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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411658

RESUMO

Neuropeptides are small proteinaceous molecules (3-100 amino acids) that are secreted by neurons and act on both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a highly conserved and expressed neuropeptide in the central nervous system of mammals, plays a major role in stress response and resilience. Increasing evidence suggests that NPY and its receptors are altered in depression and suicide, pointing to their antidepressant-like nature. The objective of this study was to examine the role of NPY system in depression and suicidal behavior. Expression of NPY and its four receptors, NPY1R, NPY2R, NPY4R, and NPY5R was studied at the transcriptional and translational levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus regions of the postmortem brain of normal control (NC) (n = 24) and depressed suicide (DS) (n = 24) subjects. We observed a significant decrease in NPY mRNA and upregulation in NPY1R and NPY2R mRNA in both brain regions of DS subjects compared with NC subjects. We also observed a significant decrease in NPY protein expression in the PFC of subjects with DS. This study provides the first detailed evidence of alterations in the NPY system and the associated stress response in depression and suicidal behavior in humans. The outcomes of this study could be applied in the development of novel NPY system-targeted approaches for the treatment of depression.

3.
Iran J Otorhinolaryngol ; 33(118): 281-289, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692575

RESUMO

Introduction: The present study reviews our experience with children with white matter disturbances and the benefits they get from rehabilitation post cochlear implantation. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective cohort study of 7 cochlear implanted children with white matter disturbances. Preoperatively all the subjects had undergone a complete Audiological test battery for confirmation of hearing thresholds. Post assessment, a digital hearing aid trial was followed by three months' therapy. Unilateral cochlear implant surgery and monitored auditory-verbal therapy sessions were the next line of treatment for at least one year. The therapist regularly monitored hearing and communication outcomes on an Auditory verbal ongoing scale, revised CAP, MAIS, word, and sentence discrimination scores. Results: The age range of Implantation was between 48 to 60 months. 5 out of 7 participants showed remarkable improvement with regular therapy. Their Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS) scores were greater than 35 indicating good auditory integration and Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) revealed scores of even 9 and higher indicating good telephone conversation. Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) showed a rating of 4 meaning thereby that an unfamiliar Listener could understand Speech without additional cues. However, all of them reported difficulty perceiving speech in noisy environments. Two cochlear implantees needed speech reading cues in conjunction with the audition. Conclusion: Our experience with cochlear Implantation in children with white matter abnormalities has been positive and satisfactory. The presence of white matter abnormalities on MRI should not be a contraindication for Implantation. Successful outcomes can be expected with regular and dedicated auditory-verbal therapy sessions.

4.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(5): E538-E547, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of inflammation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide, based on observations of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum of people who were depressed and died by suicide. More recently, abnormalities in cytokines and innate immunity receptors such as toll-like receptors have also been observed in the postmortem brains of people who were depressed and died by suicide. In addition to toll-like receptors, another subfamily of innate immunity receptors known as NOD-like receptors containing pyrin (NLRPs) are the most widely present NOD-like receptors in the central nervous system. NLRPs also form inflammasomes that play an important role in brain function. We studied the role of NLRPs in depression and suicide. METHODS: We determined the protein and mRNA expression of NLRP1, NLRP3 and NLRP6 and the components of their inflammasomes (i.e., adaptor molecule apoptosis-associated speck-like protein [ASC], caspase1, caspase3, interleukin [IL]-1ß and IL-18) postmortem in the prefrontal cortex of people who were depressed and died by suicide, and in healthy controls. We determined mRNA levels using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and we determined protein expression using Western blot immunolabelling. RESULTS: We found that the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP6, caspase3 and ASC were significantly increased in people who were depressed and died by suicide compared to healthy controls. LIMITATIONS: Some people who were depressed and died by suicide were taking antidepressant medication at the time of their death. CONCLUSION: Similar to toll-like receptors, NLRP and its inflammasomes were upregulated in people who were depressed and died by suicide compared to healthy controls. Innate immunity receptors in general - and NLRPs and inflammasomes in particular - may play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide.

