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1.
Front Genet ; 12: 704075, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394192

RESUMO

Here we report on comprehensive chloroplast (cp) genome analysis of 16 pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes representing commercial cultivars, ornamental and wild types, through large-scale sequencing and assembling using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Comparative genome analysis revealed that the size of cp genomes varied from 158,593 bp (in wild, "1201" and "1181") to 158,662 bp (cultivar, "Gul-e-Shah Red") among the genotypes, with characteristic quadripartite structures separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The higher conservation for the total number of coding and non-coding genes (rRNA and tRNA) and their sizes, and IRs (IR-A and IR-B) were observed across all the cp genomes. Interestingly, high variations were observed in sizes of large single copy (LSC, 88,976 to 89,044 bp) and small single copy (SSC, 18,682 to 18,684 bp) regions. Although, the structural organization of newly assembled cp genomes were comparable to that of previously reported cp genomes of pomegranate ("Helow," "Tunisia," and "Bhagawa"), the striking differences were observed with the Lagerstroemia lines, viz., Lagerstroemia intermedia (NC_0346620) and Lagerstroemia speciosa (NC_031414), which clearly confirmed previous findings. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis also revealed that members outside the genus Punica were clubbed into a separate clade. The contraction and expansion analysis revealed that the structural variations in IRs, LSC, and SSC have significantly accounted for the evolution of cp genomes of Punica and L. intermedia over the periods. Microsatellite survey across cp genomes resulted in the identification of a total of 233 to 234 SSRs, with majority of them being mono- (A/T or C/G, 164-165 numbers), followed by di- (AT/AT or AG/CT, 54), tri- (6), tetra- (8), and pentanucleotides (1). Furthermore, the comparative structural variant analyses across cp genomes resulted in the identification of many varietal specific SNP/indel markers. In summary, our study has offered a successful development of large-scale cp genomics resources to leverage future genetic, taxonomical, and phylogenetic studies in pomegranate.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 645055, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796127

RESUMO

The simple sequence repeat (SSR) survey of 'Tunisia' genome (296.85 Mb) identified a total of 365,279 perfect SSRs spanning eight chromosomes, with a mean marker density of 1,230.6 SSRs/Mb. We found a positive trend in chromosome length and the SSR abundance as marker density enhanced with a shorter chromosome length. The highest number of SSRs (60,708) was mined from chromosome 1 (55.56 Mb), whereas the highest marker density (1,294.62 SSRs/Mb) was recorded for the shortest chromosome 8 (27.99 Mb). Furthermore, we categorized all SSR motifs into three major classes based on their tract lengths. Across the eight chromosomes, the class III had maximum number of SSR motifs (301,684, 82.59%), followed by the class II (31,056, 8.50%) and the class I (5,003, 1.37%). Examination of the distribution of SSR motif types within a chromosome suggested the abundance of hexanucleotide repeats in each chromosome followed by dinucleotides, and these results are consistent with 'Tunisia' genome features as a whole. Concerning major repeat types, AT/AG was the most frequent (14.16%), followed by AAAAAT/AAAAAG (7.89%), A/C (7.54%), AAT/AAG (5.23%), AAAT/AAAG (4.37%), and AAAAT/AAAAG (1.2%) types. We designed and validated a total of 3,839 class I SSRs in the 'Tunisia' genome through electronic polymerase chain reaction (ePCR) and found 1,165 (30.34%) SSRs producing a single amplicon. Then, we selected 906 highly variable SSRs (> 40 nt) from the ePCR-verified class I SSRs and in silico validated across multiple draft genomes of pomegranate, which provided us a subset of 265 highly polymorphic SSRs. Of these, 235 primers were validated on six pomegranate genotypes through wet-lab experiment. We found 221 (94%) polymorphic SSRs on six genotypes, and 187 of these SSRs had ≥ 0.5 PIC values. The utility of the developed SSRs was demonstrated by analyzing genetic diversity of 30 pomegranate genotypes using 16 HvSSRs spanning eight pomegranate chromosomes. In summary, we developed a comprehensive set of highly polymorphic genome-wide SSRs. These chromosome-specific SSRs will serve as a powerful genomic tool to leverage future genetic studies, germplasm management, and genomics-assisted breeding in pomegranate.

