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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926676

RESUMO

Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of gelatin/κ-carrageenan crosslinked polyacrylic acid hydrogel (GT-CAG-cl-polyAA) and graphene oxide incorporated hydrogel nanocomposite (GOHNC) through a free radical crosslinking pathway. Under optimized reaction conditions, GT-CAG-cl-polyAA displayed 486 % maximum swelling percentage. TEM image depicted wrinkled silk veil wave-type surface morphology of graphene oxide (GO), whereas, the SEM analysis indicated the porous nature of the GT-CAG-cl-polyAA and GOHNC capable of accumulating a large number of water/dye molecules. GT-CAG-cl-polyAA exhibited 96.11 % and 82.16 % dye removal potential for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and coomassie brilliant blue (CB), respectively under optimized conditions. GOHNC enhanced the % dye removal efficiency (98.39 % for MB and 94.50 % for CB). The maximum adsorption capacity of GOHNC for the removal of CB and MB was 312.7 mg/g and 94.9 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption of CB and MB exhibited best fitting with Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherms data. The negative values of ΔG° and positive values of ΔS° which were obtained from the adsorption isotherm plot suggested the thermodynamic feasibility of the adsorption. Also, the samples were reusable for up to five consecutive cycles without any degradation and hence suggested a considerable pathway for the separation of textile dyes.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920682

RESUMO

The in situ transformation of low-toxicity precursors into a chemotherapeutic agent at a tumor site to enhance the efficacy of its treatment has long been an elusive goal. In this work, a zinc-based zeolitic imidazolate framework that incorporates pharmaceutically acceptable precursors is prepared as a nanoreactor (NR) system for the localized synthesis of an antitumor drug. The as-prepared NRs are administered intratumorally in a tumor-bearing mouse model and then irradiated with ultrasound (US) to activate the chemical synthesis. The US promotes the penetration of the administered NRs into the tumor tissue to cover the lesion entirely, although some NRs leak into the surrounding normal tissue. Nevertheless, only the tumor tissue, where the H2O2 concentration is high, is adequately exposed to the as-synthesized antitumor drug, which markedly impedes development of the tumor. No significant chemical synthesis is detected in the surrounding normal tissue, where the local H2O2 concentration is negligible and the US irradiation is not directly applied. The as-proposed tumor-specific in situ synthesis of therapeutic molecules induces hardly any significant in vivo toxicity and, thus, is potentially a potent biocompatible approach to precision chemotherapy.

4.
Int J Pharm ; 624: 122037, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870665

RESUMO

The determination of the variability of critical dosage form attributes has been a challenge in establishing the quality of pharmaceutical products. During the development process knowledge is minimal. Consequently, ad hoc statistical tools such as hypothesis or significance tests, with calibrated decision error rates are often used in an effort to vet CQAs (Critical Quality Attributes) and keep their levels "between the curbs". As progress moves towards product launch, process and mechanistic understanding grows considerably and there are opportunities to leverage that knowledge for predictive modeling. Bayesian models offer a coherent strategy for integrating prior knowledge into both experimental design as well as predictive analysis for optimal risk-based decision making. This is because the Bayesian paradigm, unlike the frequentist paradigm, can assign probabilities to underlying states of nature that directly impact safety and efficacy such as the population distribution of tablet potencies or dissolution profiles in a batch. However, there are challenges and reluctance in switching to a predictive modeling quality framework once regulatory approval has been attained. This paper offers encouragement to make this switch. In this paper, we review a joint Long Island University - Purdue University (LIU-PU) FDA funded project whose purpose was to further integrate the concepts of this adaptive approach to lot release with the rationale and methods for data generation and curation and to extend the testing of this approach. We discuss the utility of the approach in product development. We consider the regulatory compliance implications, with examples, and establish a potential way forward toward implementation of this approach for both industry and regulatory stake-holders.

5.
Early Hum Dev ; 171: 105612, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797784

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), the commonest complication of prematurity, is defined by treatment with oxygen for ≥28 days. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) often coexists with BPD and is associated with increased mortality. In 42 autopsies, histological changes of BPD and PH were demonstrated in 25 % and 65 % respectively of preterm infants <28 days of age, highlighting the need for early diagnosis and treatment.

