Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 231
Filtrar
1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 258: 119803, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933939

RESUMO

Facial creams are considered to be essential beauty items and are used by both females and males on an everyday basis. These can be encountered as an evidentiary material in criminal investigations, particularly in cases related to sexual and physical assaults against women. These are found in trace amounts and therefore their analysis is difficult and also, it must be through non-destructive methods. In the present work ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was employed for the discrimination of 57 samples of face creams out of which 31 were non-herbal and 26 were from herbal category. Visual analysis of the obtained Spectra was done for discrimination purposes but the method was prone to human error and laborious too. The spectroscopic results were analyzed with PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS-DA (Partial least square discriminant analysis) methods. A segregation of samples was seen in the PCA plots to some extent. The class separation and prediction of the samples was performed using PLS-DA method. A good classification was achieved between herbal and non-herbal samples using PLS-DA method. Further, validation of the model was also performed by testing 10 unknown samples.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is a modifiable risk factor that may influence cognition in people with HIV. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between dietary intake and cognition in women with HIV (WWH) and HIV-seronegative women. METHODS: An 18-item dietary National Cancer Institute screener was completed by 729 WWH and 346 HIV-seronegative Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Daily intake frequencies of processed meats, sweet beverages, fish, whole milk, and vegetables were calculated. Participants completed biennial neuropsychological (NP) testing. NP domains included attention/working memory, executive function, processing speed, memory, learning, fluency, and motor function. NP impairment was defined as demographically adjusted T-scores (mean = 50; SD = 10) ≤40 at ≥1 visit after completing the dietary screener. Multivariable logistic regression, stratified by HIV serostatus, examined associations between intake frequency tertile (referent = lowest intake) and NP performance. RESULTS: Dietary intake frequencies of individual food line items were similar between WWH and HIV-seronegative women, except for sweet beverages, for which HIV-seronegative women reported higher intake frequencies than WWH (P values < 0.05). In WWH, multivariable-adjusted models indicated higher odds of NP impairment with higher intake frequencies of processed meat [P = 0.006; ORupper tertile = 1.91 (95% CI: 1.23-2.95; P = 0.003); ORmiddle tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14-2.42; P = 0.01)], sweet beverages [P = 0.02; ORupper tertile = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17-2.64; P = 0.007)], fish [P = 0.01; ORupper tertile = 1.70 (95% CI: 1.10-2.64; P = 0.02)], and whole milk [P = 0.029; ORupper tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14-2.42; P = 0.008)]. Lower odds of NP impairment [P = 0.005; ORupper tertile = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45-0.95; P = 0.02); ORmiddle tertile = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.24-0.73; P = 0.002)] were associated with higher vegetable intakes. In HIV-seronegative women, multivariable-adjusted models did not show associations between food line items/diet quality score and NP outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of processed meat, sweet beverages, whole milk, fish, and vegetables may be associated with NP functions among WWH. Associations among WWH are not directly comparable to those among HIV-seronegative women, because models were conducted on each group separately given controls for HIV-specific covariates in WWH. Further studies are needed using more rigorous dietary assessment methods and lengthier longitudinal follow-ups.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(9): 4779-4785, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691866

RESUMO

Air pollution is a big concern as it causes harm to human health as well as environment. NO2 can cause several respiratory diseases even in low concentration and therefore an efficient sensor for detecting NO2 at room temperature has become one of the priorities of the scientific community. Although two dimensional (2D) materials (MoS2 etc.) have shown potential for NO2 sensing at lower temperatures, but these have poor desorption kinetics. However, these limitations posed by slow desorption can be overcome, if a material in the form of a p-n junction can be suitably employed. In this work, ~150 nm thick SnSe2 thin film has been deposited by thermally evaporating in-house made SnSe2 powder. The film has been studied for its morphological, structural and gas sensing applications. The morphology of the film showed that the film consists of interconnected nanostructures. Detailed Raman studies further revealed that SnSe2 film had 31% SnSe. The SnSe-SnSe2 nanostructured sensor showed a response of ~112% towards 5 ppm NO2 at room temperature (30 °C). The response and recovery times were ~15 seconds and 10 seconds, respectively. Limit of detection for NO2 was in sub-parts per million (sub-ppm) range. The device demonstrated a better response towards NO2 compared to NH3, CH4, and H2. The mechanism of room temperature fast response, recovery and selective detection of NO2 independent of humidity conditions has been discussed based on physisorption, charge transfer, and formation of SnSe-SnSe2 (p-n) nano-junctions. Depositing a nanostructured film consisting of nano-junctions using an industrially viable thermal evaporation technique for sensing a very low concentration of NO2 is the novelty of this work.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570710