3.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(12): 3514-3528, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304163

RESUMO

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit crop, rich in fiber, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals and source of different biologically active compounds. The bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodispv. punicae is a serious threat to the crop leading to 60-80% yield loss under epiphytotic conditions. In this work, we have generated comparative transcriptome profile to mark the gene expression signatures during resistance and susceptible interactions. We analyzed leaf and fruits samples of moderately resistant genotype (IC 524207) and susceptible variety (Bhagawa) of pomegranate at three progressive infection stages upon inoculation with the pathogen. RNA-Seq with the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform revealed 1,88,337 non-redundant (nr) transcript sequences from raw sequencing data, for a total of 34,626 unigenes with size >2 kb. Moreover, 85.3% unigenes were annotated in at least one of the seven databases examined. Comparative analysis of gene-expression signatures in resistant and susceptible varieties showed that the genes known to be involved in defense mechanism in plants were up-regulated in resistant variety. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis successfully annotated 90,485 pomegranate unigenes, of which 68,464 were assigned to biological, 78,107 unigenes molecular function and 44,414 to cellular components. Significantly enriched GO terms in DEGs were related to oxidations reduction biological process, protein binding and oxidoreductase activity. This transcriptome data on pomegranate could help in understanding resistance and susceptibility nature of cultivars and further detailed fine mapping and functional validation of identified candidate gene would provide scope for resistance breeding programme in pomegranate.

4.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 26(6): 1249-1261, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549687

RESUMO

The present study investigates the genetic diversity and population structure among 42 diverse pomegranate genotypes using a set of twenty one class I hypervariable SSR markers (> 24 bp), which were reported earlier from the analysis of cv. Dabenzi genome. The study material comprised 16 indigenous and 13 exotic cultivars, and 13 wild accessions. A total of 66 alleles (Na) were detected with an average of 3.14 alleles per marker. The average values of polymorphic information content (PIC), observed heterozygosity (Ho) and Shannon's gene diversity index (I) were 0.44, 0.21 and 0.95, respectively suggesting moderate genetic diversity. The pairwise genetic distance ranged from 0.07 to 0.80 with a mean value of 0.53. Population structure analysis divided all the genotypes into four subpopulations (SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4). Interestingly, the results of phylogenetic and principal component analyses coincided with the results of structure analysis and the grouping of genotypes followed the geographical origins. AMOVA revealed that 25% of the variation was attributed to differences among populations, whereas 75% within the subpopulations with significant F ST value 0.25 (p < 0.001), indicating a high level of genetic differentiations or low level of gene flow. Based on the F ST values, pomegranate genotypes belonging to SP4 (indigenous cultivars) followed by SP1 (exotic lines) exhibited higher gene diversity and genetic differentiations within and among populations. These genetic relationships based on SSR markers could be harnessed in future genetic improvement of pomegranate through informed hybridization programs.

5.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 26(4): 683-696, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255932

RESUMO

A total of 17,439 mature miRNAs (~ 21 nt) earlier generated through RNA seq in the pomegranate were used for in silico analysis. After complexity reduction, a total of 1922 representative mature miRNAs were selected and used as query sequences against pomegranate genome to retrieve 2540 homologous contigs with flanking regions (~ 800). By using pre-miRNA prediction web server, a total of 1028 true contigs harbouring pri-miRNAs encoding 1162 pre-miRNAs were identified. Survey of these sequences for SSRs yielded a total of 1358 and 238 SSRs specific to pri-miRNA and pre-miRNAs, respectively. Of these, primer pairs were designed for 897 pri-miRNA and 168 pre-miRNA SSRs. In pri-miRNA sequences, hexa-nucleotides repeats were found to be most abundant (44.18%) followed by mono- (18.41%) and di-nucleotide (17.01%), which is also observed in pre-miRNA sequences. Further, a set of 51 randomly selected pre-miRNA-SSRs was examined for marker polymorphism. The experimental validation of these markers on eight pomegranate genotypes demonstrated 92.15% polymorphism. Utility of these functional markers was confirmed via examination of genetic diversity of 18 pomegranate genotypes using 15 miRNA-SSRs. Further, potential application of miRNA-SSRs for discovery of trait specific candidate genes was showed by validating 51 mature miRNA against publically available 2047 EST sequences of pomegranate by target and network analysis. In summary, the current study offers novel functional molecular markers for pomegranate genetic improvement.