6.
JBJS Case Connect ; 12(3)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852168

RESUMO

CASE: A 40-year-old man presented with spontaneous, atraumatic right groin pain and inability to bear weight secondary to an isolated avulsion of the right lesser trochanter. Magnetic resonance imaging of the affected hip was suggestive of an infection, and a computed tomography-guided biopsy was remarkable for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which was successfully managed with antitubercular therapy and activity modification. CONCLUSION: Although an isolated spontaneous avulsion of the lesser trochanter is typically pathognomonic for malignancy, an infectious etiology, such as tuberculosis, should also be considered in the differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tuberculose , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fêmur , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26065, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865423

RESUMO

Purpose In this non-randomized study, we prospectively studied the sequential imaging properties of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and evaluated the role of FDG PET as a non-invasive imaging modality for identifying non-responders during anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) of spinal tuberculosis (TB). Methods Before starting anti-tubercular treatment, 25 patients with clinically and radiological suspected; pathologically confirmed spinal TB had a pretreatment contrast-enhanced whole-body FDG PET scan, followed by scans at six, 12, and 18 months. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was computed, and the mean change in SUVmax was compared. The mean change in SUVmax was correlated with the clinicoradiological improvement.  Result In cases of spinal tuberculosis, the FDG PET scan can help identify extra-spinal and non-contagious involvement. In our 25 cases of spinal TB, the baseline peak SUVmax of lesions ranged from 6.3 to 28.5 (mean 14.8). Despite treatment, the condition progressed in two patients, and they had neurological deficits; in both cases, the SUVmax levels increased. The fall in SUVmax during the treatment course was statistically significant (p-value <0.05) and correlated well with the clinical improvement. Conclusion The inflammatory cells show increased uptake of F18 FDG, so uptake of radioactive tracer localizes and quantifies the disease activity; thus, FDG PET/CT holds a promising role as a sensitive non-invasive modality for the detection, staging, assessing disease activity, and monitoring therapy and deciding end point treatment in spinal TB.

8.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(7): e6032, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865786

RESUMO

Bile leak after cholecystectomy is associated with significant comorbidity. Biliary duct variant anatomy can complicate identification and management. We report a very rare presentation of recurrent delayed bile leaks years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy secondary to missed right posterior sectoral bile duct injury. Surgical intervention was required after the failure of conservative management.

9.
J Nat Prod ; 85(7): 1763-1770, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802519

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the culture extract of a marine obligate proteobacterium, Marinobacterium sp. C17-8, isolated from scleractinian coral Euphyllia sp., led to the discovery of three new o-dialkylbenzene-class metabolites, designated marinoquinolones A (1) and B (2) and marinobactoic acid (3). Spectroscopic analysis using MS and NMR revealed the structures of 1 and 2 to be 4-quinolones with an o-dialkylbenzene-containing side chain at C3 and 3 to be a fatty acid bearing an o-dialkylbenzene substructure. The 4-quinolone form of 1 and 2 was unequivocally determined by comparison of the 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shifts of 1 with those predicted for 2-methyl-4-quinolone A and its tautomer 2-methyl-4-quinolinol B by quantum chemical calculation. Compound 1 was proven to be racemic by X-ray crystallographic analysis and chiral-phase HPLC analysis of its chemical degradation product. Compounds 1-3 exhibited antimicrobial activity against bacteria and filamentous fungi at MIC of 6.3-50 µg/mL. In addition, all compounds showed cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemia cells at micromolar ranges.