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 304: 114162, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380086

RESUMO

Abnormalities of early and middle latency auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) are widespread in schizophrenia and have been suggested to be associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients. In this cross-sectional study with schizophrenia patients (n=30) and psychiatrically healthy counterparts (n=31) (matched for age, sex, education), we investigated whether auditory information processing (measured via amplitudes and gating of the auditory ERPs P50, N100 and P200) correlates with neuropsychological performance across cognitive domains. The groups differed significantly in amplitudes and gating of N100 and P200 potentials as well as in neuropsychological performance, but not in P50 amplitude and gating. Neither amplitudes nor gating of auditory ERPs correlated with neuropsychological performance. Neuropsychological intergroup differences could not be explained by abnormalities in auditory information processing. Although pronounced impairments exist on the levels of both auditory information processing and cognitive performance in schizophrenia, these abnormalities are not directly associated with each other.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Estimulação Acústica , Estudos Transversais , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/complicações
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 686120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277470

RESUMO

Introduction: Exophiala spp. are important opportunist pathogens causing subcutaneous or even fatal disseminated infections in otherwise both immunosuppressed and healthy individuals but there are no systematic studies on the isolates of Exophiala species from India. Methods: Twenty-four isolates of Exophiala species were retrieved from the National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (NCCPF) and identified phenotypically and by molecular methods (ITS region sequencing) followed by antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) as per CLSI-M38A3 guidelines. A review of the literature of cases from India was performed up to 1st January 2021 using the Medline and Cochrane database. Results: E. dermatitidis (n = 8), E. jeanselmei (n = 6), E. spinifera (n = 6), E. mesophila (n = 1), E. oligosperma (n = 1), E. xenobiotica (n = 1) were identified and the sequencing of ITS, ß-tubulin and ß-actin revealed a novel species, E. arunalokei sp. nov. (n = 1). The ITS sequence phylogram of E. jeanselmei revealed that the majority (83%) formed a separate cluster close to type A while majority (75%) of E. dermatitidis were type B. The MIC50 (mg/L) of amphotericin, itraconazole, voriconazole, micafungin, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and posaconazole, was 1, 0.25, 0.125, 0.12, 0.125, 0.062, and 0.062, respectively. Sixteen more cases were identified on the literature review and a significant association of E. dermatitidis with history of surgical procedures (p = 0.013), invasive disease (p = 0.032) and of E. mesophila with tuberculosis (p = 0.026) was seen. Conclusion: This, to the best of our knowledge is the first study from India elucidating the molecular and clinical characteristics of Exophiala species and the first Indian report of human infection due to E. xenobiotica and E. arunalokei.


Assuntos
Exophiala , Anfotericina B , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Exophiala/genética , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 19: 231-236, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150496

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to compare the rate of diagnostically successful vertebral biopsies using conventional bone biopsy needles versus those performed with bone biopsy needles with an acquisition cradle. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who underwent CT-guided vertebral biopsy between December 2017 to December 2019 at our institute. From December 2017 to November 2018, the procedure was performed on 185 patients using an 11G conventional bone biopsy needle, Jamshidi needleTM "(group 1)". From December 2018 to December 2019, the procedure was performed on 242 patients using an 11G T-handle Jamshidi needle with an acquisition cradle "(group 2)". We reviewed their histopathological reports for both groups of patients to determine the rate of diagnostically successful biopsies. We also compared the crush artifact amongst the unsuccessful biopsy samples acquired by the two types of biopsy needles. Results: 427 patients (270 male and 157 female patients; mean age, 46.4 years; age range, 25-67 years) who underwent CT-guided vertebral biopsy from December 2017 to December 2019 were included in our study. In group 1, diagnostic success was achieved in 136 out of 185 biopsies (73.5%); whereas in group 2, diagnostic success was achieved in 219 out of 242 biopsies (90.50%), p < 0.0001. Out of the diagnostically unsuccessful biopsies in Group 1, 36 out of 49 (73.5%) were due to crush artifact; whereas crush artifact accounted for only 3 out of 23 (13.0%) diagnostically unsuccessful biopsies in group 2, p < 0.0001. Other causes of unsuccessful biopsies (hemorrhagic contents or presence of normal osseous tissue and fibrin only) were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The use of a T-handle Jamshidi needle with an acquisition cradle appears beneficial compared to the conventional Jamshidi needle in terms of the significantly higher rate of diagnostic success and a lower rate of crush artifact.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 670731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968970

RESUMO

Recently, the global emergence of emergomycosis, a systemic fungal infection caused by a novel dimorphic fungus Emergomyces species has been observed among immunocompromised individuals. Though initially classified under the genus Emmonsia, a taxonomic revision in 2017 based on DNA sequence analyses placed five Emmonsia-like fungi under a separate genus Emergomyces. These include Emergomyces pasteurianus, Emergomyces africanus, Emergomyces canadensis, Emergomyces orientalis, and Emergomyces europaeus. Emmonsia parva was renamed as Blastomyces parvus, while Emmonsia crescens and Emmonsia sola remained within the genus Emmonsia until a taxonomic revision in 2020 placed both the species under the genus Emergomyces. However, unlike other members of the genus, Emergomyces crescens and Emergomyces sola do not cause disseminated disease. The former causes adiaspiromycosis, a granulomatous pulmonary disease, while the latter has not been associated with human disease. So far, emergomycosis has been mapped across four continents: Asia, Europe, Africa and North America. However, considering the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS, it is presumed that the disease must have a worldwide distribution with many cases going undetected. Diagnosis of emergomycosis remains challenging. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of histoplasmosis as there is considerable clinical and histopathological overlap between the two entities. Sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA is considered as the gold standard for identification, but its application is compromised in resource limited settings. Serological tests are non-specific and demonstrate cross-reactivity with Histoplasma galactomannan antigen. Therefore, an affordable, accessible, and reliable diagnostic test is the need of the hour to enable its diagnosis in endemic regions and also for epidemiological surveillance. Currently, there are no consensus guidelines for the treatment of emergomycosis. The recommended regimen consists of amphotericin B (deoxycholate or liposomal formulation) for 1-2 weeks, followed by oral itraconazole for at least 12 months. This review elaborates the taxonomic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of emergomycosis. It also enumerates several novel antifungal drugs which might hold promise in the treatment of this condition and therefore, can be potential areas of future studies.

9.
SA J Radiol ; 25(1): 2034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936797

RESUMO

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome that is characterised by hamartomas in multiple organs, the characteristic imaging features of which are illustrated in this case report. Angiomyolipoma (AML) is the most common renal manifestation of TSC, which may present with life-threatening haemorrhage at the time of diagnosis. Interventional management with selective renal embolisation is currently the treatment of choice for the safe and effective management of ruptured renal AML.