6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 290(4): 1393-402, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25675870

RESUMO

This genetic diversity study aimed to estimate the population structure and explore the use of association mapping strategies to identify linked markers for bacterial resistance, growth and fruit quality in pomegranate collections from India. In total, 88 accessions including 37 cultivated types were investigated. A total of 112 alleles were amplified by use of 44 publicly available microsatellites for estimating molecular genetic diversity and population structure. Neighbor-joining analysis, model-based population structure and principal component analysis corroborated the genetic relationships among wild-type and cultivated pomegranate collections from India. Our study placed all 88 germplasm into four clusters. We identified a cultivated clade of pomegranates in close proximity to Daru types of wild-type pomegranates that grow naturally near the foothills of the Himalayas. Admixture analysis sorted various lineages of cultivated pomegranates to their respective ancestral forms. We identified four linked markers for fruit weight, titratable acidity and bacterial blight severity. PGCT001 was found associated with both fruit weight and bacterial blight, and the association with fruit weight during both seasons analyzed was significant after Bonferroni correction. This research demonstrates effectiveness of microsatellites to resolve population structure among the wild and cultivar collection of pomegranates and future use for association mapping studies.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Lythraceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Análise de Variância , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Análise por Conglomerados , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Índia , Lythraceae/classificação , Lythraceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Xanthomonas axonopodis/fisiologia
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 158 Pt A: 140-206, 2014 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25448505

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tharu community is the largest primitive indigenous community of the Uttarakhand, India. In this article we have scientifically enumerated medicinal plants and herbal preparations used by the Tharu community to treat various skin diseases, and discussed dermatological properties of these plants in the light of previous ethnomedicinal, microbiological, pharmacological, toxicological, phytochemical and clinical studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnomedicinal survey was conducted in different villages of Tharu community located in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. Ethnomedicinal information on plants used to treat various skin diseases was collected from 122 individuals (93 males and 29 females), including 35 experienced herbal practitioners and 87 local villagers. For each of the recorded plant species the use value (UV) and fidelity level (FL) was calculated. The informant consensus factor (Fic) was also calculated to find out the homogeneity in the information given by the informants. RESULTS: A total of 90 plant species belonging to 86 genera and 48 families were used by the Tharu community to treat various skin diseases viz., wounds (38 spp.), boils (32 spp.), cuts (18 spp.), leprosy (11 spp.), eczema (10 spp.), itching (7 spp.), ringworm (5 spp.), burns (4 spp.), leucoderma (4 spp.), cracked heels (2 spp.), dandruff (3 spp.), body infection (2 spp.), chilblains (2 spp.), hair fall (2 spp.) and toes infection (2 spp.). Information on botanical name, family, vernacular name, ailments treated, mode and dose of herbal preparations, UV and FL values are provided for each of the recorded species. According to UV value most preferred plant species used to treat skin diseases by Tharu community was Ricinus communis L. followed by Tridax procumbens (L.) L., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Ageratum conyzoides and Allium cepa L. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has revealed significant information on various medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases by Tharu community. Literature review has confirmed most of the claims made by the Tharu community regarding treatment of various skin diseases by the reported plants. The literature review has also revealed that products from very few of the reported plants are available in market, while most of the reported plants are still under preclinical or clinical trials. There are various known phytochemicals, and antibiotic, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents present in these plants which may be synthesized or transformed to make pharmaceuticals. Some of the reported plants have shown promising results in preclinical trails and there is a need of clinical trials to see their safety and efficacy in treating various skin diseases. These plants may be targeted for development of new medicines, ointments or drugs for the treatment of skin diseases. However further toxicological, preclinical and clinical studies are needed to validate claims about little worked out plant species reported in the present study viz., Sida cordata (Burm. F.) Borss. Waalk., Millettia extensa (Benth.) Baker, Caesulia axillaris Roxb., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Vanda tessellate (Roxb.) Hook. Ex G.Don. and Eualaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E. Hubb. Further studies on these plants are recommended to assess their potential in development of new skin care products.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Coleta de Dados , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Dermatopatias/fisiopatologia
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 155(2): 925-86, 2014 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24952280

