Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 148
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Metabolomics ; 16(1): 11, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most prevalent complication in diabetic patients, which contributes to high morbidity and mortality. Urine and plasma metabolomics studies have been demonstrated to provide valuable insights for DKD. However, limited information on spatial distributions of metabolites in kidney tissues have been reported. OBJECTIVES: In this work, we employed an ambient desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) coupled to a novel bioinformatics platform (METASPACE) to characterize the metabolome in a mouse model of DKD. METHODS: DESI-MSI was performed for spatial untargeted metabolomics analysis in kidneys of mouse models (F1 C57BL/6J-Ins2Akita male mice at 17 weeks of age) of type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 5) and heathy controls (n = 6). RESULTS: Multivariate analyses (i.e., PCA and PLS-DA (a 2000 permutation test: P < 0.001)) showed clearly separated clusters for the two groups of mice on the basis of 878 measured m/z's in kidney cortical tissues. Specifically, mice with T1D had increased relative abundances of pseudouridine, accumulation of free polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and decreased relative abundances of cardiolipins in cortical proximal tubules when compared with healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Results from the current study support potential key roles of pseudouridine and cardiolipins for maintaining normal RNA structure and normal mitochondrial function, respectively, in cortical proximal tubules with DKD. DESI-MSI technology coupled with METASPACE could serve as powerful new tools to provide insight on fundamental pathways in DKD.

2.
JCI Insight ; 4(21)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573977

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDIn this study, we identified the lipidomic predictors of early type 2 diabetic kidney disease (DKD) progression, which are currently undefined.METHODSThis longitudinal study included 92 American Indians with type 2 diabetes. Serum lipids (406 from 18 classes) were quantified using mass spectrometry from baseline samples when iothalamate-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was at least 90 mL/min. Affymetrix GeneChip Array was used to measure renal transcript expression. DKD progression was defined as at least 40% decline in GFR during follow-up.RESULTSParticipants had a mean age of 45 ± 9 years and median urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 43 (interquartile range 11-144). The 32 progressors had significantly higher relative abundance of polyunsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) and a lower abundance of C16-C20 acylcarnitines (ACs) (P < 0.001). In a Cox regression model, the main effect terms of unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamines and the interaction terms of C16-C20 ACs and short-low-double-bond TAGs by categories of albuminuria independently predicted DKD progression. Renal expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-encoding gene (ACACA) correlated with serum diacylglycerols in the glomerular compartment (r = 0.36, and P = 0.006) and with low-double-bond TAGs in the tubulointerstitial compartment (r = 0.52, and P < 0.001).CONCLUSIONCollectively, the findings reveal a previously unrecognized link between lipid markers of impaired mitochondrial ß-oxidation and enhanced lipogenesis and DKD progression in individuals with preserved GFR. Renal acetyl-CoA carboxylase activation accompanies these lipidomic changes and suggests that it may be the underlying mechanism linking lipid abnormalities to DKD progression.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00340678.FUNDINGNIH R24DK082841, K08DK106523, R03DK121941, P30DK089503, P30DK081943, and P30DK020572.

3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2422-2428, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264758

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin on a pre-specified panel of 13 urinary metabolites linked to mitochondrial metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes and elevated urine albumin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine and plasma samples were used from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 31 people with type 2 diabetes, with an albumin:creatinine ratio >100 mg/g, and who were on a stable dose of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. Dapagliflozin or placebo treatment periods each lasted 6 weeks, with a 6-week washout period in between. Urinary and plasma metabolites were quantified by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, corrected for creatinine level, and then combined into a single-valued urinary metabolite index. Fractional excretion of the metabolites was calculated. RESULTS: All 13 urinary metabolites were detectable. After 6 weeks of dapagliflozin therapy, nine of the 13 metabolites were significantly increased from baseline. The urinary metabolite index increased by 42% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5 to 85.6; P = .01) with placebo versus 121% (95% CI 69 to 189; P < .001) with dapaglifozin. The placebo-adjusted effect was 56% (95% CI 11 to 118; P = .012). In plasma, seven of the 13 metabolites were detectable, and none was modified by dapagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin significantly increased a panel of urinary metabolites previously linked to mitochondrial metabolism. These data support the hypothesis that SGLT2 inhibitors improve mitochondrial function, and improvements in mitochondrial function could be a mechanism for kidney protection. Future studies with longer treatment duration and clinical outcomes are needed to confirm the clinical impact of these findings.