RESUMO

Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms are a rare malignancy, but it is an important diagnostic entity. Ultrasonography and CT scan represent useful method for diagnosis; however, diagnosis is often incidental or intraoperative finding at resection for suspicion of appendicitis. Appendiceal mucinous neoplasm is commonly misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis, adnexal mass, or retroperitoneal tumors. Our case represents the importance of developing a high index of suspicion of appendiceal malignancy and mucocele rupture in patients who are planned for appendectomy. There is risk of second malignancy mostly of ovary, breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract simultaneously in about 30% of patients of appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. Low-grade mucinous neoplasm has excellent prognosis after standard appendectomy. Advanced stage low-grade mucinous neoplasm involving periappendiceal area or with nodal metastasis is treated by appendectomy with right hemicolectomy and lymph node dissection. We report a case of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm in a 65-year-old female with past history of surgery for benign bilateral adnexal lesions.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty may occur at younger ages among HIV+ populations. We evaluated associations of frailty status with self-reported single and recurrent falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: Frailty status was defined using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) among 897 HIV+ and 392 HIV- women; median age 53 years. Women were classified as robust (FFP 0), prefrail (FFP 1-2) and frail (FFP 3-5). Stepwise logistic regression models adjusting for HIV status and study site were fit to evaluate associations of FFP with self-reported single (1 vs. 0) and recurrent falls (≥2 vs. 0) over the prior 12 months. RESULTS: HIV+ women were less likely to be frail (9% vs.14% vs. p=0.009), but frequency of falls did not differ by HIV status. In multivariate analyses, recurrent falls were more common among prefrail [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.23, 95%CI: 1.40 - 3.57, p=0.0008] and frail (AOR 3.61, 95%CI: 1.90 - 6.89, p<0.0001) than robust women. Among HIV+ women, single (AOR 2.88, 95%CI: 1.16-7.20, p=0.023) and recurrent falls (AOR 3.50, 95%CI: 1.24-9.88, p= 0.018) were more common among those who were frail; recurrent, but not single falls, were more common among prefrail than robust HIV+ women (AOR 2.00, 95%CI: 1.03- 3.91, p= 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: HIV+ women were less likely to be frail. Compared to robust women, prefrail and frail women with and without HIV were more likely to experience single or recurrent falls within a 12-month period. Additional studies are needed to develop interventions that decrease development of frailty and reduce risk of recurrent falls among HIV+ women.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(4): 999-1010, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use is associated with disrupted lipid and glucose metabolism in people with HIV infection. We aimed to identify plasma lipid species associated with risk of diabetes in the context of HIV infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We profiled 211 plasma lipid species in 491 HIV-infected and 203 HIV-uninfected participants aged 35 to 55 years from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine associations between baseline lipid species and incident diabetes (166 diabetes cases were identified during a median follow-up of 12.6 years). RESULTS: We identified 11 lipid species, representing independent signals for 8 lipid classes/subclasses, associated with risk of diabetes (P < 0.05 after FDR correction). After adjustment for multiple covariates, cholesteryl ester (CE) (22:4), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (18:2), phosphatidylcholine (PC) (36:4), phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen (34:3), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (38:2) were associated with decreased risk of diabetes (HRs = 0.70 to 0.82 per SD increment), while diacylglycerol (32:0), LPC (14:0), PC (38:3), PE (36:1), and triacylglycerol (50:1) were associated with increased risk of diabetes (HRs = 1.26 to 1.56 per SD increment). HIV serostatus did not modify any lipid-diabetes associations; however, most of these lipid species were positively associated with HIV and/or ART use, including 3 diabetes-decreased ( CE [22:4], LPC [18:2], PE [38:2]) and all 5 diabetes-increased lipid species. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified multiple plasma lipid species associated with incident diabetes. Regardless of the directions of their associations with diabetes, most diabetes-associated lipid species were elevated in ART-treated people with HIV infection. This suggests a complex role of lipids in the link between ART and diabetes in HIV infection.

