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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125458, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505416

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of feeding flaxseed meal (FSM) and turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) supplementation on tissue lipid profile, lipid metabolism, health indices, oxidative stability, and physical properties of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation significantly increased the ω-3 PUFA, particularly ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA of broiler chicken meat due to the corresponding increase ∆9 and Δ5 + Δ6 desaturase activities. The increased activities of the desaturases resulted in significantly better health indices of the broiler chicken meat. The feeding of 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation reduced the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM feeding reduced the oxidative stability, water holding capacity, extract release volume of broiler chicken meat and increased drip loss, whereas, 10.0 g TRP supplementation reversed these negative effects of FSM.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820987

RESUMO

Formamide (NH2CHO) being the smallest and fundamental building block of life (with a peptide linkage), has recently been able to attract much interests, in the field of astrochemistry, astrophysics and astrobiology. In this work, using quantum mechanical computations, reactions between HCN and H2O, leading to the formation of formamide, have been analysed. For the first time, an alternative and competing reaction channel, which proceeds via a geminal diol intermediate, for the formation of formamide, has been proposed. In this alternative channel, an extra water molecule (2ND H2O) was found to be acting as a reactant, in the second step of the reaction path. Effects of 2ND H2O molecule in the reaction paths, providing catalytic assistance to the reaction or behaving like a spectator (concept is introduced for the first time for this reaction) have also been analysed. Usefulness of spectator behaviour is highlighted for the reactions happening on the rigid water-ice surfaces, where the water-ice may not be getting involved for any catalytic assistances. In the light of catalytic assistances provided by the 2ND H2O, prominent effects in reducing the barrier heights drastically (even for the second step of the reaction, the barrier height was found to be below the reactants), through a hydrogen relay transport mechanism, were observed. In additions to the mechanism studies, interstellar feasibilities of all the reaction channels and their significances are discussed in details.

4.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1800-1809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483533

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) shell powder (SSP), a cheap source of saponins, on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry and gut health of broiler chickens. The experimental design was 4×2, employing four saponin levels (0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg diet), each provided for two time durations (0-42 day and 21-42 day) resulting into eight dietary treatments. Results revealed no significant effect of dietary saponins on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds. The abdominal fat percentage, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, faecal total plate count, coliform count and E. coli count decreased (p < .05) progressively with increasing saponin levels and lower values were observed at 150 mg and 200 mg saponin levels. Significant improvement of cell-mediated and humoral immune response was observed in birds fed 150 mg and 200 mg saponin compared to control. The serum glucose concentration was significantly (p < .05) higher in control group compared to other groups. No significant effects of dietary saponin were observed on carcass characteristics, faecal Lactobacillus count, intestinal histomorphometry and cost economics of broiler chicken production. Thus, dietary saponins at 150 mg/kg diet as SSP for three weeks (21-42 days) was optimum for better immunity and welfare of birds without adverse effects on the growth performance.

5.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516069

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic chromium (Cr) on physico-biochemical and oxidative stability of turkey meat. Ninety-six (16th weeks) male turkeys were distributed into 16 groups (4 diet × 4 replicates × 6 birds each). Four dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) were formulated with supplementation of 0.0, 250, 500 and 750 µg Cr/kg diets, respectively. Cholesterol and fat contents in meat reduced (p < 0.05) in T4 (750 µg Cr/kg) but no difference was observed in pH and drip loss. No significant effect was recorded on water holding capacity (WHC) and extract release volume (ERV) of fresh meat but the effect (p < 0.05) was observed on WHC and ERV in refrigerated meat. No significant difference was observed in DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy) and ABTS (2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) of fresh breast and thigh meat but effect (p < 0.05) was noticed in refrigerated meat of turkey fed T4. Lipid oxidation (free fatty acids and Thio-barbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS) were improved in fresh as well as refrigerated meat from birds fed diet supplemented with 750 µg Cr/kg (T4). Whereas, peroxide value was improved (p < 0.05) only in refrigerated meat. Thus, it may be concluded that inclusion of Cr at 750 µg/kg diet with basal diet improved in desirable physio-biochemical properties, antioxidant and oxidative stability of male turkey meat under cold chain.