4.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(2): F419-F434, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166707

RESUMO

Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) contributes to Na+/bicarbonate reabsorption and ammonium secretion in early proximal tubules. To determine its role in the diabetic kidney, type 1 diabetic Akita mice with tubular NHE3 knockdown [Pax8-Cre; NHE3-knockout (KO) mice] were generated. NHE3-KO mice had higher urine pH, more bicarbonaturia, and compensating increases in renal mRNA expression for genes associated with generation of ammonium, bicarbonate, and glucose (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) in proximal tubules and H+ and ammonia secretion and glycolysis in distal tubules. This left blood pH and bicarbonate unaffected in nondiabetic and diabetic NHE3-KO versus wild-type mice but was associated with renal upregulation of proinflammatory markers. Higher renal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression in NHE3-KO mice was associated with lower Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT)2 and higher SGLT1 expression, indicating a downward tubular shift in Na+ and glucose reabsorption. NHE3-KO was associated with lesser kidney weight and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) independent of diabetes and prevented diabetes-associated albuminuria. NHE3-KO, however, did not attenuate hyperglycemia or prevent diabetes from increasing kidney weight and GFR. Higher renal gluconeogenesis may explain similar hyperglycemia despite lower SGLT2 expression and higher glucosuria in diabetic NHE3-KO versus wild-type mice; stronger SGLT1 engagement could have affected kidney weight and GFR responses. Chronic kidney disease in humans is associated with reduced urinary excretion of metabolites of branched-chain amino acids and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a pattern mimicked in diabetic wild-type mice. This pattern was reversed in nondiabetic NHE3-KO mice, possibly reflecting branched-chain amino acids use for ammoniagenesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle upregulation to support formation of ammonia, bicarbonate, and glucose in proximal tubule. NHE3-KO, however, did not prevent the diabetes-induced urinary downregulation in these metabolites.

5.
Science ; 364(6436)2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975860

RESUMO

To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intima-media thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Astronautas , Voo Espacial , Imunidade Adaptativa , Peso Corporal , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Dano ao DNA , Metilação de DNA , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Homeostase do Telômero , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
6.
J Lipid Res ; 60(5): 937-952, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862696

RESUMO

High-fat diet (HFD) causes renal lipotoxicity that is ameliorated with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Although bioactive eicosanoids increase with HFD and are essential in regulation of renal disease, their role in the inflammatory response to HFD-induced kidney disease and their modulation by AMPK activation remain unexplored. In a mouse model, we explored the effects of HFD on eicosanoid synthesis and the role of AMPK activation in ameliorating these changes. We used targeted lipidomic profiling with quantitative MS to determine PUFA and eicosanoid content in kidneys, urine, and renal arterial and venous circulation. HFD increased phospholipase expression as well as the total and free pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA) and anti-inflammatory DHA in kidneys. Consistent with the parent PUFA levels, the AA- and DHA-derived lipoxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450, and nonenzymatic degradation (NE) metabolites increased in kidneys with HFD, while EPA-derived LOX and NE metabolites decreased. Conversely, treatment with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-ß-D-furanosyl 5'-monophosphate (AICAR), an AMPK activator, reduced the free AA and DHA content and the DHA-derived metabolites in kidney. Interestingly, kidney and circulating AA, AA metabolites, EPA-derived LOX, and NE metabolites are increased with HFD; whereas, DHA metabolites are increased in kidney in contrast to their decreased circulating levels with HFD. Together, these changes showcase HFD-induced pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid dysregulation and highlight the role of AMPK in correcting HFD-induced dysregulated eicosanoid pathways.

