); most of these were managed in HIC (72.8%, P < 0.01). The likelihood of receiving antifungals being in high-risk group was higher in HIC compared with LMIC (ratio of 5.8 vs. 3.4, P < 0.01). Antifungal prophylaxis was more likely prescribed in HIC (67.2% vs. 30.4%, P < 0.01). Fluconazole was the most frequently prescribed drug. The proportional use of fluconazole was higher in LMIC compared with HIC. CONCLUSIONS: A significant variability of antifungal prescribing patterns was observed. The proportional use of systemic antifungals was twice as high in HIC compared with LMIC. More detailed data on access and antifungal use in limited-resource settings should be explored.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 109(4): 958-970, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521971

RESUMO

As antimicrobial susceptibility of common bacterial pathogens decreases, ensuring optimal dosing may preserve the use of older antibiotics in order to limit the spread of resistance to newer agents. Beta-lactams represent the most widely prescribed antibiotic class, yet most were licensed prior to legislation changes mandating their study in children. As a result, significant heterogeneity persists in the pediatric doses used globally, along with quality of evidence used to inform dosing. This review summarizes dosing recommendations from the major pediatric reference sources and tries to answer the questions: Does beta-lactam dose heterogeneity matter? Does it impact pharmacodynamic target attainment? For three important severe clinical infections-pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis-pharmacokinetic models were identified for common for beta-lactam antibiotics. Real-world demographics were derived from three multicenter point prevalence surveys. Simulation results were compared with minimum inhibitory concentration distributions to inform appropriateness of recommended doses in targeted and empiric treatment. While cephalosporin dosing regimens are largely adequate for target attainment, they also pose the most risk of neurotoxicity. Our review highlights aminopenicillin, piperacillin, and meropenem doses as potentially requiring review/optimization in order to preserve the use of these agents in future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , beta-Lactamas/administração & dosagem , beta-Lactamas/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Área Sob a Curva , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pediatria , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Socioeconômicos , beta-Lactamas/efeitos adversos
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