6.
Biotechnol Prog ; : e2898, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469503

RESUMO

This study shows the presence of five isozymic forms of alkaline xylanase from Bacillus pumilus using fast flow rate microfiltration, ultrafiltration, Q-sepharose, and phenyl sepharose chromatographic techniques. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and zymographic studies also revealed the purity of five isoforms of alkaline xylanases. Isoforms-X-I, X-III, and X-V exhibited optimum activity at pH 8.5, whereas X-II, X-IV showed maximum activity at pH 9. All isoforms were optimally active at temperature 55°C. Isoforms were found to be stable at pH 7-11, showed 92-100% residual activity after 3 hr, treatment time for most industrial applications. The isoforms retained nearly 80-86% residual activity after incubating at 45°C for 3 hr. Molecular weights of xylanase I-V, were 13.1, 15.3, 18.4, 20.1, and 21.0 kDa, respectively. Mg2+ ions were found to be potent activator for all isozymic forms. The Km and Vmax values of X-I, X-II, X-III, X-IV, and X-V were 6.71, 6.66, 7.14, 5.88, 6.25 mg/ml and 2,000, 1,695, 1,666.66, 1,428.57, and 1,408.45 IU/mg protein, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed the monomeric nature of all isoforms. The low-molecular masses, significantly enhanced activity in the presence of industrially suitable-low cost activator, better stability of all isoforms at pH 7-11 and at higher temperature, also presence of multiple forms of alkaline xylanase, makes this enzyme suitable for textile-paper industries. This is also the first report mentioning the purification of five isozymic forms of alkaline xylanase using fast flow rate techniques.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 241: 112014, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181315

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. (family Leguminosae), popularly known as 'Palash' possess numerous medicinal properties since ancient times. According to the Wealth of India, stem bark of this plant exhibits various therapeutic properties like antimicrobial, astringent, styptic, aphrodisiac, and anti-inflammatory. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the present study was to investigate antibacterial and antidiarrheal effect of B. monosperma bark against newly isolated gram negative pathogenic bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extract of B. monosperma bark (BMAqE) was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for determination of bioactive components. Antibacterial study of BMAqE was assessed using bacterial growth kinetic study, fluorescence spectroscopy, outer and inner membrane permeability assay, dehydrogenase inhibitory assay and protein leakage assay followed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) study. Antidiarrheal activity was studied using castor oil induced diarrhea model in albino rats followed by histopathology studies of rat ileum. RESULTS: LC-MS/MS analysis of BMAqE revealed presence of twenty-two different active phytoconstituents out of which most of the constituents belong to flavonoid and polyphenol family. BMAqE showed MIC and MBC (IC90) value of 5 and 200 µg/mL against targeted bacterial strain. BMAqE exhibited potent and dose dependent bactericidal effect via disruption of integrity of bacterial cell membrane, enzymatic degradation, leakage of intracellular protein and ruptured bacterial cell. In castor oil induced diarrhea model, BMAqE (200 mg/kg; orally) caused marked reduction (75.66%) in the frequency of defecation and mean weight of faeces (0.54 ±â€¯0.04) when compared to control group (2.26 ±â€¯0.25). Histopathology study revealed marked restoration of cellular architecture of rat ileum tissue. Four known flavonoids were isolated from BMAqE using column chromatography. In ex-vivo study, BMAqE (0.0002, 0.0004 and 0.0006 g/L) and isolated flavonoids i.e. rhamnetin, quercetin, kaempferol and catechin (0.5, 5 & 50 µm) produced a significant (p < 0.001) change in EC50 and indicated competitive phenomena via rightward shift of acetylcholine CRC with pA2 of 3.78, 8.0, 7.1, 7.0 and 6.9 respectively. CONCLUSION: BMAqE exhibits impressive antibacterial and anti-diarrheal activity and can be effectively used to eradicate water borne diseases.