7.
Bioinformatics ; 35(18): 3441-3452, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887029

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Functional enrichment testing methods can reduce data comprising hundreds of altered biomolecules to smaller sets of altered biological 'concepts' that help generate testable hypotheses. This study leveraged differential network enrichment analysis methodology to identify and validate lipid subnetworks that potentially differentiate chronic kidney disease (CKD) by severity or progression. RESULTS: We built a partial correlation interaction network, identified highly connected network components, applied network-based gene-set analysis to identify differentially enriched subnetworks, and compared the subnetworks in patients with early-stage versus late-stage CKD. We identified two subnetworks 'triacylglycerols' and 'cardiolipins-phosphatidylethanolamines (CL-PE)' characterized by lower connectivity, and a higher abundance of longer polyunsaturated triacylglycerols in patients with severe CKD (stage ≥4) from the Clinical Phenotyping Resource and Biobank Core. These finding were replicated in an independent cohort, the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Using an innovative method for elucidating biological alterations in lipid networks, we demonstrated alterations in triacylglycerols and cardiolipins-phosphatidylethanolamines that precede the clinical outcome of end-stage kidney disease by several years. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A complete list of NetGSA results in HTML format can be found at http://metscape.ncibi.org/netgsa/12345-022118/cric_cprobe/022118/results_cric_cprobe/main.html. The DNEA is freely available at https://github.com/wiggie/DNEA. Java wrapper leveraging the cytoscape.js framework is available at http://js.cytoscape.org. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

8.
Cell Rep ; 26(13): 3709-3725.e7, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917323

RESUMO

Mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU)-mediated Ca2+ uptake promotes the buildup of reducing equivalents that fuel oxidative phosphorylation for cellular metabolism. Although MCU modulates mitochondrial bioenergetics, its function in energy homeostasis in vivo remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that deletion of the Mcu gene in mouse liver (MCUΔhep) and in Danio rerio by CRISPR/Cas9 inhibits mitochondrial Ca2+ (mCa2+) uptake, delays cytosolic Ca2+ (cCa2+) clearance, reduces oxidative phosphorylation, and leads to increased lipid accumulation. Elevated hepatic lipids in MCUΔhep were a direct result of extramitochondrial Ca2+-dependent protein phosphatase-4 (PP4) activity, which dephosphorylates AMPK. Loss of AMPK recapitulates hepatic lipid accumulation without changes in MCU-mediated Ca2+ uptake. Furthermore, reconstitution of active AMPK, or PP4 knockdown, enhances lipid clearance in MCUΔhep hepatocytes. Conversely, gain-of-function MCU promotes rapid mCa2+ uptake, decreases PP4 levels, and reduces hepatic lipid accumulation. Thus, our work uncovers an MCU/PP4/AMPK molecular cascade that links Ca2+ dynamics to hepatic lipid metabolism.

9.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 71(1): 99-103, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906723

RESUMO

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause in patients with vertigo (Pereira et al. in Braz J Otorhinolaryngol (Impr) 76(6):704-708, 2010; Dix and Hallpike in Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 6:987-1016, 1952). Posterior Semicircular Canal BPPV (PSCBPPV) has more incidence and prevalence then Lateral, and Anterior Semicircular Canal BPPV (Alghwiri et al. in Arch Phys Med Rehabil 93:1822-1831, 2012). Quality of life (QoL) is significantly impaired by vertigo (Sargent et al. in Otol Neurotol 22:205-209, 2001; World Health Organization in International classification of functioning, disability and health, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2001). To study the effect and compare Epley, Semont maneuvers and Brandt-Daroff Exercise on QoL in patients with PSCBPPV. 90 individuals with unilateral PSCBPPV were selected based on positive Dix-Hallpike test. 3 groups Epley, Semont, and Brandt-Daroff were formed and 30 individuals were selected in each group randomly. Dix-Hallpike test and Vestibular Activities and Participation (VAP) Scale based on International Classification of Functioning were administered before and after Epley, Semont maneuvers, and Brandt-Daroff Exercise to fulfill the aim. VAP Scale results revealed significant difference between pre and post treatment score in all 3 groups, suggestive of positive effect on QoL in patients with PSCBPPV. Improvements in VAP Score between 3 groups were compared and significant difference was observed. Dix-Hallpike test results revealed that 90, 73.33, and 50% patients improved in Epely, Semont, and Brandt-Daroff group respectively. Epely maneuver found to be the best choice and then Semont and Brandt-Daroff should be least preferred in treatment of patients with PSCBPPV.