Assuntos
Alteromonadaceae , Antozoários , Anti-Infecciosos , 4-Quinolonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Fungos , Camundongos
10.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 92, 2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extant members of the Asian rhinos have experienced severe population and range declines since Pleistocene through a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. The one-horned rhino is the only Asian species recovered from such conditions but most of the extant populations are reaching carrying capacity. India currently harbours ~ 83% of the global wild one-horned rhino populations distributed across seven protected areas. Recent assessments recommend reintroduction-based conservation approaches for the species, and implementation of such efforts would greatly benefit from detailed genetic assessments and evolutionary history of these populations. Using mitochondrial data, we investigated the phylogeography, divergence and demographic history of one-horned rhinos across its Indian range. RESULTS: We report the first complete mitogenome from all the extant Indian wild one-horned rhino populations (n = 16 individuals). Further, we identified all polymorphic sites and assessed rhino phylogeography (2531 bp mtDNA, n = 111 individuals) across India. Results showed 30 haplotypes distributed as three distinct genetic clades (Fst value 0.68-1) corresponding to the states of Assam (n = 28 haplotypes), West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh (both monomorphic). The reintroduced population of Uttar Pradesh showed maternal signatures of Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Mitochondrial phylogenomics suggests one-horned rhino diverged from its recent common ancestors ~ 950 Kya and different populations (Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh/Nepal) coalesce at ~ 190-50 Kya, corroborating with the paleobiogeography history of the Indian subcontinent. Further, the demography analyses indicated historical decline in female effective population size ~ 300-200 Kya followed by increasing trends during ~ 110-60 Kya. CONCLUSION: The phylogeography and phylogenomic outcomes suggest recognition of three 'Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs)' in Indian rhino. With ongoing genetic isolation of the current populations, future management efforts should focus on identifying genetically variable founder animals and consider periodic supplementation events while planning future rhino reintroduction programs in India. Such well-informed, multidisciplinary approach will be the only way to ensure evolutionary, ecological and demographic stability of the species across its range.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Parques Recreativos , Perissodáctilos/genética , Filogeografia
11.
Asian J Neurosurg ; 17(1): 112-115, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873853

RESUMO

Epistaxis following transnasal transsphenoidal (TNTS) removal of pituitary adenoma can be massive and life-threatening. The intracranial source of bleeding is usually the intracavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or adjacent branches. Injury to the cavernous ICA can lead to pseudoaneurysm (PA) or fistula formation. Management of PA is different from saccular aneurysms. A timely diagnosis and adequate management can restore vessel integrity and prevent associated morbidity. A young patient of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, who underwent microscopic TNTS excision of the tumour, presented with massive epistaxis. Pseudoaneurysm of the cavernous ICA was initially not seen on computed tomography angiography and was later diagnosed on digital subtraction angiography. The attempted management of PA with coils without stent could not stop aneurysm recurrence. The management of such complicated PAs is discussed, and a literature review is done regarding epistaxis in growth hormone secreting adenoma.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804936

RESUMO

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. It is associated with a particularly poor prognosis, as reflected by an overall median survival of only 15 months in patients who undergo a supramarginal surgical reduction of the tumor mass followed by combined chemoradiotherapy. The highly malignant nature of IDH-wildtype glioblastoma is thought to be driven by glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) that harbor the ability of self-renewal, survival, and adaptability to challenging environmental conditions. The wingless (WNT) signaling pathway is a phylogenetically highly conserved stemness pathway, which promotes metabolic plasticity and adaptation to a nutrient-limited tumor microenvironment. To unravel the reciprocal regulation of the WNT pathway and the nutrient-limited microenvironment, glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells were cultured in a medium with either standard or reduced glucose concentrations for various time points (24, 48, and 72 h). Glucose depletion reduced cell viability and facilitated the survival of a small population of starvation-resistant tumor cells. The surviving cells demonstrated increased clonogenic and invasive properties as well as enhanced chemosensitivity to pharmacological inhibitors of the WNT pathway (LGK974, berberine). Glucose depletion partially led to the upregulation of WNT target genes such as CTNNB1, ZEB1, and AXIN2 at the mRNA and corresponding protein levels. LGK974 treatment alone or in combination with glucose depletion also altered the metabolite concentration in intracellular compartments, suggesting WNT-mediated metabolic regulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that WNT-mediated metabolic plasticity modulates the survival of GSCs under nutrient-restricted environmental conditions.

13.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-9, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-rationing or one's ability to regulate allocation of resources for consumption can be an inefficient process. Despite the negative impact of self-rationing inefficiencies (eg unhealthy food choices), there is scarce research to understand this phenomenon. This study investigated college students' self-rationing efficiency of eating behavior and spending choices, and their relationship to academic performance. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This study used a combination of a real-time experiment, self-reported surveys (n = 101), and interviews with college students (n = 12). Data was collected using two 24-hour recall periods, online surveys, and semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: College students demonstrated self-rationing inefficiency of eating behavior, but not of expenditure on food. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between self-rationing inefficiencies in eating behavior and students' academic performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study directly investigated self-rationing efficiency amongst college students' food choices and food expenditure, and enhances our understanding of its impact on college students' academic performance.

14.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 22(2): 288-290, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673300

RESUMO

Cleft foot is a congenital anomaly characterised by absence of the metatarsal bones and phalanges. It is commonly seen in children with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome ranging from a median cleft up to the mid metatarsals to a deep cleft up to the tarsal bones. Surgical treatment in the form of cleft closure, excision of the rudimentary metatarsal bone and cross K-wire fixation of metatarsal bones have been tried for the management of such cases. We report a one-year-old child who presented to the paediatric orthopaedic clinic at a medical college in New Delhi, India, in 2018 with type III cleft foot with four metatarsals. The patient was treated with a suture-button system using three transverse tunnels in the second and third metatarsal bones in order to bring them closer together. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with normal fitting footwear.


Assuntos
Deformidades do Pé , Ossos do Metatarso , Criança , Humanos , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros , Ossos do Metatarso/anormalidades , Ossos do Metatarso/cirurgia , Boca , Suturas
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(6)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760440

RESUMO

India is targeting malaria elimination by 2030. Understanding and adopting the strategies employed by countries that have successfully eliminated malaria can serve as a crucial thrust in this direction for a geographically diverse country like India. This analysis is based on extensive literature search on malaria elimination policies, strategies and programmes adopted by nine countries (China, El Salvador, Algeria, Argentina, Uzbekistan, Paraguay, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Armenia) which have attained malaria-free status over the past decade. The key points which India can learn from their journey are mandatory time-bound response in the form of case reporting and management, rapid vector control response, continuous epidemiological and entomological surveillance, elevated community participation, more training and capacity building, private sector involvement, use of quality diagnostics, cross-border collaborations, inclusion of prevention of re-establishment programmes into the elimination plans, higher investment in research, and uninterrupted funds for successful implementation of malaria elimination programmes. These learnings would help India and other South Asian countries steer their programmes by devising tailor-made strategies for their own regions.


Assuntos
Malária , China , Participação da Comunidade , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Setor Privado , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
16.
Genomics ; 114(4): 110401, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of lung cancer is getting more personalized nowadays and medical practitioners are moving away from conventional histology-driven empirical treatments, platinum-based chemotherapy, and other invasive surgical resections and have started adopting alternate therapies in which therapeutic targets are patient's molecular oncogenic drivers. AIM: The aim of the current study is to extract meaningful information from the online somatic mutation data (retrieved from cBioPortal) of 16 most significantly mutated oncogenes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), namely EGFR, NRAS, KRAS, HER2 (ERBB2), RET, MET, ROS1, FGFR1, BRAF, AKT1, MEK1 (MAP2K1), PIK3CA, PTEN, DDR2, LKB1 (STK11) and ALK, for improving our understanding of the pathobiology of the lung cancer that can aid decision-making on critical clinical and therapeutic considerations. METHODS: Using an integrated approach comprising 4 steps, the oncogenic potential of 661 missense non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 16 genes was ascertained using 2059 NSCLC (1575 lung adenocarcinomas, 484 lung squamous cell carcinomas) patients' online mutation data. The steps used comprise sequence/structure homology-based prediction, scoring of conservation of mutated residues and positions, prediction of resulting molecular and functional consequences using machine-learning and structure-guided approach. RESULTS: Out of a total of 661 nsSNPs analyzed, a set of 29 nsSNPs has been identified as conserved high confidence mutations in 10 of 16 genes relevant to the under study. Out of 29 conserved high confidence nsSNPs, 4 nsSNPs (EGFR N1094Y, BRAF M620I, DDR2 R307L, ALK P1350T) have been found to be putative novel rare genetic markers for NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: The current study, the first of its kind, has provided a list of deleterious non-synonymous somatic mutations in a selected pool of oncogenes that can be considered as a promising target for future drug design and therapy for patients with lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

17.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 250: 111488, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644266

RESUMO

The specificity of each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) for its cognate amino acid ensures correct tRNA esterification and allows fidelity in protein synthesis. The aaRSs discriminate based on the chemical properties of their amino acid substrates and structural features of the binding pockets. In this study, we characterized aspartyl-(DRS) and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (NRS) from Plasmodium falciparum to determine the basis of their specificity towards L-asp and L-asn respectively. The negatively charged L-asp and its analogue L-asn differ only in their side-chain groups i.e., -OH and -NH2. Further, the amino acid binding sites are highly conserved within these two enzymes. Analysis of the substrate (L-asp/L-asn) binding sites across species revealed two highly conserved residues in PfDRS (D408 and K372) and PfNRS (E395 and L360) that are involved in recognition of the Oδ2/Nδ2 of L-asp/L-asn respectively. These residues were mutated and swapped between the D408→E in PfDRS and the corresponding E395→D in PfNRS. A similar approach was employed for residue number K372→L in PfDRS and L360→K in PfNRS. The mutated PfDRSD408E retained its enzymatic activity during step 1 of aminoacylation reaction towards L-asp and L-asn and esterified tRNAAsp with L-asp like wild type enzyme, while the PfDRSK372L was rendered enzymatically inactive. The correspondingly mutated PfNRSE395D was enzymatically inactive. The mutated PfNRSL360K had an altered specificity and esterified tRNAAsn with non-cognate amino acid L-asp and not L-asn. These data suggest that the residue K372 is crucial for the enzymatic activity of PfDRS while the residue L360 in PfNRS imparts specificity towards L-asn.


Assuntos
Aspartato-tRNA Ligase , Plasmodium falciparum , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/química , Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/genética , Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Aminoacil-RNA de Transferência , Especificidade por Substrato
18.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163

RESUMO

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

19.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 59(1): 52-56, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) is a novel tool which employs mosquito sugar feeding behaviour to kill them. The potential of ATSB against mosquito vectors has been demonstrated in limited scope around the world including Israel, some of the African countries and USA. But their efficacy against mosquito vectors of India is yet to be ascertained. Therefore, current study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of TSB (without attractant) against two important malaria vectors Anopheles culicifacies and An. stephensi along with major dengue vector Aedes aegypti. METHODS: TSB solution was prepared by dissolving different concentrations of boric acid in glucose and tested against each of the mosquito species. Another experiment was done by spraying this boric acid sugar solution on to Calendula officinalis plant. It served as a sole source of mosquito feed and mortality of mosquitoes was counted after 24 hours. RESULTS: The TSB resulted in 100% mortality of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi at 4% concentration of boric acid while in An. culicifacies 100% mortality was achieved at 3% concentration TSB solution. TSB solution with 2% boric acid, resulted in 99.1% mortality in An. culicifacies while ~95 % mortality of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. When TSB solution with 2% boric acid was sprayed on plant, ~89-94% mortality was observed in both An. stephensi and An. culicifacies. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Based on the results, boric acid based toxic sugar bait solution could be a promising tool for vector control. Further studies are needed to find out its toxicity of TSB against non-target organisms and residual efficacy in field trials in different ecotypes.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Inseticidas , Animais , Ácidos Bóricos , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Açúcares
20.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 59(1): 57-62, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Microscopy is considered as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, however sub-microscopic infections can only be detected by Polymerase chain reaction, which demands high cost and elaborate laboratory setup. The Micro-chip PCR based Truenat Malaria Pv-Pf and Pf assay is a portable solution for detection of sub-microscopic/asymptomatic cases of malaria in the field, three lots of which were evaluated for P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. METHODS: Three lots of Truenat® Malaria Pv-Pf and Pf assay (kits) were assessed using blood samples of P. vivax and P. falciparum as well as malaria negative blood samples. DNA was extracted from the blood samples using the Trueprep Auto v2 Universal Cartridge based sample prep device and real time qPCR was performed using Truelab DUO micro PCR Analyzer with three lots of Truenat® Malaria Pv-Pf and Pf Assays. Mean, Standard deviation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the significance of inter-lot variability in Cycle threshold values. RESULTS: The Truenat® Malaria Pv-Pf and Pf assays identified the malaria parasites with 100% accuracy. Based on the test for variance (ANOVA) the inter-lot variability in cycle threshold values were not significant, indicating a high degree of precision. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Based on high accuracy and precision between different lots, the Truenat® Malaria Pv-Pf and Pf assays were found to be suitable for the diagnosis of sub-microscopic infections in field conditions to provide support in elimination of malaria.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Malária Vivax , Malária , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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