8.
RNA Biol ; 16(9): 1286-1299, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234696

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus B3 is an enterovirus, with positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome containing 'Internal Ribosome Entry Site' (IRES) in the 5'UTR. Once sufficient viral proteins are synthesized in the cell from the input RNA, viral template switches from translation to replication to synthesize negative-strand RNA. Inhibition of translation is a key step in regulating this switch as the positive-strand RNA template should be free of ribosomes to enable polymerase movement. In this study, we show how a host protein hnRNP C1/C2 inhibits viral RNA translation. hnRNP C1/C2 interacts with stem-loop V in the IRES and displaces poly-pyrimidine tract binding protein, a positive regulator of translation. We further demonstrate that hnRNP C1/C2 induces translation to replication switch, independently from the already known role of the ternary complex (PCBP2-3CD-cloverleaf RNA). These results suggest a novel function of hnRNP C1/C2 in template switching of positive-strand from translation to replication by a new mechanism. Using mathematical modelling, we show that the differential affinity of hnRNP C1/C2 for positive and negative-strand RNAs guides the final ± RNA ratio, providing first insight in the regulation of the positive to negative-strand RNA ratio in enteroviruses.

9.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 122: 90-100, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638513

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to enhance the production of industrially valuable xylanase and pectinase enzymes in short duration, using agrowaste extracted substrates. Conventional cum statistical multifactor analysis approaches were used in order to evaluate the effect of crude extracted substrates, supplemented for the production of xylanase-pectinase enzymes. Incorporation of crude extracted xylan (1.2 mg/ml of inoculum) and pectin (4.8 mg/ml of inoculum) substrates in inoculum resulted in maximal xylanase (320 ± 15) and pectinase titre (90 ± 8) after 48 h, using 2% wheat bran and 2% citrus peel in production medium with 48 h of fermentation time, with one variable factor at a time approach. The best condition obtained after performing statistical multifactor interaction analysis includes 5.50 mg/ml of pectin in inoculum,1.50 mg/ml of xylan in inoculum, wheat bran 3%, temperature 37.5 °C, time 48 h, 7 mg/ml of pectin in production medium, peptone 1.05%, inoculum size 2% and inoculum age of 20 h, with alkaline xylanase activity of 415.22 ± 18.50 IU/ml and alkaline pectinase activity of 109.10 ± 8.80 IU/ml. Activity of different pectinolytic enzymes per ml was also calculated, with 18.98 IU of exo-polymethylgalacturonase, 0.14 IU of endo-polymethylgalacturonase, 80 IU of exo-polygalacturonase, 0.28 IU of endo-polygalacturonase, 1.42 IU of polymethylgalacturonate lyase, 1.47 IU of polygalacturonate lyase, 0.15 IU of pectin esterase. This is the first report mentioning the utilization of crude extracted xylan and extracted pectin in inoculum to get the increment in the activity of both alkaline xylanase-pectinase enzymes simultaneously under short submerged fermentation cycle.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Resíduos Industriais , Poligalacturonase/biossíntese , Xilosidases/biossíntese , Agricultura , Bacillus pumilus/enzimologia , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Teóricos , Pectinas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo , Xilanos/metabolismo
10.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(2): 525-533, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604902

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to study the effect of different doses of hemp seed alone or in combination with dill seed against antibiotic growth promoter on performance, serum biochemicals and gut health of broiler chickens over a period of 42 days. Total 192 broiler chicks were grouped randomly into six treatments and fed with basal diet (BD) along with different levels of seeds, viz., T1 (BD), T2 (BD + 0.2% HS), T3 (BD + 0.2% HS + 0.3 DS), T4 (BD + 0.3% HS) and T5 (BD + 0.3% HS + 0.3 DS) and T6 (BD + 0.025% Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate-BMD). The performance traits like feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and carcass traits like cut-up parts, giblet and abdominal fat yield remained unaffected due to dietary treatments for overall trial period; however, the average feed intake in early phase (0-3 weeks) reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in treatment birds than both controls (T1 & T6). Serum protein concentration remained unchanged, whereas significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum lipids like triglyceride, LDL and total cholesterol concentration was noticed due to dietary inclusion of seeds. Serum enzymes like AST and ALT concentrations depleted significantly (p < 0.05) treated groups, except at higher seed doses (T5); however, alkaline phosphatase levels were unaffected. Coliform count in caecum and jejunum reduced linearly (p < 0.01) due to seed inclusion, whereas dose-dependent proliferation of lactobacilli was evident (p < 0.01) in caecum and jejunum of treated birds. No effect was observed on the villus height and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa. To conclude, dietary supplementation of hemp and dill seed could not affect the growth performance and carcass traits; however, it positively altered the serum lipid profile of the birds and improved gut health as well, thereby enhanced overall performance of broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Anethum graveolens , Ração Animal/análise , Cannabis , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Sementes , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(2): 57, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670698