10.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(4): 542-551, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830167

RESUMO

Importance: Oxalate is a potentially toxic terminal metabolite that is eliminated primarily by the kidneys. Oxalate nephropathy is a well-known complication of rare genetic disorders and enteric hyperoxaluria, but oxalate has not been investigated as a potential contributor to more common forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: To assess whether urinary oxalate excretion is a risk factor for more rapid progression of CKD toward kidney failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study assessed 3123 participants with stages 2 to 4 CKD who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study from June 1, 2003, to September 30, 2008. Data analysis was performed from October 24, 2017, to June 17, 2018. Exposures: Twenty-four-hour urinary oxalate excretion. Main Outcomes and Measures: A 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Results: This study included 3123 participants (mean [SD] age, 59.1 [10.6] years; 1414 [45.3%] female; 1423 [45.6%] white). Mean (SD) eGFR at the time of 24-hour urine collection was 42.9 (16.8) mL/min/1.73 m2. Median urinary excretion of oxalate was 18.6 mg/24 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 12.9-25.7 mg/24 hours) and was correlated inversely with eGFR (r = -0.13, P < .001) and positively with 24-hour proteinuria (r = 0.22, P < .001). During 22 318 person-years of follow-up, 752 individuals reached ESRD, and 940 individuals reached the composite end point of ESRD or 50% decline in eGFR (CKD progression). Higher oxalate excretion was independently associated with greater risks of both CKD progression and ESRD: compared with quintile 1 (oxalate excretion, <11.5 mg/24 hours) those in quintile 5 (oxalate excretion, ≥27.8 mg/24 hours) had a 33% higher risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.70) and a 45% higher risk of ESRD (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.93). The association between oxalate excretion and CKD progression and ESRD was nonlinear and exhibited a threshold effect at quintiles 3 to 5 vs quintiles 1 and 2. Higher vs lower oxalate excretion (at the 40th percentile) was associated with a 32% higher risk of CKD progression (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.13-1.53) and 37% higher risk of ESRD (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.15-1.63). Results were similar when treating death as a competing event. Conclusions and Relevance: Higher 24-hour urinary oxalate excretion may be a risk factor for CKD progression and ESRD in individuals with CKD stages 2 to 4.

11.
Kidney Int Rep ; 4(2): 321-333, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775629

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypertensive nephrosclerosis is among the leading causes of end-stage renal disease, but its pathophysiology is poorly understood. We wanted to explore early metabolic changes using gene expression and targeted metabolomics analysis. Methods: We analyzed gene expression in kidneys biopsied from 20 patients with nephrosclerosis and 31 healthy controls with an Affymetrix array. Thirty-one amino acids were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in urine samples from 62 patients with clinical hypertensive nephrosclerosis and 33 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and major findings were confirmed in an independent cohort of 45 cases and 15 controls. Results: Amino acid catabolism and synthesis were strongly underexpressed in hypertensive nephrosclerosis (13- and 7-fold, respectively), and these patients also showed gene expression patterns indicating decreased fatty acid oxidation (12-fold) and increased interferon gamma (10-fold) and cellular defense response (8-fold). Metabolomics analysis revealed significant distribution differences in 11 amino acids in hypertensive nephrosclerosis, among them tyrosine, phenylalanine, dopamine, homocysteine, and serine, with 30% to 70% lower urine excretion. These findings were replicated in the independent cohort. Integrated gene-metabolite pathway analysis showed perturbations of renal dopamine biosynthesis. There were also significant differences in homocysteine/methionine homeostasis and the serine pathway, which have strong influence on 1-carbon metabolism. Several of these disturbances could be interconnected through reduced regeneration of tetrahydrofolate and tetrahydrobiopterin. Conclusion: Early hypertensive nephrosclerosis showed perturbations of intrarenal biosynthesis of dopamine, which regulates natriuresis and blood pressure. There were also disturbances in serine/glycine and methionine/homocysteine metabolism, which may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and renal fibrosis.