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) is a predominantly Himalayan state in the north-western part of India. It has three geographically distinct divisions viz., Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh, which are immensely rich in their biological and cultural diversity. Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical system of the region. The main goal of the present article is to examine the use of ethnomedicinal plants in three divisions of J&K and to discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants in these divisions. The article also discusses the gaps in the current state of knowledge on ethnomedicinal plants of the region and gives recommendations for the future studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scientific literature on ethnomedicinal field studies conducted in J&K state of India available in the journals, edited books and other scientific databases viz., CAB international, DOAJ, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science direct, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science were searched. Only field based ethnomedicinal surveys from last four decades up to December 2013 reporting first hand information on the medicinal plants used to treat human health related ailments by indigenous communities of J&K were included in this study. Venn diagram was used to analyze the cross-cultural consensus on the use of ethnomedicinal plants in the three divisions of J&K. RESULTS: A total of 948 plant taxa (923 angiosperms, 12 gymnosperms and 13 pteridophytes) belonging to 129 families, 509 genera, 937 species and 11 varieties have so far been reported to have a traditional medicinal use by indigenous communities of J&K. Asteraceae (60 genera, 132 spp.) was the most frequently used family followed by Fabaceae (32 genera, 50 spp.) and Lamiaceae (27 genera, 55 spp.). 514, 415 and 397 medicinal plants were used in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh divisions, respectively. Sixty eight plant taxa were used in all the three divisions, whereas 95 plants were common between Ladakh and Jammu, 127 plants between Ladakh and Kashmir, and 216 plants between Jammu and Kashmir. Maximum numbers of plant taxa were used for treating dermatological problems (321), followed by cold, cough and throat related ailments (250), fever (224), joint and muscle related ailments (215), gastrointestinal disorders (210), urogenital ailments (199), respiratory ailments (151), body pain (135) and gynecological disorders (127). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study from the J&K state, which has examined the medicinal plant use in three divisions of J&K and discussed the promising medicinal plant species with cross-cultural consensus. The analysis of the data suggested that while large numbers of plants are used medicinally in each division, there is a low interregional consensus and high variation between medicinal plants used in these divisions, which is due to both cultural divergence as well as biological distinctness. The issues related to current status of knowledge on medicinal plants used by indigenous communities of J&K have been discussed and some recommendations have been made for future studies on medicinal plants in J&K region.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Comparação Transcultural , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Índia , Fitoterapia/métodos
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 150(1): 353-70, 2013 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24029249

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although many plants are claimed to possess anticonvulsant/antiepileptic (AC/AE) properties, but there is very little information available about plants used by various ethnic communities in different parts of India to treat epilepsy, one of the most common disorders of central nervous system (CNS); this communication provides significant ethnomedicinal information on the plants used by indigenous communities: Bhoxa, Tharu and nomadic Gujjars of sub-Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India to treat epilepsy, so that it could be used as a baseline data for studying chemical constituents and biological activities of these promising plants. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To record herbal preparations used by the presently studied communities for treating epilepsy and discuss AC/AE properties of the recorded plants. RESEARCH STRATEGY AND METHODS: Ninety one traditional healers (29 Bhoxa, 35 Tharu and 27 nomadic Gujjars) in sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India were interviewed to collect information on herbal preparations used by them for treating epilepsy. For each recorded species the use value (UV) and fidelity level (FL) was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 24 plants belonging to 24 genera and 22 families were used by the presently studied communities in 26 formulations to treat epilepsy. According to FL and UV values, most preferred species for the treatment of epilepsy by Bhoxa community are Ricinus communis L. and Datura stramonium L.; by nomadic Gujjar community are Martynia annua L., Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. and Ricinus communis L.; and by Tharu community are Allium sativum L., Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Achyranthes aspera L. Eight plants viz., Allium sativum L., Boerhavia diffusa L., Cassia fistula L., Clerodendrum viscosum Vent., Datura stramonium L., Inula cappa DC., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz and Pavetta indica L. recorded in the present survey have been reported for the first time in treatment of epilepsy by these indigenous communities in India. Five out of these eight newly reported plants viz., Cassia fistula L., Clerodendrum viscosum Vent., Inula cappa DC., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz and Pavetta indica L. have not been pharmacologically evaluated yet for their possible AC/AE properties. CONCLUSIONS: Detailed research on the listed plants and their derivatives may be undertaken to provide new alternative treatments and therapeutic uses for epilepsy or other diseases of CNS. We hope that this article will stimulate further investigations into natural products for new AC/AE agents from the recorded ethnomedicinal plants.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Humanos , Índia , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Grupos Populacionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 150(3): 989-1006, 2013 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24432368

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dysentery and diarrhoea are major causes of morbidity and mortality in rural communities of developing world. The Bhoxa community is an important primitive indigenous community of Uttarakhand, India. In this paper we have tried to scientifically enumerate ethnomedicinal plants and herbal preparations used by Bhoxa community to treat dysentery and diarrhoea, and discuss their antidiarrhoeal properties in the light of previous ethnomedicinal, pharmacological, microbiological and phytochemical studies. To record plants and herbal preparations used by Bhoxa community of district Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India in treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea, and to discuss antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial properties of the recorded plants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnomedicinal survey was conducted in different villages of Bhoxa community located in district Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Thirty Bhoxa traditional healers were interviewed to collect information on plants used by them for treating dysentery and diarrhoea. For each of the recorded plant species the use value (UV) and fidelity level (FL) was calculated. Detailed literature survey was conducted to summarize ethnomedicinal, pharmacological, microbiological and phytochemical information on the medicinal plants listed in the present study. RESULTS: Fifty medicinal plants (45 genera and 30 families) were used by Bhoxa community to treat dysentery and diarrhoea, among which 27 species were used for dysentery, 41 for diarrhoea and 18 for both dysentery and diarrhoea. Three plants viz., Dioscorea bulbifera L., Euphorbia thymifolia L. and Prunus persica (L.) Stokes, recorded in the present survey have been reported for the first time in treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea by any indigenous communities in India. FL and UV values revealed that most preferred species for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea by Bhoxa community are Euphorbia hirta L. followed by Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Helicteres isora L. and Cassia fistula L. Earlier pharmacological studies confirmed that 27 of the recorded plants have some proven antidiarrhoeal properties and remaining 23 plants have to be pharmacologically evaluated for their antidiarrhoeal properties. Except 6 plants all the other recorded plants have shown antimicrobial properties in previous microbiological studies. Previous studies have corroborated the ethnomedicinal claims made by the traditional healers of the Bhoxa community. CONCLUSIONS: Present study has provided new information on many medicinal plants and their uses. All the three newly reported plants for treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea have not been pharmacologically evaluated yet for their possible antidiarrhoeal properties. Twenty-three and six plants have not been evaluated pharmacologically and microbiologically, respectively. The present information may serve as a baseline data to initiate further research for discovery of new compounds and biological activities of these potential plants. Further research on these plants may provide some important clues for development of new drugs for dysentery and diarrhoea or other related diseases.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 143(1): 262-91, 2012 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22759701

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medical practices, herbs still play an important role in the management of various liver diseases. A large number of plants and formulations have been claimed to have hepatoprotective activity. Jaundice is a symptom, indicative of the malfunctioning of the liver. This paper provides ethnomedicinal information on the plants used to treat jaundice by three important indigenous communities, i.e., nomadic Gujjars, Tharu and Bhoxa of Sub-Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To record herbal preparations used by the studied indigenous communities in treatment of jaundice and discuss hepatoprotective properties of the recorded plants. RESEARCH STRATEGY AND METHODS: The traditional knowledge of the studied indigenous communities on herbal preparations used for treating jaundice was collected through structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The interviews were conducted with 91 traditional healers (29 Bhoxa, 35 Tharu and 27 nomadic Gujjars) in Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. More than 250 research papers reporting ethnomedicinal information on the hepatoprotective plants used by various communities from different parts of India were extensively reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 40 medicinal plants belonging to 31 families and 38 genera were recorded to be used by the studied communities in 45 formulations as a remedy of jaundice. Bhoxa, nomadic Gujjars and Tharu communities used 15, 23 and 9 plants, respectively. To our knowledge eight plants reported in the present survey viz., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cissampelos pareira L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Ocimum americanum L., Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L. and Trichosanthes cucumerina L. have not been reported earlier as remedy of jaundice in India. Literature review revealed that a total of 214 (belonging to 181 genus and 78 families), 19 (belonging to 18 genus and 12 families) and 14 (belonging to 14 genus and 11 families) plant species are used as internal, external and magico-religious remedies for jaundice, respectively by various communities in different parts of India. Most widely used hepatoprotective plant species for treatment of jaundice in India is Boerhavia diffusa L. followed by Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Saccharum officinarum L., Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., Ricinus communis L., Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, Lawsonia inermis L. and Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. CONCLUSIONS: The plants recorded in the present survey have also been discussed in relation to pharmacological studies and hepatoprotective phytoconstituents present in them. Most of the recorded plants have shown hepatoprotective effects on experimental animals in earlier studies but more studies are needed to assess hepatoprotective properties of some recorded medicinal plants viz., Averrhoa carambola L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Mangifera indica L., Ocimum americanum L., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L., Sphaeranthus senegalensis DC. and Tribulus terrestris L.. The plants enumerated in this study with high number of citations and wider distributions have given some useful leads for further biomedical research. Nevertheless more phytochemical, pharmaceutical and clinical studies are needed to evaluate hepatoprotective properties, efficacy and safety of all the claimed medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Icterícia/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Magnoliopsida , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Plantas Medicinais
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