RESUMO

Physiological stress conditions attenuate global mRNA translation via modifications of key eukaryotic initiation factors. However, non-canonical translation initiation mechanisms allow cap-independent translation of certain mRNAs. We have previously demonstrated that eIF5B promotes cap-independent translation of the mRNA encoding the antiapoptotic factor, XIAP, during cellular stress. Here, we show that depletion of eIF5B sensitizes glioblastoma multiforme cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by a pathway involving caspases-8, -9, and -7, with no significant effect on cell cycle progression. eIF5B promotes evasion of apoptosis by promoting the translation of several IRES-containing mRNAs, encoding the antiapoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-xL, cIAP1, and c-FLIPS. We also show that eIF5B promotes translation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and suggest that reactive oxygen species contribute to increased apoptosis under conditions of eIF5B depletion. Finally, eIF5B depletion leads to decreased activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that eIF5B represents a regulatory node, allowing cancer cells to evade apoptosis by promoting the translation of pro-survival proteins from IRES-containing mRNAs.

12.
Environ Manage ; 63(2): 233-248, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542741

RESUMO

The governance of natural resources now attracts greater participation of different stakeholders, ushering in a shift from conventional governance by the state to that by a network of stakeholders-a form of governance marked by a growing role of non-state and local actors. These changing dynamics are highlighted through a study of the governance network for springsheds in the Indian Himalayas by empirically mapping the changes in the Dhara Vikas Yojna, a plan or scheme (yojana) by the state for the development (vikas) of springs (dhara) in Sikkim, India, from policy planning to policy implementation. The study highlights the diverse existing and emerging roles of different stakeholders, the complex relationships between them, and the power dynamics that influence the management of springsheds. The study (1) identified some new but missing actors/actor groups that were critical to managing springs; (2) showed that although state governments continue to play a dominant role, decision making is shifting to non-state and local actors; and (3) highlighted the importance of exchanging knowledge and information in implementing a policy more effectively. Understanding the characteristics of the governance network helped in drawing lessons to make the plan more sustainable and replicable, which include considering the policy in the wider context of policies for other sectors such as sanitation and hydropower development, incentivising the emerging actors, and building a stronger interdisciplinary and inclusive knowledge network. Such an integrated approach to policymaking can also be adopted to analyze governance networks related to natural resources other than water.


Assuntos
Formulação de Políticas , Rede Social , Tomada de Decisões , Índia , Siquim
13.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a customized pulse oximeter (CPO) for evaluation of pulp vitality in primary and permanent teeth against clinical diagnosis (vital and untreated non-vital) in order to expand its clinical use for pulp preservation. STUDY DESIGN: CPO was evaluated on intact primary and permanent central or lateral incisor (CI, LI) teeth- vital (group 1, 20n each); untreated non-vital (group 2, 10n each) and; root filled non-vital (group 3, 10n each) of children 4-12 years according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For each patient CPO was first applied on finger followed by vitality tests in following sequence-electrical, pulse oximetry and thermal tests. RESULTS: Mean oxygen saturation (%SpO2) in permanent and primary-vital teeth was 88.78% & 87.77% respectively; non-vital teeth was 74.67% & 75.00% respectively; and in all root filled teeth was 0%. Tooth and finger oxygen saturation values showed strong positive relationship in vital primary or permanent teeth and; no correlation in untreated non-vital primary or permanent teeth. The accuracy rate of thermal pulp test and pulse oximetry was 100% and for electrical pulp test it was 90% for permanent and 86.67% for primary teeth. CONCLUSION: The CPO tested in this study proved to be a valuable adjunct for diagnosing pulp vitality by objective means.