12.
J Nucl Med ; 60(9): 1325-1332, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796169

RESUMO

An unmet need for the clinical management of chronic kidney disease is a predictive tool of kidney function during the first decade of the disease, when there is silent loss of glomerular function. The objective of this study was to demonstrate receptor-mediated binding of tilmanocept to CD206 within the kidney and provide evidence of kinetic sensitivity of this binding to renal function. Methods: Rats were positioned in a PET scanner with the liver and kidneys within the field of view. After an intravenous injection of 68Ga-IRDye800-tilmanocept, using 1 of 2 scaled molar doses (0.02 nmol/g, n = 5; or 0.10 nmol/g, n = 5), or coinjection (n = 3) of 68Ga-IRDye800-tilmanocept (0.10 nmol/g) and unlabeled tilmanocept (5.0 nmol/g), or a negative control, 68Ga-IRDye800-DTPA-galactosyl-dextran (0.02 nmol/g, n = 5), each animal was imaged for 20 min followed by a whole-body scan. Frozen kidney sections were stained for podocytes and CD206 using immunofluorescence. Molecular imaging of diabetic db/db mice (4.9 wk, n = 6; 7.3 wk, n = 4; 13.3 wk, n = 6) and nondiabetic db/m mice (n = 6) was performed with fluorescence-labeled 99mTc-tilmanocept (18.5 MBq, 2.6 nmol). Thirty minutes after injection, blood, liver, kidneys, and urine were assayed for radioactivity. Renal time-activity curves were generated. Results: Rat PET whole-body images and time-activity curves of 68Ga-IRDye800-tilmanocept demonstrated receptor-mediated renal accumulation with evidence of glomerular uptake. Activity within the renal cortex persisted during the 40-min study. Histologic examination demonstrated colocalization of CD206 and IRDye800-tilmanocept within the glomerulus. The glomerular accumulation of the coinjection and the negative control studies were significantly less than the CD206-targeted agent. The db/db mice displayed a multiphasic renal time-activity curve with high urinary bladder accumulation; the nondiabetic mice exhibited renal uptake curves dominated by a single phase with low bladder accumulation. Conclusion: This study demonstrated receptor-mediated binding to the glomerular mesangial cells and kinetic sensitivity of tilmanocept to chronic renal disease. Given the role of mesangial cells during the progression of diabetic nephropathy, PET or SPECT renal imaging with radiolabeled tilmanocept may provide a noninvasive quantitative assessment of glomerular function.

13.
Kidney Int ; 95(3): 526-539, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661714

RESUMO

Tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis are the hallmarks of chronic kidney disease. While recent studies have verified that proximal tubular injury triggers interstitial fibrosis, the impact of fibrosis on tubular injury and regeneration remains poorly understood. We generated a novel mouse model expressing diphtheria toxin receptor on renal fibroblasts to allow for the selective disruption of renal fibroblast function. Administration of diphtheria toxin induced upregulation of the tubular injury marker Ngal and caused tubular proliferation in healthy kidneys, whereas administration of diphtheria toxin attenuated tubular regeneration in fibrotic kidneys. Microarray analysis revealed down-regulation of the retinol biosynthesis pathway in diphtheria toxin-treated kidneys. Healthy proximal tubules expressed retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2), a rate-limiting enzyme in retinoic acid biosynthesis. After injury, proximal tubules lost RALDH2 expression, whereas renal fibroblasts acquired strong expression of RALDH2 during the transition to myofibroblasts in several models of kidney injury. The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) RARγ was expressed in proximal tubules both with and without injury, and αB-crystallin, the product of an RAR target gene, was strongly expressed in proximal tubules after injury. Furthermore, BMS493, an inverse agonist of RARs, significantly attenuated tubular proliferation in vitro. In human biopsy tissue from patients with IgA nephropathy, detection of RALDH2 in the interstitium correlated with older age and lower kidney function. These results suggest a role of retinoic acid signaling and cross-talk between fibroblasts and tubular epithelial cells during tubular injury and regeneration, and may suggest a beneficial effect of fibrosis in the early response to injury.