10.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(4): 872-885, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits and visual impairment in the magnocellular (M) pathway, have been independently reported in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association between neuropsychological (NPS) performance and visual evoked potentials (VEPs: N80/P1 to M- and P(parvocellular)-biased visual stimuli) in schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHODS: NPS performance and VEPs were measured in n = 44 patients and n = 34 matched controls. Standardized NPS-scores were combined into Domains and a PCA (Principal Component Analysis) generated Composite. Group differences were assessed via (M)ANOVAs, association between NPS and VEP parameters via PCA, Pearson's coefficient and bootstrapping. Logistic regression was employed to assess classification power. RESULTS: Patients showed general cognitive impairment, whereas group differences for VEP-parameters were non-significant. In patients, N80 latency across conditions loaded onto one factor with cognitive composite, showed significant negative correlations of medium effect sizes with NPS performance for M/P mixed stimuli and classified low and high performance with 70% accuracy. CONCLUSION: The study provides no evidence for early visual pathway impairment but suggests a heightened association between early visual processing and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results lend support to bottom-up models of cognitive function in schizophrenia and implicate visual N80 latency as a potential biomarker of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 24(5): 400-408, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest the abnormalities of protein kinase C (PKC) signaling system in mood disorders and suicide based primarily on the studies of PKC and its isozymes in the platelets and postmortem brain of depressed and suicidal subjects. In this study, we examined the role of PKC isozymes in depression and suicide. METHODS: We determined the protein and mRNA expression of various PKC isozymes in the prefrontal cortical region (Brodmann area 9) in 24 normal control subjects, 24 depressed suicide (DS) subjects, and 12 depressed nonsuicide (DNS) subjects. The levels of mRNA in the prefrontal cortex were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, and the protein expression was determined by western blotting. RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease in mRNA expression of PKCα, PKCßI, PKCδ, and PKCε and decreased protein expression in either the membrane or the cytosol fraction of PKC isozymes PKCα, PKCßI, PKCßII, and PKCδ in DS and DNS subjects compared with normal control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides detailed evidence of specific dysregulation of certain PKC isozymes in the postmortem brain of DS and DNS subjects and further supports earlier evidence for the role of PKC in the platelets and brain of the adult and teenage depressed and suicidal population. This comprehensive study may lead to further knowledge of the involvement of PKC in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide.

12.
Middle East Fertil Soc J ; 26(1): 1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437145

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 is the most recent zoonotic outbreak of coronaviruses. Mostly, it invades the cells of the respiratory system by binding to the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is also present in other organs like the kidney, testis, ovaries, breast, heart, and intestine, rendering them prone to be infected. The reproductive potential is a must for the sustenance of any species and it is our prime duty to safeguard the reproductive system of the present generation from such a deadly virus. The previously reported coronaviruses like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) had a detrimental impact on reproductive organs. There is a dearth of sufficient research to provide substantial evidence for the harmful effects of this novel virus on the reproductive system. Hence, our review compiles the knowledge available until now to boost research in this regard and to take the necessary steps in time. Main body of abstract: Here we tried to compile all the data available on the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the reproductive system as well as vertical transmission of the virus. All related articles published from February to August 2020 were reviewed and thoroughly analyzed. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to affect the sperm concentration and motility, thus degrading the fertility of males. In females, it is suspected that this virus affects the oocyte quality and ovarian function, resulting in infertility or miscarriage. Traces of SARS-CoV-2 virus have also been found in the breast milk of the infected mothers and the semen of infected males. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has also been reported in some cases. Conclusion: Based on the literature review, SARS-CoV-2 seems to have the potential of affecting both male and female reproductive tracts. This review brings together the findings and observations made in the area of reproductive health during the current pandemic. The reproductive system of the young population is preordained for subsequent disorders, infertility, reduced sperm count, and motility. Therefore, the research and medical practices should focus on possible vulnerability being posed by SARS-CoV-2 to the gametes and future generations. We, hereby, recommend close monitoring of young and pregnant COVID-19 patients concerning reproductive health with utmost priority.

13.
J Otol ; 16(1): 27-33, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505447

RESUMO

Introduction: Osteoporosis and osteopenia are progressive disorders characterized by decreased bone mass, especially in postmenopausal women. These can be associated with body pain, fractures, hearing loss and balance disorders. The present study aims to evaluate audio-vestibular function in postmenopausal patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Methods: The study included 48 postmenopausal women (new subjects) diagnosed with osteoporosis (n = 23) or osteopenia (n = 25) in the age range of 50-66 years, as well as 28 normal women as controls. Audiological testing included pure tone audiometry (conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry), speech audiometry, impedance audiometry and otoacoustic emissions, including both transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). All subjects also underwent vestibular evoked myogenic potentials testing (both ocular and cervical VEMPs). Results: In the present study, hearing was worse at all frequencies in the osteoporosis group in comparison with the osteopenia and control groups, with worse speech recognition and discrimination scores and OAEs. Vestibular function was affected in 95.65% of women with osteoporosis and 76% of those with osteopenia. Conclusion: Osteoporosis and osteopenia are risk factors for vestibular dysfunction and hearing deficits in postmenopausal women. Thus, hearing and vestibular function should be monitored by audiological and vestibular testing periodically in these individuals.

14.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(3): 419-424, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363674

RESUMO

Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare Testicular neoplasm found in elderly patients. Imaging features in PTL presenting with contiguous involvement of spermatic cord and extension along gonadal vein have been rarely detailed before. We describe a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with complaints of scrotal swelling and abdominal discomfort. Imaging, which included Ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of chest-abdomen, showed features of aggressive-looking bilateral testicular mass lesions with the distinctive feature of contiguous spread along the spermatic cord and gonadal vein till retroperitoneum and disseminated chest and abdominal metastases. The distinctive feature of contiguous extension along the spermatic cord and gonadal vein can help suggest a diagnosis of PTL on imaging.

15.
Neurochem Int ; 141: 104891, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137454

RESUMO

In Ayurveda, the age-old Indian traditional system of medicine, health is considered to be achieved as equilibrium of physical and mental wellbeing and brain related ailments are recognized as 'Vatavyadi'. Rasayana herbs were mainly used for pharmacological treatment of neurological diseases and Tinospora cordifolia is one of the popular Rasayana herbs of Ayurveda. The traditional claims of therapeutic activity of this herb for treatment of fever, diabetes, anxiety, immunodeficiency, memory deficit and psychological problems have been explored by different research groups using reverse pharmacology and advance technological approaches. The aim of current review is to compile and discuss the neurotherapeutic potential of T. cordifolia in the light of various preclinical and clinical studies from literature. This review summarizes the information about different extracts of this herb and decoctions used for various neuro-related problems such as neurodegenerative diseases, neuroinflammation, sleep disorders, neural cancers, memory and cognition deficits and psychological problems besides other potential activities. The review also provides the knowledge of underlying therapeutic mechanism of T. cordifolia and its active phytoconstituents.

16.
Front Genet ; 11: 861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101356

RESUMO

Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the globe. Susceptibility has been associated with age, biological sex, and other prior existing health conditions. However, host genes are involved in viral infectivity and pathogenicity, and polymorphisms in these could be responsible for the interethnic/interindividual variability observed in infection and progression of COVID-19. Materials and Methods: Clinical exome data of 103 individuals was analyzed to identify sequence variants in five selected candidate genes: ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD209, IFITM3, and MUC5B to assess their prevalence and role to understand the COVID-19 infectivity and progression in our population. Results: A total of 497 polymorphisms were identified in the five selected genes in the exomes analyzed. Thirty-eight polymorphisms identified in our cohort have been reported earlier in literature and have functional significance or association with health conditions. These variants were classified into three groups: protective, susceptible, and responsible for comorbidities. Discussion and Conclusion: The two polymorphisms described in literature as risk inducing are rs35705950 in MUC5B gene and TMPRSS2 haplotype (rs463727, rs34624090, rs55964536, rs734056, rs4290734, rs34783969, rs11702475, rs35899679, and rs35041537) were absent in our cohort explaining the slower infectivity of the disease in this part of India. The 38 functional variants identified can be used as a predisposition panel for the COVID-19 infectivity and progression and stratify individuals as "high or low risk," which would help in planning appropriate surveillance and management protocols. A larger study from different regions of India is warranted to validate these results.

17.
J Voice ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828597

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: College students use their voices at excessively loud intensities and long durations during college fests. The accumulative effect of vocally abusive behaviors in the presence of high ambient noise, poor vocal hygiene, and other environmental factors contribute significantly towards reducing vocal effectiveness in college students. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to study the effect of a vocally demanding situation (college Fest) on perceptual and objective voice features of college students. METHODOLOGY: In this study, a total number of 27 undergraduate female students participated in the age range of 18-27 years. Pre-test-post-test research design was applied. Data analysis consisted of video stroboscopic examination, acoustic analysis using the Multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP), and perceptual evaluation with the GRBAS scale. The data obtained were processed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests to determine the difference in each measured parameter pre- and postfest. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Incomplete glottis closure, asymmetric vibration of vocal folds, and aperiodicity of vocal folds increased significantly postcollege Fest. GRBAS parameters also showed a change from pre Fest scores on grade (hoarseness) increased by 38%, breathiness in 34%, roughness in 26%, Asthenia in 15%, and strain increased in 38% participants. A P-value estimation revealed significantly higher scores in Jitter percent, Shimmer percent, and relative average perturbation than pre-fest scores. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate a high risk of vocal disorders among college students post Fest. This study suggests a potential unmet need for college students to receive education before cultural events on optimal vocal usage, vocal hygiene, and an appropriate period of vocal rest.

18.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-4, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608261

RESUMO

A HP20 resin-based unique method was adopted to get an active fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract of G. glabra roots. The fraction showed potent cytotoxicity against cancer cell line and was further subjected to detailed phytochemical investigation to obtain ten biomarkers. The isolated compounds were also tested for the cytotoxicity against the C6 glioma cell line in vitro using MTT assay. Among the isolated compounds, glycyrrhetic acid (1), glabrol (6), and glabridin (9) exhibited significant cytotoxicity. The compounds showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. The active compounds were subjected to molecular docking study against topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II to support the mechanism of antitumor activity.

19.
Cureus ; 12(6): e8398, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637278

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an ongoing pandemic that started as an outbreak in China. The clinical picture varies from asymptomatic or mild cases to critically ill patients. Most of the critically ill patients present with hypoxia due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. These patients have a poor prognosis, especially in people with underlying co-morbidities. We present a case report of a 78-year-old male with multiple co-morbidities initially presenting with cardiac arrest and COVID-19 who showed drastic clinical improvement after he was administered a packed red blood cell transfusion. The patient was initially intubated for acute respiratory failure but was extubated on the second day as the patient's respiratory status improved. Although this patient had multiple comorbidities, he did extremely well after he received a packed red blood cell transfusion. Recently, there is some evidence showing the effect of the novel coronavirus on hemoglobin levels. Poor clinical outcomes of critically ill patients are most likely due to the impaired gaseous exchange in the lungs in addition to the decreased oxygen-carrying capacity caused by the destruction of red blood cells. Currently, there is limited evidence available in this area and further research may help in developing effective treatment strategies.

20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(3): 1407-1412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509624

RESUMO

Respiratory tract infections are the most common diseases that are associated with social burden for the patient. Western Rajasthan has cases of Cystic fibrosis due to migrant population. The dry and dusty environment has led to prevalence of silicosis and COPD. As per IDSA (2018) guidelines, patients attending Out-Patient Department do not need microbiological investigations for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) except for influenza and tuberculosis. Aims: This study was conducted to identify the bacterial aetiology of LRTI among patients who attended AIIMS, Jodhpur, and to ascertain the current scenario of bacterial susceptibility in respiratory tract infections in order to optimize empiric therapy in Hospitals ad community. Methods and Material: In total, 1,775 lower respiratory tract samples were received in Bacteriology Section of Microbiology Department (January 2017 to December 2018). Bartlett's criteria were stringently used to assess quality of specimen. Semiquantitative cultures were done for tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Following culture, the isolated organisms were identified and antimicrobial sensitivity was performed according to CLSI. Results: Total 769 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 1,775 samples collected from cases of VAP, HAP, CAP, COPD, and cystic fibrosis. Pseudomonas species was the commonest isolate (31%), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (21.3%), Acinetobacter species (17.5%), Escherichia coli (15.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus (5%). Others include Group A ß-hemolytic Streptococcus, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Nocardia. Gram-negative organisms showed increased resistance to routinely used antibiotics. Gram-positive organisms showed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin, linezolid, and clindamycin. Conclusions: Cotrimoxazole, ßL-ßLIs, aminoglycosides, and all second-line antibiotics tested were effective for treatment of RTIs.

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