14.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387228

RESUMO

AIM: This in vitro study aimed to histologically validate and compare the methods for detection of smooth surface early carious lesions (ECLs) that is, International caries detection and assessment system for the smooth surface (ICDAS-II-SSC), Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), and radiography. METHODOLOGY: PS-OCT images for scores 0-3 of ICDAS-II-SSC were standardized according to ECLs' depth. Preliminary PS-OCT images for ICDAS-II-SSC score-2 of pigmented ECLs showed reduced lesion depth and therefore were dichotomized into scores 2 and 2p for white and pigmented lesions (ICDAS-II-SSCm). ECLs on one hundred freshly extracted teeth were scored by three examiners for ICDAS-II-SSCm, PS-OCT, radiography, and histology. RESULTS: Compared to histology, ICDAS-II-SSCm showed a strong positive correlation followed by PS-OCT and radiographic evaluation. ICDAS-II-SSCm had a strong positive correlation with PS-OCT, while both variables had a weak positive correlation with radiography. PS-OCT detected the activity of ECLs by directly relating the image depth of ECLs to their mineral volume content. CONCLUSION: The current scope of ICDAS-II should be reviewed since the pigmentation can be misinterpreted as an active lesion. Till then, ICDAS-II-SSC is an effective visual method for early caries detection. PS-OCT has the potential to become a probe with the proper algorithm for diagnostic purposes.

15.
Skin Appendage Disord ; 4(3): 187-199, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197900

RESUMO

Scalp itch is a frequent complaint in the dermatological setting. It is common for the dermatologist to encounter patients with no evident cause of scalp pruritus, making it a distressing situation for both the clinician and the patient. The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic approach to scalp itch, which classifies scalp pruritus into two types: (1) with or (2) without dermatological lesions, and presence or absence of hair loss. Also, it is important to think first about the most common causes and then rule out other, less common etiologies. The acronym SCALLP and the five steps for scalp evaluation (listen, look, touch, magnify, and sample) are useful tools to keep in mind for an assertive approach in these patients.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0199444, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092057

RESUMO

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is an important dry-land cereal in Asia and Africa because of its ability to provide assured harvest under extreme dry conditions and excellent nutritional properties. However, the genetic improvement of the crop is lacking in the absence of suitable genomic resources for reliable genotype-phenotype associations. Keeping this in view, a diverse global finger millet germplasm collection of 113 accessions was evaluated for 14 agro-morphological characters in two environments viz. ICAR-Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture, Almora (E1) and Crop Research Centre (CRC), GBPUA&T, Pantnagar (E2), India. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of phenotypic data separated the Indian and exotic accessions into two separate groups. Previously generated SNPs through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) were used for association mapping to identify reliable marker(s) linked to grain yield and its component traits. The marker trait associations were determined using single locus single trait (SLST), multi-locus mixed model (MLMM) and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM) approaches. SLST led to the identification of 20 marker-trait associations (MTAs) (p value<0.01 and <0.001) for 5 traits. While advanced models, MLMM and MTMM resulted in additional 36 and 53 MTAs, respectively. Nine MTAs were common out of total 109 associations in all the three mapping approaches (SLST, MLMM and MTMM). Among these nine SNPs, five SNP sequences showed homology to candidate genes of Oryza sativa (Rice) and Setaria italica (Foxtail millet), which play an important role in flowering, maturity and grain yield. In addition, 67 and 14 epistatic interactions were identified for 10 and 7 traits at E1 and E2 locations, respectively. Hence, the 109 novel SNPs associated with important agro-morphological traits, reported for the first time in this study could be precisely utilized in finger millet genetic improvement after validation.

17.
Anaerobe ; 2018 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944928

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the western world. Toxins (A, B, and binary toxins) generated by C. difficile bacteria damage intestinal epithelial cells. Hallmarks of host response to C. difficile infection (CDI) include upregulation of inflammatory mediators and tissue infiltration by immune cells. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine that is known to enhance the host immune response to infectious pathogens. Additionally, MIF can adversely impact host survival to numerous infections. The role of MIF in the pathogenesis of CDI remains poorly understood. Here, we show that patients with CDI had significantly higher circulating MIF compared to patients who had diarrhea but tested negative for C. difficile (non-CDI controls). Similarly, in a mouse model, C. difficile challenge significantly increased levels of plasma and tissue MIF. Antibody-mediated depletion of MIF decreased C. difficile-induced inflammatory responses, clinical disease, and mortality. Together, these results uncover a potential role for MIF in exacerbating CDI and suggest that use of anti-MIF antibodies may represent a therapeutic strategy to curb host inflammatory responses and improve disease outcomes in CDI.