14.
Burns ; 45(1): 241-246, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322738

RESUMO

Calciphylaxis is a rare, necrotizing skin disorder usually associated with kidney disease, but also caused by many other systemic illnesses. This disease is associated with mortality rates as high as 80% at 1year. We present the demographic and clinical data of nine patients with calciphylaxis treated at our burn center over a 10year period. We review the literature on the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease. We propose that these patients be treated similar to patients with thermal burn injury; meaning intensive wound care, surgical management, critical care and physical therapy. Burn centers are uniquely capable of caring for these incredibly complex patients due to their experience in managing patients with extensive skin and soft tissue defects, wounds and diseases.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Queimados , Calciofilaxia/terapia , Desbridamento , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Calciofilaxia/etiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(1): 137-146, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, incidence of ESRD is 1.5 times higher in men than in women, despite men's lower prevalence of CKD. Prior studies, limited by inclusion of small percentages of minorities and other factors, suggested that men have more rapid CKD progression, but this finding has been inconsistent. METHODS: In our prospective investigation of sex differences in CKD progression, we used data from 3939 adults (1778 women and 2161 men) enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, a large, diverse CKD cohort. We evaluated associations between sex (women versus men) and outcomes, specifically incident ESRD (defined as undergoing dialysis or a kidney transplant), 50% eGFR decline from baseline, incident CKD stage 5 (eGFR<15 ml/min per 1.73 m2), eGFR slope, and all-cause death. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 58 years at study entry; 42% were non-Hispanic black, and 13% were Hispanic. During median follow-up of 6.9 years, 844 individuals developed ESRD, and 853 died. In multivariable regression models, compared with men, women had significantly lower risk of ESRD, 50% eGFR decline, progression to CKD stage 5, and death. The mean unadjusted eGFR slope was -1.09 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year in women and -1.43 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year in men, but this difference was not significant after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In this CKD cohort, women had lower risk of CKD progression and death compared with men. Additional investigation is needed to identify biologic and psychosocial factors underlying these sex-related differences.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
16.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 6(12): 925-933, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with diabetic kidney disease have residual albuminuria and are at risk of disease progression. The ALBUM trial investigated the efficacy of a novel, orally active inhibitor of vascular adhesion protein-1, ASP8232, compared with placebo for reducing albuminuria in individuals with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned individuals (aged 18-85 years) from 64 clinical sites in nine European countries to receive ASP8232 40 mg or placebo orally once daily for 12 weeks using a web-based randomisation schedule (block size 4), stratified by country. Eligible patients had a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 200-3000 mg/g, an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 25 mL/min per 1·73 m2 but lower than 75 mL/min per 1·73 m2, HbA1c less than 11·0% (97 mmol/mol), and stable treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and antidiabetic medication for 3 months or more. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to week 12 in log-transformed first morning void UACR, which was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-baseline UACR measurement (full analysis set). Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02358096. FINDINGS: 125 participants were randomly assigned to receive ASP8232 (n=64) or placebo (n=61), of whom 120 (60 in each group) were included in the full analysis set; all participants were assessed for safety endpoints. At 12 weeks, UACR decreased by 17·7% (95% CI 5·0 to 28·6) in the ASP8232 group and increased by 2·3% (-11·4 to 18·1) in the placebo group; the placebo-adjusted difference between groups was -19·5% (95% CI -34·0 to -1·8; p=0·033). 39 (61%) patients in the ASP8232 group and 34 (56%) patients in the placebo group had a treatment-emergent adverse event, of which 16 in the ASP8232 group and four in the placebo group were drug-related. The most frequently reported adverse events that were possibly drug-related in the ASP8232 group were renal impairment (five patients) and decreased eGFR (three patients); in the placebo group, no single drug-related treatment-emergent adverse event was reported by more than one participant. INTERPRETATION: ASP8232 is effective in reducing albuminuria in patients with diabetic kidney disease and is safe and well tolerated. These findings warrant further research to ascertain the effect of ASP8232 on delaying progression of diabetic kidney disease. FUNDING: Astellas.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/prevenção & controle , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/antagonistas & inibidores , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/etiologia , Creatinina/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Orgânicos/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Oncotarget ; 9(68): 32900-32916, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250638

RESUMO

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) disease is associated with tumors in many organs, particularly angiomyolipoma (AML) in the kidneys. Loss or inactivation of TSC1/2 results in high levels of HIF-α activity and VEGF expression. mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) and the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA)-riboside (AICAR) are currently used separately to treat cancer patients. Here, we investigated the effect of a novel combination of rapamycin and AICAR on tumor progression. Our data show that treatment of AML human cells with drug combinations resulted in 5-7-fold increase in cell apoptosis compared to each drug alone. In addition, drug combinations resulted in 4-5-fold decrease in cell proliferation compared to each drug alone. We found that drug combinations abolished Akt and HIF activity in AML cells. The drug combinations resulted in decrease in cell invasion and cell immigration by 70% and 84%, respectively in AML cells. The combined drugs also significantly decreased the VEGF expression compare to each drug alone in AML cells. Drug combinations effectively abolished binding of HIF-2α to the putative Akt site in the nuclear extracts isolated from AML cells. Treatment TSC mice with drug combinations resulted in 75% decrease in tumor number and 88% decrease in tumor volume compared to control TSC mice. This is first evidence that drug combinations are effective in reducing size and number of kidney tumors without any toxic effect on kidney. These data will provide evidence for initiating a new clinical trial for treatment of TSC patients.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137494