8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(5): 593-599, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are first-line regimens for HIV treatment. We aimed to examine their impact on cognitive performance and depressive symptoms in women with HIV (WWH). SETTING: Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite, prospective, cohort study. METHODS: WWH who started or switched to INSTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) and completed neuropsychological testing and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale before and after INSTI start/switch were included in the analyses. Primary outcomes were demographically corrected cognitive domain T-scores. Linear mixed-effects models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to examine effects of start/switch of any INSTI and individual INSTI drugs on cognition and CES-D scores. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine WWH, median age 49 (interquartile range 12) years, 66% Black non-Hispanic, had neuropsychological and CES-D scale data before and after INSTI start/switch. Although 14% started INSTI-based ART, the remainder switched to INSTI-based ART from another regimen. Overall, any INSTI use was associated with poorer learning post-INSTI. Specifically, use of dolutegravir and elvitegravir, but not raltegravir, was associated with poorer learning. In analyses restricted to INSTI switch, any INSTI use, and dolutegravir use, was associated with poorer learning. Among those switching from a PI-based regimen, INSTIs overall and dolutegravir remained associated with poorer learning; switching from a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor to dolutegravir was also associated with poorer learning. INSTI start/switch was not related to depressive symptom changes. CONCLUSIONS: INSTI use was associated with poorer learning among WWH. These changes were mainly observed in elvitegravir and dolutegravir users, indicating that the impact of INSTI on cognition in WWH may not be a class effect.

9.
Menopause ; 28(5): 491-501, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota respond to host physiological phenomena, yet little is known regarding shifts in the gut microbiome due to menopausal hormonal and metabolic changes in women. HIV infection impacts menopause and may also cause gut dysbiosis. We therefore sought to determine the association between menopausal status and gut microbiome composition in women with and without HIV. METHODS: Gut microbiome composition was assessed in stool from 432 women (99 premenopausal HIV+, 71 premenopausal HIV-, 182 postmenopausal HIV+, 80 postmenopausal HIV-) via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We examined cross-sectional associations of menopause with gut microbiota overall diversity and composition, and taxon and inferred metagenomic pathway abundance. Models were stratified by HIV serostatus and adjusted for age, HIV-related variables, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Menopause, ie post- versus premenopausal status, was associated with overall microbial composition only in women with HIV (permutational MANOVA of Jensen Shannon Divergence: P = 0.01). In women with HIV, menopause was associated with enrichment of gram-negative order Enterobacteriales, depletion of highly abundant taxa within Prevotella copri, and alterations in other low-abundance taxa. Additionally, menopause in women with HIV was associated with enrichment of metagenomic pathways related to Enterobacteriales, including degradation of amino acids and phenolic compounds, biosynthesis of enterobactin, and energy metabolism pathways. Menopause-related differences in some low-abundance taxa were also observed in women without HIV. CONCLUSIONS: A changing gut microbiome may be an overlooked phenomenon of reproductive aging in women with HIV. Longitudinal assessments across all reproductive stages are necessary to confirm these findings and identify health implications.

10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(5): e139-e145, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density loss and fat accumulation are common in people living with HIV. The bone-derived hormone, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOCN) regulates fat metabolism. We investigated the relationship between ucOCN change and body fat change among perimenopausal/postmenopausal HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive women on long-term antiretrovirals. METHODS: Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study MSK substudy underwent trunk and total fat assessment by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at study enrollment (index visit) and again 2 years later. Circulating ucOCN and cOCN were also measured at the index and 2-year visits. The correlation between the 2-year change in ucOCN and cOCN and change in trunk and total fat was assessed as a function of HIV serostatus using linear regression modeling. Multivariate linear regression assessed the association between ucOCN and cOCN change and total and trunk fat change after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Linear regression models restricted to HIV-seropositive women were performed to examine the contributions of HIV-specific factors (index CD4 count, viral load, and combined antiretroviral therapy use) on the associations. RESULTS: Increased ucOCN over the 2-year follow-up was associated with less trunk and total fat accumulation in models adjusting for HIV serostatus and participants sociodemographics, whereas there was no association with cOCN and the fat parameters. None of the HIV-specific factors evaluated influenced the association between ucOCN and fat parameters. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that increases in ucOCN are associated with decreased fat accumulation in HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive postmenopausal women on long-term antiretroviral therapy.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419929

RESUMO

In-person interactions have traditionally been the gold standard for qualitative data collection. The COVID-19 pandemic required researchers to consider if remote data collection can meet research objectives, while retaining the same level of data quality and participant protections. We use four case studies from the Philippines, Zambia, India and Uganda to assess the challenges and opportunities of remote data collection during COVID-19. We present lessons learned that may inform practice in similar settings, as well as reflections for the field of qualitative inquiry in the post-COVID-19 era. Key challenges and strategies to overcome them included the need for adapted researcher training in the use of technologies and consent procedures, preparation for abbreviated interviews due to connectivity concerns, and the adoption of regular researcher debriefings. Participant outreach to allay suspicions ranged from communicating study information through multiple channels to highlighting associations with local institutions to boost credibility. Interviews were largely successful, and contained a meaningful level of depth, nuance and conviction that allowed teams to meet study objectives. Rapport still benefitted from conventional interviewer skills, including attentiveness and fluency with interview guides. While differently abled populations may encounter different barriers, the included case studies, which varied in geography and aims, all experienced more rapid recruitment and robust enrollment. Reduced in-person travel lowered interview costs and increased participation among groups who may not have otherwise attended. In our view, remote data collection is not a replacement for in-person endeavours, but a highly beneficial complement. It may increase accessibility and equity in participant contributions and lower costs, while maintaining rich data collection in multiple study target populations and settings.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados , Relações Interpessoais , África ao Sul do Saara , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Humanos , Índia , Internet , Pandemias , Filipinas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Nanoscale ; 13(2): 939-952, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479718

RESUMO

Switching microglia from a disease exacerbating, 'pro-inflammatory' state into a neuroprotective, 'anti-inflammatory' phenotype is a promising strategy for addressing multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory microglia contribute to disease progression by releasing neurotoxic substances and accelerating pathogenic protein accumulation. PPARα and PPARγ agonists have both been shown to shift microglia from a pro-inflammatory ('M1-like') to an alternatively activated ('M2-like') phenotype. Such strategies have been explored in clinical trials for neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, but have likely failed due to their poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Hydroxyl-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers (without the attachment of any targeting ligands) have been shown to cross the impaired BBB at the site of neuroinflammation and accumulate in activated microglia. Therefore, dendrimer conjugation of a PPARα/γ dual agonist may enable targeted phenotype switching of activated microglia. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a novel dendrimer-PPARα/γ dual agonist conjugate (D-tesaglitazar). In vitro, D-tesaglitazar induces an 'M1 to M2' phenotype shift, decreases secretion of reactive oxygen species, increases expression of genes for phagocytosis and enzymatic degradation of pathogenic proteins (e.g. ß-amyloid, α-synuclein), and increases ß-amyloid phagocytosis. These results support further development of D-tesaglitazar towards translation for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.

13.
J Surg Res ; 260: 177-189, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is associated with neurologic morbidity, in part mediated by activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor causing excitotoxicity and neuronal apoptosis. Using a canine model, we hypothesized that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801 would provide neuroprotection and that MK801 conjugation to dendrimer nanoparticles would improve efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male hound dogs were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, cooled to 18°C, and underwent 90 min of HCA. Dendrimer conjugates (d-MK801) were prepared by covalently linking dendrimer surface OH groups to MK801. Six experimental groups received either saline (control), medium- (0.15 mg/kg) or high-dose (1.56 mg/kg) MK801, or low- (0.05 mg/kg), medium-, or high-dose d-MK801. At 24, 48, and 72 h after HCA, animals were scored by a standardized neurobehavioral paradigm (higher scores indicate increasing deficits). Cerebrospinal fluid was obtained at baseline, eight, 24, 48, and 72 h after HCA. At 72 h, brains were examined for histopathologic injury in a blinded manner (higher scores indicate more injury). RESULTS: Neurobehavioral deficit scores were reduced by low-dose d-MK801 on postoperative day two (P < 0.05) and by medium-dose d-MK801 on postoperative day 3 (P = 0.05) compared with saline controls, but free drug had no effect. In contrast, high-dose free MK801 significantly improved histopathology scores compared with saline (P < 0.05) and altered biomarkers of injury in cerebrospinal fluid, with a significant reduction in phosphorylated neurofilament-H for high-dose MK801 versus saline (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with MK-801 demonstrated significant improvement in neurobehavioral and histopathology scores after HCA, although not consistently across doses and conjugates.

14.
Curr Org Synth ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This review elaborates the updated synthetic and pharmacological approaches of a known group of dihydropyrimidinones/thiones from the multi-component reaction like Biginelli reaction was named Pietro Biginelli in 1891. This review consists of the reaction of an aromatic aldehyde, urea and ethyl acetoacetate leading to dihydropyrimidinone/thione. Currently, the scientific movement to develop economically viable green methods using compounds that are reusable, non-volatile, easily obtained, etc. Objective: This review covers the recent synthesis and pharmacological advancement of dihydropyrimidinones/thiones moiety, along with covering the structure-activity relationship of the most potent compounds, which may prove to become better, more efficacious and safer agents. Thus, this review may help the researchers in drug designing and development of new Dihydropyrimidinones entities. CONCLUSION: This review focuses on the wide application of dihydropyrimidinone/thione review reports the design, synthesis and pharmacological activities of nitrogen-sulphur containing dihydropyrimidinone moiety by using multi-component reaction. Dihydropyrimidinones (DHPM) pharmacophore is an important heterocyclic ring in medicinal chemistry. It is derived from multi-component reactions, "Biginelli reaction" and plays critical role as anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive and anti-tubercular agents. Exhaustive research has led to the determination of its vast biological profile, with a wide range of therapeutic application.

15.
J Control Release ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290796

RESUMO

Novel delivery strategies are necessary to effectively address glioblastoma without systemic toxicities. Triptolide is a therapy derived from the thunder god vine that has shown potent anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive properties but exhibits significant adverse systemic effects. Dendrimer-based nanomedicines have shown great potential for clinical translation of systemic therapies targeting neuroinflammation and brain tumors. Here we present a novel dendrimer-triptolide conjugate that specifically targets tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in glioblastoma from systemic administration and exhibits triggered release under intracellular and intratumor conditions. This targeted delivery improves phenotype switching of TAMs from pro- towards anti-tumor expression in vitro. In an orthotopic model of glioblastoma, dendrimer-triptolide achieved significantly improved amelioration of tumor burden compared to free triptolide. Notably, the triggered release mechanism of dendrimer-mediated triptolide delivery significantly reduced triptolide-associated hepatic and cardiac toxicities. These results demonstrate that dendrimers are a promising targeted delivery platform to achieve effective glioblastoma treatment by improving efficacy while reducing systemic toxicities.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297924

RESUMO

Dementia is a diverse category of a chronic and progressive disorder, which is commonly associated with loss of memory, difficulty in judgment, impaired language, cognitive impairment, and various other symptoms that affects a person's daily routine life and social life. Dementia affects about 50 million people around the globe. Dementia exists in varied forms and is associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease dementia is the most common form which accords for about 60% cases. Abnormal agglomeration of proteins in the brain has been linked to the pathogenesis of dementia. Autophagy is a necessary protein clearance mechanism, which is dependent on lysosomes. It is a basic physiological process that performs the crucial function of maintaining protein homeostasis within the cells. The autophagic dysfunction in dementia further complicates the disease by hampering the degradation and removal of abnormal pathogenic proteins. In order to understand autophagic dysfunction, it is essential to know the genetics of autophagy as well as the mutations which cause autophagic dysfunction. This understanding at the genetic level helps to define the relationship between dementia and autophagic dysfunction for developing the potential remedies for the treatment of dementia.

17.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375197

RESUMO

Ionic complexation of azobenzene-containing surfactants with any type of oppositely charged soft objects allows for making them photo-responsive in terms of their size, shape and surface energy. Investigation of the photo-isomerization kinetic and isomer composition at a photo-stationary state of the photo-sensitive surfactant conjugated with charged objects is a necessary prerequisite for understanding the structural response of photo-sensitive complexes. Here, we report on photo-isomerization kinetics of a photo-sensitive surfactant in the presence of poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt). We show that the photo-isomerization of the azobenzene-containing cationic surfactant is slower in a polymer complex compared to being purely dissolved in aqueous solution. In a photo-stationary state, the ratio between the trans and cis isomers is shifted to a higher trans-isomer concentration for all irradiation wavelengths. This is explained by the formation of surfactant aggregates near the polyelectrolyte chains at concentrations much lower than the bulk critical micelle concentration and inhibition of the photo-isomerization kinetics due to steric hindrance within the densely packed aggregates.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Luz , Polieletrólitos/química , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Algoritmos , Fenômenos Químicos , Isomerismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estrutura Molecular
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, but its relationship with immune dysregulation, a hallmark of HIV infection and comorbidity, is unknown. METHODS: In 241 women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were characterized by flow cytometry to identify cell subsets, comprising surface markers of activation (%CD38+HLADR+), senescence (%CD57+CD28-), exhaustion (%PD-1+), and co-stimulation (%CD57- CD28+) on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of food insecurity with immune outcomes, accounting for repeated measures at up to three study visits and adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: At the baseline study visit, 71% of participants identified as non-Hispanic Black, 75% were virally suppressed, and 43% experienced food insecurity. Food insecurity was associated with increased activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, increased senescence of CD8+ T-cells, and decreased co-stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells (all p<0.05), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, substance use, smoking, HIV viral load, and CD4 cell count. In stratified analyses, the association of food insecurity with CD4+ T-cell activation was more pronounced in women with uncontrolled HIV (viral load >40 copies/mL and CD4 <500 cells/mm 3), but remained statistically significant in those with controlled HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity may contribute to the persistent immune activation and senescence in women living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, independently of HIV control. Reducing food insecurity may be important for decreasing non-AIDS-related disease risk in this population.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess weight and body mass index (BMI) change among women after switch to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and/or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). METHODS: From 2006-2019, 1458 women living with HIV (WLWH) enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with ≥1 study visit before and after switching to INSTIs and/or TAF were included. Weight and BMI were compared pre-and post-switch to INSTI (by class and type) and/or TAF using multivariable linear mixed effects models; all models were also stratified by pre-switch presence or absence of obesity (BMI≥30 vs <30kg/m2). RESULTS: Mean age pre-switch was 47±6 years, 64% were Black, mean CD4=475±201 cells/mm3, 56% had HIV RNA<200 copies/mL, 36% switched to TAF but not INSTI, 60% to INSTI but not TAF, and 3.5% to TAF+INSTI. Time from pre- to post-switch was 12.8 ±11.8 months. The INSTI-only group but not TAF groups had small but significant increases in weight and BMI: mean 79.2 to 80.6 kg and 30.2 to 30.7 kg/m2, p's<0.001, respectively, with congruent findings by INSTI type (p's<0.01). In stratified (pre-switch BMI) analyses, only non-obese subgroups experienced increases in weight and BMI across all ART treatment groups (p's<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Significant, albeit small-to-medium, increases in weight and BMI occurred among non-obese women who switched to INSTIs and/or TAF over short follow-up. Given long-term health consequences of obesity particularly as a low-grade inflammatory condition, identifying women at highest risk of ART-associated weight gain is imperative.

20.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 24(4): 168-175, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant frequency-specific microcurrent (FSM) application on pain and disability in patients treated with physical rehabilitation for mechanical low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP). METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, pre- and post-treatment numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score, neck disability index (NDI) score, disability categories, and treatment outcome categories were compared between 213 patients in the FSM group (167 patients with LBP, 46 patients with NP) and 78 patients in the control group (61 patients with LBP, 17 patients with NP). RESULTS: In LBP patients, mean post-treatment NPRS score was significantly lower (p = 0.02) and a significantly higher percentage of patients were in the ≤3 NPRS score (p = 0.02), in the minimal disability (p = 0.01), and the full success (p = 0.006) categories post-treatment in the FSM group when compared to the control group. In NP patients, there was no significant difference in the post-treatment pain intensity, disability or treatment outcome when the 2 groups were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The use of adjuvant FSM application in patients treated with physical rehabilitation for LBP significantly improved pain and disability when compared to patients in the control group. Frequency specific microcurrent could be a useful adjuvant in the rehabilitation treatment of patients with low back pain.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...