18.
Chemosphere ; 201: 144-158, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524815

RESUMO

Adaptive behaviour of an organism has relevance towards developing better resistance in subsequent generations following xenobiotic exposures. Using a genetically tractable and functional insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, we aimed to examine the resistance of the organism against repeated exposures of benzene, an industrial and environmental-chemical and a class I human carcinogen. While 100 mM benzene exposure to one-day old flies for seven days caused ∼95% mortality (F0), its exposure to subsequent generations of flies led a significant decrease in mortality with maximum survival (∼85%) as evident at F28 generation. While burden of benzene and its toxic metabolites was higher in initial generations, in latter generations (F24-F28), concentrations of less toxic metabolites were higher. In parallel, improved metabolism, less oxidative stress, less induction of hsp60 and hsp70 and higher induction of hsp26 and hsp27 along with increased gene dose ratio of three genes (cyp6g1, mrp1, and cyp12d1) were observed in latter generations of benzene exposed flies with maximum benefit accrued in F28 generation. The resistance developed in flies of F28 generation had a negative impact on reproduction which might be due to a cost against selection. The study demonstrates development of benzene resistance in Drosophila with permanent genetic changes.


Assuntos
Benzeno/toxicidade , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Benzeno/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Inativação Metabólica , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Eur J Cell Biol ; 97(2): 75-89, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290392

RESUMO

Mismatch repair (MMR) system, a conserved DNA repair pathway, plays crucial role in DNA recombination and is involved in gametogenesis. The impact of alterations in MMR family of proteins (bacterial MutS and MutL homologues) on mammalian fertility is well documented. However, an insight to the role of MMR in reproduction of non-mammalian organisms is limited. Hence, in the present study, we analysed the impact of mlh1 (a MutL homologue) on meiotic crossing over/recombination and fertility in a genetically tractable model, Drosophila melanogaster. Using mlh1e00130 hypomorphic allele, we report female specific adverse reproductive outcome for reduced mlh1 in Drosophila: mlh1e00130 homozygous females had severely reduced fertility while males were fertile. Further, mlh1e00130 females contained small ovaries with large number of early stages as well as significantly reduced mature oocytes, and laid fewer eggs, indicating discrepancies in egg production and ovulation. These observations contrast the sex independent and/or male specific sterility and normal follicular development as well as ovulation reported so far for MMR family proteins in mammals. However, analogous to the role(s) of mlh1 in meiotic crossing over and DNA repair processes underlying mammalian fertility, ovarian follicles from mlh1e00130 females contained significantly increased DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and reduced synaptonemal complex foci. In addition, large proportion of fertilized eggs display discrepancies in egg activation and fail to proceed beyond stage 5 of embryogenesis. Hence, reduction of the Mlh1 protein level leads to defective oocytes that fail to complete embryogenesis after fertilization thereby reducing female fertility.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade , Meiose
20.
Bone ; 110: 1-10, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357314

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated matrix-mineral alterations in bone tissue surrounding osteocytes in estrogen-deficient animals. While cortical bone porosity has been shown to be a contributor to the mechanical properties of bone tissue, little analysis has been done to investigate the effects of estrogen deficiency on bone's microporosities, including the vascular and osteocyte lacunar porosities. In this study we examined alterations in cortical bone microporosity, mineralization, and cancellous bone architecture due to estrogen deficiency in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Twenty-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or sham surgery. Six weeks post-surgery tibiae were analyzed using high-resolution micro-CT, backscattered electron imaging, nanoindentation, and dynamic histomorphometry. Estrogen deficiency caused an increase in cortical bone vascular porosity, with enlarged vascular pores and little change in tissue mineral density in the proximal tibial metaphysis. Measurements of cancellous architecture corresponded to previous studies reporting a decrease in bone volume fraction, an increase in trabecular separation, and a decrease in trabecular number in the proximal tibia due to estrogen deficiency. Nanoindentation results showed no differences in matrix stiffness in osteocyte-rich areas of the proximal tibia of estrogen-deficient rats, and bone labeling and backscattered electron imaging showed no significant changes in mineralization around the vascular pores. The findings demonstrate local surface alterations of vascular pores due to estrogen deficiency. An increase in cortical vascular porosity may diminish bone strength as well as alter bone mechanotransduction via interstitial fluid flow, both of which could contribute to bone fragility during postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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