RESUMO

Background: The clinical relevance of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression is poorly understood. We aimed to compare the concentrations of 85 enzymatic pathway products of AA metabolism in patients with CKD who progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) versus patients who did not in a subcohort of Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and to estimate the risk of CKD progression and major cardiovascular events by levels of AA metabolites and their link to enzymatic metabolic pathways. Methods: A total 123 patients in the CRIC study who progressed to ESKD were frequency matched with 177 nonprogressors and serum eicosanoids were quantified by mass spectrometry. We applied serum collected at patients' Year 1 visit and outcome of progression to ESKD was ascertained over the next 10 years. We used logistic regression models for risk estimation. Results: Baseline 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (HETE) and 20-HETE levels were significantly elevated in progressors (false discovery rate Q ≤ 0.026). The median 20-HETE level was 7.6 pmol/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 4.2-14.5] in progressors and 5.4 pmol/mL (IQR 2.8-9.4) in nonprogressors (P < 0.001). In an adjusted model, only 20-HETE independently predicted CKD progression. Each 1 standard deviation increase in 20-HETE was independently associated with 1.45-fold higher odds of progression (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.95; P = 0.017). Principal components of lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) pathways were independently associated with CKD progression. Conclusions: We found higher odds of CKD progression associated with higher 20-HETE, LOX and CYP450 metabolic pathways. These alterations precede CKD progression and may serve as targets for interventions aimed at halting progression.

19.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 27(6): 1673-1688, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718549

RESUMO

Provision of smoking cessation support in the form of advice and information is central to increasing quit rates, including among people with mental illness (MI), who have 3-5 times higher odds of smoking than those without MI. This study investigated the extent and perceived utility of quit smoking advice and information available to Australian smokers with MI through face-to-face, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 29 current smokers with MI. Qualitative analysis identified four major sources of quit smoking advice and information: (i) mental health practitioners; (ii) Quitline; (iii) social networks; and (iv) Internet and media. All identified sources, including formal sources (mental health practitioners and Quitline), were perceived as providing inadequate information about quitting smoking, particularly regarding optimal usage of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Social networks emerged as a substantial source of quit smoking advice and information, especially for nontraditional methods such as vaping. Participants showed high interest in receiving support from peer-led smoking cessation groups. A minority of participants reported that they had received quit smoking information from Internet and media; this was largely restricted to negative reports about e-cigarettes and short advertisements for nicotine replacement therapy. Our findings suggest that more can be done to provide smokers with MI with practical smoking cessation advice and support. Comprehensive information resources tailored for smokers with MI should be developed and disseminated via multiple pathways. We also recommend a number of policy and practice reforms to promote smoking cessation among those with MI.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Nephrol ; 47(5): 283-291, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) enclose mRNA derived from their cell of origin and are considered a source of potential biomarkers. We examined urinary EV mRNA from individuals with diabetic kidney disease (DKD), chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and obese and healthy controls to determine if such biomarkers had the potential to classify kidney disease and predict patients at higher risk of renal function decline. METHODS: A total of 242 participants enrolled in this study. Urinary EV mRNA from all subjects were isolated by a filter-based platform, and the expression of 8 target genes were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in 161 T2DM patients were evaluated for 2 consecutive years and compared with EV RNA profiles at baseline. RESULTS: We observe that mild and severe DKD groups show a significant 3.2- and -4.4-fold increase in UMOD compared to healthy controls and expression increases linearly from healthy, diabetic, and DKD subjects. UMOD expression is significantly correlated to albumin creatinine ratio (ACR), eGFR, and HbA1c. Using linear discriminant analyses with mRNA from severe DKD and T2DM as training data, a multi-gene signature classified DKD and -non-DKD with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 73% with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) = 0.90. Although 6% of T2DM were determined to have a > 80% posterior probability of developing DKD based on this mRNA profile, eGFR changes observed within the 2-year follow-up did not reveal a decline in kidney function. CONCLUSION: Urinary EV UMOD mRNA levels are progressively elevated from T2DM to DKD groups and correlate with widely used eGFR and ACR diagnostic criteria. An EV mRNA signature could identify DKD with greater than 90% sensitivity and 70% specificity.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA